Long Now Seminar, San Francisco, October 5th, 2005
December 15, 1923 |
Crowthorne, Berkshire, England
|Institutions||Royal Air Force
Institute for Advanced Study
|Alma mater||University of Cambridge, Cornell University|
|Academic advisors||Hans Bethe|
|Known for||Dyson sphere
Advocacy against nuclear weapons
Dyson's eternal intelligence
|Influences||Richard Feynman, Abram Samoilovitch Besicovitch|
|Notable awards||Heineman Prize (1965)
Harvey Prize (1977)
Wolf Prize (1981)
Fermi Award (1993)
Templeton Prize (2000)
Pomeranchuk Prize (2003)
Poincaré Prize (2012)
Freeman John Dyson FRS (born December 15, 1923) is a British American theoretical physicist and mathematician, famous for his work in quantum electrodynamics, solid-state physics, astronomy and nuclear engineering. Dyson is a member of the Board of Sponsors of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Dyson has lived in Princeton, New Jersey, for over fifty years.
Early life 
Born at Crowthorne in Berkshire, Dyson was the son of the English composer George Dyson, who was later knighted. His mother had a law degree, but after Dyson was born she worked as a social worker. Although not known to be related to the early 20th century astronomer Frank Watson Dyson, as a small boy Dyson was aware of him and has credited the popularity of an astronomer sharing his surname as having helped to spark his own interest in science.
From 1936 to 1941, Dyson was a Scholar at Winchester College, a leading boys' boarding school in Hampshire where his father was a schoolmaster teaching music. On 4 May 2011 he was received as one of twenty distinguished Old Wykehamists at the Ad Portas celebration, the highest honour that the College bestows. After Winchester he joined the operational research section of RAF Bomber Command, where he remained for the rest of the Second World War. He then proceeded to the University of Cambridge, where he obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree in mathematics. From 1946 to 1949 he was a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, occupying rooms just below those of the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, who would resign his professorship in 1947.
Career in the United States 
In 1947 Dyson moved to the US, with a fellowship at Cornell University, where in 1951 he joined the faculty as a physics professor, although still lacking a doctorate. In 1953, he took up a post at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.
In 1957, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States and renounced his British nationality. One reason stated for this is that his children born in the US had not been recognized as British subjects.
Dyson is best known for demonstrating in 1949 the equivalence of the formulations of quantum electrodynamics that existed by that time – Richard Feynman's diagrams, on the one hand, and, on the other, the operator method developed by Julian Schwinger and Sin-Itiro Tomonaga. He was the first person (besides Feynman) to appreciate the power of Feynman diagrams, and his paper written in 1948 and published in 1949 was the first to make use of them. He said in that paper that Feynman diagrams were not just a computational tool, but a physical theory, and developed rules for the diagrams that completely solved the renormalization problem. Dyson's paper and also his lectures presented Feynman's theories of QED (quantum electrodynamics) in a form that other physicists could understand and undoubtedly facilitated the physics community's acceptance of Feynman's work. Robert Oppenheimer, in particular, was persuaded by Dyson that Feynman's new theory was as valid as Schwinger's and Tomonaga's. Oppenheimer rewarded Dyson with a lifetime appointment at the Institute for Advanced Study, "for proving me wrong", in Oppenheimer's words.
Dyson also did work in a variety of topics in mathematics, such as topology, analysis, number theory and random matrices. There is an interesting story involving random matrices. In 1973 the number theorist Hugh Montgomery was visiting the Institute for Advanced Study and had just made his pair correlation conjecture concerning the distribution of the zeros of the Riemann zeta function. He showed his formula to the mathematician Atle Selberg who said it looked like something in mathematical physics and he should show it to Dyson, which he did. Dyson recognized the formula as the pair correlation function of the Gaussian unitary ensemble, which has been extensively studied by physicists. This suggested that there might be an unexpected connection between the distribution of primes 2,3,5,7,11,... and the energy levels in the nuclei of heavy elements such as uranium.
From 1957 to 1961 he worked on the Orion Project, which proposed the possibility of space-flight using nuclear pulse propulsion. A prototype was demonstrated using conventional explosives, but a treaty, which he was involved in and supported, banned the testing of nuclear weapons other than underground, and this caused the project to be abandoned.
A seminal work by Dyson came in 1966 when, together with Andrew Lenard and independently of Elliott H. Lieb and Walter Thirring, he proved rigorously that the exclusion principle plays the main role in the stability of bulk matter. Hence, it is not the electromagnetic repulsion between outer-shell orbital electrons which is responsible for two wood blocks that are left on top of each other not coalescing into a single piece, but rather it is the exclusion principle applied to electrons and protons that generates the classical macroscopic normal force. In condensed matter physics, Dyson also did studies in the phase transition of the Ising model in 1 dimension and spin waves.
Around 1979, Dyson worked with the Institute for Energy Analysis on climate studies. This group, under the direction of Alvin Weinberg, pioneered multidisciplinary climate studies, including a strong biology group. Also during the 1970s, Dyson worked on climate studies conducted by the JASON defense advisory group.
He retired from the Institute for Advanced Study in 1994. In 1998, Dyson joined the board of the Solar Electric Light Fund. As of 2003[update], Dyson is the president of the Space Studies Institute, the space research organization founded by Gerard K. O'Neill. As of 2013[update] Dyson is on the Board of Trustees. Dyson is a long-time member of the JASON defense advisory group.
Dyson is a regular contributor to the New York Review of Books.
Although Dyson has won numerous scientific awards, he has never won a Nobel Prize, which has led Nobel physics laureate Steven Weinberg to state that the Nobel committee has "fleeced" Dyson. Dyson has said that “I think it’s almost true without exception if you want to win a Nobel Prize, you should have a long attention span, get hold of some deep and important problem and stay with it for ten years. That wasn’t my style.”
Marriages and children 
With his first wife, the mathematician Verena Huber-Dyson, Dyson has two children, Esther and George. In 1958 he was remarried to Imme Dyson, a masters runner, and with her had a further four children, Dorothy, Mia, Rebecca, and Emily Dyson.
Friends and colleagues describe Dyson as shy and self-effacing, with a contrarian streak that his friends find refreshing but his intellectual opponents find exasperating. "I have the sense that when consensus is forming like ice hardening on a lake, Dyson will do his best to chip at the ice," physics Nobel laureate Steven Weinberg said of him. His friend the neurologist and author Oliver Sacks said: "A favorite word of Freeman's about doing science and being creative is the word "subversive". He feels it's rather important not only to be not orthodox, but to be subversive, and he's done that all his life." In his book The God Delusion, biologist Richard Dawkins criticized Dyson for accepting the religious Templeton Prize in 2000; Dawkins said "It would be taken as an endorsement of religion by one of the world's most distinguished physicists." 
Honors and awards 
Dyson has published a number of collections of speculations and observations about technology, science, and the future. In 1996 he was awarded the Lewis Thomas Prize for Writing about Science.
In 1993, Dyson was given the Enrico Fermi Award.
In 1995 he gave the Jerusalem-Harvard Lectures at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, sponsored jointly by the Hebrew University and Harvard University Press that grew into the book Imagined Worlds.
In 2000, Dyson was awarded the Templeton Prize for Progress in Religion.
In 2003, Dyson was awarded the Telluride Tech Festival Award of Technology in Telluride, Colorado.
Biotechnology and genetic engineering 
My book The Sun, the Genome, and the Internet (1999) describes a vision of green technology enriching villages all over the world and halting the migration from villages to megacities. The three components of the vision are all essential: the sun to provide energy where it is needed, the genome to provide plants that can convert sunlight into chemical fuels cheaply and efficiently, the Internet to end the intellectual and economic isolation of rural populations. With all three components in place, every village in Africa could enjoy its fair share of the blessings of civilization.
Dyson cheerfully admits his record as a prophet is mixed, but "it is better to be wrong than to be vague."
"To answer the world's material needs, technology has to be not only beautiful but also cheap."
Dyson sphere 
One should expect that, within a few thousand years of its entering the stage of industrial development, any intelligent species should be found occupying an artificial biosphere which completely surrounds its parent star.
In 1960 Dyson wrote a short paper for the journal Science, entitled "Search for Artificial Stellar Sources of Infrared Radiation". In it, he theorized that a technologically advanced extraterrestrial civilization might completely surround its native star with artificial structures in order to maximize the capture of the star's available energy. Eventually, the civilization would completely enclose the star, intercepting electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths from visible light downwards and radiating waste heat outwards as infrared radiation. Therefore, one method of searching for extraterrestrial civilizations would be to look for large objects radiating in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Dyson conceived that such structures would be clouds of asteroid-sized space habitats, though science fiction writers have preferred a solid structure: either way, such an artifact is often referred to as a Dyson sphere, although Dyson himself used the term "shell". Dyson says that he used the term "artificial biosphere" in the article meaning a habitat, not a shape. The general concept of such an energy-transferring shell had been advanced decades earlier by author Olaf Stapledon in his 1937 novel Star Maker, a source that Dyson has credited publicly.
Dyson tree 
Dyson has also proposed the creation of a Dyson tree, a genetically-engineered plant capable of growing on a comet. He suggested that comets could be engineered to contain hollow spaces filled with a breathable atmosphere, thus providing self-sustaining habitats for humanity in the outer solar system.
Plants could grow greenhouses…just as turtles grow shells and polar bears grow fur and polyps build coral reefs in tropical seas. These plants could keep warm by the light from a distant Sun and conserve the oxygen that they produce by photosynthesis. The greenhouse would consist of a thick skin providing thermal insulation, with small transparent windows to admit sunlight. Outside the skin would be an array of simple lenses, focusing sunlight through the windows into the interior… Groups of greenhouses could grow together to form extended habitats for other species of plants and animals.
Space colonies 
I've done some historical research on the costs of the Mayflower's voyage, and on the Mormons' emigration to Utah, and I think it's possible to go into space on a much smaller scale. A cost on the order of $40,000 per person [1978 dollars] would be the target to shoot for; in terms of real wages, that would make it comparable to the colonization of America. Unless it's brought down to that level it's not really interesting to me, because otherwise it would be a luxury that only governments could afford.
Dyson has been interested in space travel since he was a child, reading such science fiction classics as Olaf Stapledon's Star Maker. As a young man, he worked for General Atomics on the nuclear-powered Orion spacecraft. He hoped Project Orion would put men on Mars by 1965, Saturn by 1970. He's been unhappy for a quarter-century on how the government conducts space travel:
The problem is, of course, that they can't afford to fail. The rules of the game are that you don't take a chance, because if you fail, then probably your whole program gets wiped out.
He still hopes for cheap space travel, but is resigned to waiting for private entrepreneurs to develop something new—and cheap.
No law of physics or biology forbids cheap travel and settlement all over the solar system and beyond. But it is impossible to predict how long this will take. Predictions of the dates of future achievements are notoriously fallible. My guess is that the era of cheap unmanned missions will be the next fifty years, and the era of cheap manned missions will start sometime late in the twenty-first century.
Any affordable program of manned exploration must be centered in biology, and its time frame tied to the time frame of biotechnology; a hundred years, roughly the time it will take us to learn to grow warm-blooded plants, is probably reasonable.
Dyson also has proposed the use of bioengineered space colonies to colonize the Kuiper Belt on the outer edge of our Solar System. He proposed that habitats could be grown from space hardened spores. The colonies could then be warmed by large reflector plant leaves that could focus the dim, distant sunlight back on the growing colony. This was illustrated by Pat Rawlings on the cover of the National Space Society's Ad Astra magazine.
Space exploration 
A direct search for life in Europa's ocean would today be prohibitively expensive. Impacts on Europa give us an easier way to look for evidence of life there. Every time a major impact occurs on Europa, a vast quantity of water is splashed from the ocean into the space around Jupiter. Some of the water evaporates, and some condenses into snow. Creatures living in the water far enough from the impact have a chance of being splashed intact into space and quickly freeze-dried. Therefore, an easy way to look for evidence of life in Europa's ocean is to look for freeze-dried fish in the ring of space debris orbiting Jupiter. Freeze-dried fish orbiting Jupiter is a fanciful notion, but nature in the biological realm has a tendency to be fanciful. Nature is usually more imaginative than we are. [...] To have the best chance of success, we should keep our eyes open for all possibilities.
Dyson's transform 
Dyson also has some credits in pure mathematics. His concept "Dyson's transform" led to one of the most important lemmas of Olivier Ramaré's theorem that every even integer can be written as a sum of no more than six primes.
Dyson series 
The Dyson series, the formal solution of an explicitly time-dependent Schrödinger equation by iteration, and the corresponding Dyson time-ordering operator an entity of basic importance in the mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics, are also named after Dyson.
Dyson has suggested a kind of cosmic metaphysics of mind. In his book Infinite in All Directions he is writing about three levels of mind: "The universe shows evidence of the operations of mind on three levels. The first level is the level of elementary physical processes in quantum mechanics. Matter in quantum mechanics is [...] constantly making choices between alternative possibilities according to probabilistic laws. [...] The second level at which we detect the operations of mind is the level of direct human experience. [...] [I]t is reasonable to believe in the existence of a third level of mind, a mental component of the universe. If we believe in this mental component and call it God, then we can say that we are small pieces of God's mental apparatus" (p. 297).
Global warming 
Dyson agrees that anthropogenic global warming exists, and has written that "[o]ne of the main causes of warming is the increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting from our burning of fossil fuels such as oil and coal and natural gas." However, he believes that existing simulation models of climate fail to account for some important factors, and hence the results will contain too much error to reliably predict future trends:
The models solve the equations of fluid dynamics, and they do a very good job of describing the fluid motions of the atmosphere and the oceans. They do a very poor job of describing the clouds, the dust, the chemistry and the biology of fields and farms and forests. They do not begin to describe the real world we live in...
He is among signatories of a letter to the UN criticizing the IPCC and has also argued against the ostracization of scientists whose views depart from the acknowledged mainstream of scientific opinion on climate change, stating that "heretics" have historically been an important force in driving scientific progress. "[H]eretics who question the dogmas are needed... I am proud to be a heretic. The world always needs heretics to challenge the prevailing orthodoxies."
More recently, he has endorsed the now common usage of "global warming" as synonymous with global anthropogenic climate change, referring to recent "measurements that transformed global warming from a vague theoretical speculation into a precise observational science."
He has, however, argued that political efforts to reduce the causes of climate change distract from other global problems that should take priority:
I'm not saying the warming doesn't cause problems, obviously it does. Obviously we should be trying to understand it. I'm saying that the problems are being grossly exaggerated. They take away money and attention from other problems that are much more urgent and important. Poverty, infectious diseases, public education and public health. Not to mention the preservation of living creatures on land and in the oceans.
Since originally taking interest in climate studies in the 1970s, Dyson has suggested that carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere could be controlled by planting fast-growing trees. He calculates that it would take a trillion trees to remove all carbon from the atmosphere.
Dyson says his "heresy" on global warming has been strongly criticized. In reply, he notes that "[m]y objections to the global warming propaganda are not so much over the technical facts, about which I do not know much, but it’s rather against the way those people behave and the kind of intolerance to criticism that a lot of them have."
"To reach reasonable solutions of the problems [of global warming], all opinions must be heard and all participants must be treated with respect."
Nuclear winter 
As a scientist I want to rip the theory of nuclear winter apart, but as a human being I want to believe it. This is one of the rare instances of a genuine conflict between the demands of science and the demands of humanity. As a scientist, I judge the nuclear winter theory to be a sloppy piece of work, full of gaps and unjustified assumptions. As a human being, I hope fervently that it is right. Here is a real and uncomfortable dilemma. What does a scientist do when science and humanity pull in opposite directions?
Warfare and weapons 
On hearing the news of the bombing of Hiroshima:
I agreed emphatically with Henry Stimson. Once we had got ourselves into the business of bombing cities, we might as well do the job competently and get it over with. I felt better that morning than I had felt for years… Those fellows who had built the atomic bombs obviously knew their stuff… Later, much later, I would remember [the downside].
I am convinced that to avoid nuclear war it is not sufficient to be afraid of it. It is necessary to be afraid, but it is equally necessary to understand. And the first step in understanding is to recognize that the problem of nuclear war is basically not technical but human and historical. If we are to avoid destruction we must first of all understand the human and historical context out of which destruction arises.
Freeman Dyson, in his capacity as a military adviser, may have prevented the US from using nuclear weapons in the Vietnam war. When a general said in a meeting "We should throw in a nuke once in a while to keep the other side guessing," Dyson became alarmed and obtained permission to write an objective report discussing the pros and cons of using such weapons from a purely military point of view. His report, declassified from SECRET in 2002, was sufficiently objective that both sides in the debate based their arguments on the report. Dyson says that the report showed that even from a narrow military point of view the US was better off not using nuclear weapons. Dyson stated on the Dick Cavett show that the use of nuclear weaponry was a bad idea for the US at the time because "our targets were big and theirs were small."
At the British Bomber Command, Dyson and colleagues proposed ripping out two gun turrets from the RAF Lancaster bombers, to cut the catastrophic losses due to German fighters in the Battle of Berlin. A Lancaster without turrets could fly 50 mph (80 km/h) faster and be much more maneuverable.
All our advice to the commander in chief [went] through the chief of our section, who was a career civil servant. His guiding principle was to tell the commander in chief things that the commander in chief liked to hear… To push the idea of ripping out gun turrets, against the official mythology of the gallant gunner defending his crew mates…was not the kind of suggestion the commander in chief liked to hear.
Dyson opposed the Vietnam War, the Gulf War, and the invasion of Iraq. He supported Barack Obama in the 2008 US presidential election and The New York Times has described him as a political liberal.
The role of failure 
You can't possibly get a good technology going without an enormous number of failures. It's a universal rule. If you look at bicycles, there were thousands of weird models built and tried before they found the one that really worked. You could never design a bicycle theoretically. Even now, after we've been building them for 100 years, it's very difficult to understand just why a bicycle works – it's even difficult to formulate it as a mathematical problem. But just by trial and error, we found out how to do it, and the error was essential.
On English academics 
My view of the prevalence of doom-and-gloom in Cambridge is that it is a result of the English class system. In England there were always two sharply opposed middle classes, the academic middle class and the commercial middle class. In the nineteenth century, the academic middle class won the battle for power and status. As a child of the academic middle class, I learned to look on the commercial middle class with loathing and contempt. Then came the triumph of Margaret Thatcher, which was also the revenge of the commercial middle class. The academics lost their power and prestige and the business people took over. The academics never forgave Thatcher and have been gloomy ever since.
Science and religion 
He is a non-denominational Christian and has attended various churches from Presbyterian to Roman Catholic. Regarding doctrinal or Christological issues, he has said "I am neither a saint nor a theologian. To me, good works are more important than theology."
Science and religion are two windows that people look through, trying to understand the big universe outside, trying to understand why we are here. The two windows give different views, but they look out at the same universe. Both views are one-sided, neither is complete. Both leave out essential features of the real world. And both are worthy of respect. Trouble arises when either science or religion claims universal jurisdiction, when either religious or scientific dogma claims to be infallible. Religious creationists and scientific materialists are equally dogmatic and insensitive. By their arrogance they bring both science and religion into disrepute. The media exaggerate their numbers and importance. The media rarely mention the fact that the great majority of religious people belong to moderate denominations that treat science with respect, or the fact that the great majority of scientists treat religion with respect so long as religion does not claim jurisdiction over scientific questions.
Dyson disagrees with the famous remark by his fellow physicist Steven Weinberg that "With or without religion, good people can behave well and bad people can do evil; but for good people to do evil—that takes religion."
Weinberg's statement is true as far as it goes, but it is not the whole truth. To make it the whole truth, we must add an additional clause: "And for bad people to do good things—that [also] takes religion." The main point of Christianity is that it is a religion for sinners. Jesus made that very clear. When the Pharisees asked his disciples, "Why eateth your Master with publicans and sinners?" he said, "I come to call not the righteous but sinners to repentance." Only a small fraction of sinners repent and do good things but only a small fraction of good people are led by their religion to do bad things.
While Dyson has labeled himself a Christian, he identifies himself as agnostic about some of the specifics of his faith. For example, here is a passage from Dyson's review of The God of Hope and the End of the World from John Polkinghorne:
I am myself a Christian, a member of a community that preserves an ancient heritage of great literature and great music, provides help and counsel to young and old when they are in trouble, educates children in moral responsibility, and worships God in its own fashion. But I find Polkinghorne’s theology altogether too narrow for my taste. I have no use for a theology that claims to know the answers to deep questions but bases its arguments on the beliefs of a single tribe. I am a practicing Christian but not a believing Christian. To me, to worship God means to recognize that mind and intelligence are woven into the fabric of our universe in a way that altogether surpasses our comprehension.
On Wikipedia 
Dyson on Wikipedia:
"Even in the noisiest system, errors can be reliably corrected and accurate information transmitted, provided that the transmission is sufficiently redundant. That is, in a nutshell, how Wikipedia works. ... Science is the sum total of a great multitude of mysteries. It is an unending argument between a great multitude of voices. It resembles Wikipedia much more than it resembles the Encyclopaedia Britannica."
See also 
- A.I. Shlyakhter
- Dyson conjecture
- Dyson's eternal intelligence
- Dyson number
- List of science and religion scholars
- The 2005 Global Intellectuals Poll
- The Day After Trinity (1980)
- Thue–Siegel-Dyson-Roth theorem
- Rank of a partition
- Crank of a partition
- Symmetry Groups in Nuclear and Particle Physics, 1966 (Academic-oriented text)
- Interstellar Transport, Physics Today 1968
- Disturbing the Universe, 1979, ISBN 0-06-011108-9. Review
- Weapons and Hope, 1984 (Winner of the National Book Critics Circle Award). Review
- Origins of Life, 1986. Second edition, 1999. Review
- Infinite in All Directions, 1988, ISBN 0-14-014482-X. Review
- From Eros to Gaia, 1992
- Selected Papers of Freeman Dyson, 1996
- Imagined Worlds, Harvard University Press 1997, ISBN 978-0-674-53908-2. Review
- The Sun, the Genome and the Internet, 1999. Review
- L'mportanza di essere imprevedibile, Di Renzo Editore, 2003
- The Scientist as Rebel, 2006. Review
- Advanced Quantum Mechanics, World Scientific, 2007, ISBN 978-981-270-661-4. Freely available at: arXiv:quant-ph/0608140. (Dyson's 1951 Cornell lecture notes transcribed by David Derbes)
- A Many-Colored Glass: Reflections on the Place of Life in the Universe, University of Virginia Press, 2007. Review
- Dyson, Freeman. "Alma Mater". Web of Stories.
- FREEMAN DYSON | School of Natural Sciences
- Dyson, Freeman. "Influences".
- "Scientist wins m religion prize". BBC News. 2000-05-09. Retrieved 2010-05-02.
- Freeman Dyson: Disturbing the universe, pg 131, "I had finally become an American...The decision to abjure my allegiance to Queen Elizabeth might have been a difficult one, but the Queen's ministers made it easy for me."
- Board of Sponsors | Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Retrieved on January 07, 2013.
- Dawidoff, Nicholas. The Civil Heretic. The New York Times. March 25, 2009
- The Scientist as Rebel. Wild River Review Interview by Joy E. Stocke
- "A Failure of Intelligence", Essay in Technology Review (November–December 2006)
- Dyson, F., "What Can You Really Know", New York Review of Books (Nov 10, 2011): http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2012/nov/08/what-can-you-really-know/?pagination=false
- F. J. Dyson (1949). "The radiation theories of Tomonaga, Schwinger, and Feynman". Phys. Rev. 75 (3): 486–502. Bibcode:1949PhRv...75..486D. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.75.486.
- Freeman J. Dyson, Disturbing the Universe, 1979
- F. J. Dyson (1949). "The S matrix in quantum electrodynamics". Phys. Rev. 75 (11): 1736–1755. Bibcode:1949PhRv...75.1736D. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.75.1736.
- J. C. Ward (1950). "An Identity in Quantum Electrodynamics". Phys. Rev. 78 (2): 182. Bibcode:1950PhRv...78..182W. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.78.182.. [Note: this Ward letter opens with "It has been recently proven by Dyson..."]
- F. J. Dyson, E. H. Lieb, Selected papers by Freeman Dyson, AMS (1996).
- John Derbyshire, Prime Obsession, 2004, ISBN 0309085497.
- F. J. Dyson, A. Lenard (1967). "Stability of Matter. I". J. Math. Phys. 8 (3): 423–434. Bibcode:1967JMP.....8..423D. doi:10.1063/1.1705209.
- F. J. Dyson, A. Lenard (1968). "Stability of Matter. II". J. Math. Phys. 9 (5): 698–711. Bibcode:1968JMP.....9..698L. doi:10.1063/1.1664631.
- E. H. Lieb, W. Thirring (1975). "Bound for the Kinetic Energy of Fermions Which Proves the Stability of Matter". Phys. Rev. Lett. 35 (11): 687–689. Bibcode:1975PhRvL..35..687L. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.35.687.
- "InterViews Freeman Dyson". National Academy of Sciences. 2004-07-23. Retrieved 2011-12-19.
- "Officers and Board". Space Studies Institute. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma contains strategies that dominate any evolutionary opponent by William H. Press and Freeman Dyson PNAS vol. 109 no. 26 pp 0409–10413
- See excerpt from Digerati: Encounters with the Cyber Elite by John Brockman (HardWired Books, 1996)
- Dawkins, Richard (2006). The God Delusion. Bantam Press. p. 152. ISBN 0618680004.
- "Fellowship". Royal Society. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
- Dyson, Freeman (September 1998). Imagined Worlds. The Jerusalem-Harvard Lectures. HUP. p. 224. ISBN 9780674539099.
- Our Bio tech Future. Nybooks.com. Retrieved on 2011-10-07.
- Dyson, 1999, The Sun, the Genome, and the Internet
- Dyson, FJ, "The Greening of the Galaxy" in Disturbing the Universe, 1979
- Interview by Monte Davis, October 1978. Web.archive.org (1998-12-07). Retrieved on 2011-10-07.
- Dyson, Freeman J. (3 June 1960). "Search for Artificial Stellar Sources of Infrared Radiation". Science 131 (3414): 1667–1668. Bibcode:1960Sci...131.1667D. doi:10.1126/science.131.3414.1667. PMID 17780673.
- 20 minutes into a video
- Dyson, Freeman (2011-06-01). Living Through Four Revolutions (Speech). Perimeter Institute Public Lecture Series. Waterloo, Ontario Canada.. http://www.perimeterinstitute.ca/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=551&Itemid=568&lecture_id=10397.
- Dyson, Freeman (1979). Disturbing the Universe. Basic Books. p. 211. ISBN 0-465-01677-4. "Some science fiction writers have wrongly given me the credit of inventing the artificial biosphere. In fact, I took the idea from Olaf Stapledon, one of their own colleagues"
- Dyson, FJ, "Warm-blooded plants and freeze-dried fish: the future of space exploration. Played" The Atlantic Monthly, November 1997 Subscribers only
- Freeman Dyson (8 August 2007). "Heretical Thoughts about Science and Society". Edge. Retrieved 2007-09-05.dl
- Don't fight, adapt. Open Letter to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. National Post. December 13, 2007
- Wiggles, Open Mind, 16 December 2007
- Dyson in The New York Review of Book, 12 June 2008. Nybooks.com (2008-06-12). Retrieved on 2011-10-07.
- "University of Michigan 2005 Winter Commencement Address". University of Michigan.
- Freeman J. Dyson, "Can we control the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?", Energy, Volume 2, Issue 3, September 1977, Pages 287–291. doi:10.1016/0360-5442(77)90033-0
- Dawidoff, Nicholas (2009-03-29). "The Civil Heretic". The New York Times.
- "Freeman Dyson Takes On The Climate Establishment", interview published June 2, 2009 by Yale University's Environment 360
- ‘The Question of Global Warming’: An Exchange, comment by Freeman Dyson, September 25, 2008.
- Freeman J. Dyson (22 July 2004). Infinite in All Directions: Gifford Lectures Given at Aberdeen, Scotland April—November 1985. HarperCollins. pp. 259–. ISBN 978-0-06-072889-2. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
- F.J. Dyson, "The Blood of a Poet" in Disturbing the Universe, 1979
- F.J. Dyson, Weapons and Hope, 1984
- F.J. Dyson, "The Children's Crusade" in Disturbing the Universe, 1979
- Interview by Stewart Brand, February 1998. Wired.com (2009-01-04). Retrieved on January 07, 2013.
- Benny Peiser (14 March 2007). "The Scientist as a Rebel: An interview with Freeman Dyson". CCNet. Retrieved 2007-09-05.
- Templeton Prize Lecture. Edge.org (2000-05-16). Retrieved on 2011-10-07.
- NYRB June 22, 2006. Nybooks.com. Retrieved on 2011-10-07.
- Moses Gbenu. Back to Hell. Xulon Press. p. 110. ISBN 9781591608158. "The cash part of this award is over $1 million. Three facts are significant about this award. First, the same award was given to an agnostic Mathematician Freeman Dyson, the Buddhist Dalai Lama, Mother Theresa, and Charles R. Filmore, son of the founder of the mind-science cult, Unity."
- Species of Origins: America's Search for a Creation Story. Rowman & Littlefield. 2002. p. 141. ISBN 9780742507654. "Dyson is not a hard-nosed materialist and, in fact, criticizes his colleagues who champion that viewpoint. Officially, he calls himself an agnostic, but his writings make it clear that his agnosticism is tinged with something akin to deism."
- Freeman Dyson. "Science & Religion: No Ends in Sight". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
- NYRB March 11, 2011. Nybooks.com. Retrieved on 2011-10-07.
Further reading 
Books about Dyson 
- Brower, Kenneth, 1978. The Starship and the Canoe, Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
- Schweber, Sylvan S., 1994. QED and the Men Who Made It: Dyson, Feynman, Schwinger, and Tomonaga. Princeton University Press: chpt. 9. ISBN 978-0-691-03327-3.
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Freeman Dyson|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Freeman Dyson|
By Dyson 
- Comments on "The Question of Global Warming", with a reply by Dyson, September 25, 2008
- "Our Biotech Future", essay by Freeman Dyson, July 19, 2007
- "In Praise of Open Thinking", audio from a panel discussion with his son George Dyson, recorded 07-29-2004
- TED Talks: Freeman Dyson says: let's look for life in the outer solar system at TED in 2003 (video)
- Templeton Prize acceptance lecture 2000, by Freeman Dyson
- Imagined Worlds by Freeman Dyson, 1996: Chapter 1
- Video Interview of Freeman Dyson discussing Bogus Climate Models
- Freeman Dyson tells his life story at Web of Stories (video)
- A radio interview with Freeman Dyson Aired on the Lewis Burke Frumkes Radio Show in 2009.
- Tactical Nuclear Weapons in Southeast Asia, published March 1967 (declassified December 2002)
- TVO Big Ideas: Freeman Dyson on Living Through Four Revolutions, by Freeman Dyson (video) June 1, 2011 at Perimeter Institute, Waterloo, Canada
- Suzan Mazur interviewing Dyson, 2012
About Dyson 
- Interview, June 4, 2009, Dyson comments on the misleading overemphasis of his climate-change views in the NYT profile.
- O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Freeman Dyson", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews., biography, circa 2000
- Dyson biographical outline, circa 2005
- Dyson author page and archive, from The New York Review of Books
- "The Scientist as Rebel", 2005 interview at Wild River Review
- NPR interview of Freeman Dyson, audio, All Things Considered, November 2, 2004
- Google video: interviewer: Robert Wright, video, 44:55, June 30, 2001
- Freeman Dyson wins $1m religion prize, 9 May 2000
- "Freeman Dyson's Brain", interview by Stewart Brand at Wired, 1998
- Oral History interview transcript with Freeman J. Dyson 17 December 1986, American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library and Archives
- "Disturbing the Universe": BBC interview with Freeman Dyson, audio, 18 January 1980
- To Mars by A-bomb. BBC Airdate 8 February 2006.