Freemasonry in France

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Freemasonry in France has been influential on the worldwide Masonic movement due to its founding of Continental Freemasonry.[1]

There are many and varied Masonic rites and obediences in France. The main male-only masonic organisations are the Grand Orient de France, the Grande Loge de France and the Grande Loge Nationale Française, the main female-only organisation is the Women's Grand Lodge Of France, and the main mixed organisation is the Le Droit Humain. Other organisations exist such as the Felicitaries.

History[edit]

Obediences[edit]

Critiques and scandals[edit]

In the 18th century, the Pope banned Freemasonry, for reasons linked to the situation in Tuscany that were more political than religious[2] The relevant bull, Eminenti Apostolatus Specula was not however registered by the parliament of Paris and was never enacted in France. At the end of the 19th century, in the struggle between the French Republic and the Catholic Church, Freemasonry and its then-powerful networks definitively backed the state, leading to the Affaire Des Fiches, and even came to be called "the church of the Republic".[3]


References[edit]

  1. ^ Grand Orient de France
  2. ^ (Dachez 2003, p. 52)
  3. ^ (D. Ligou et al. 2000, p. 89-95)

Bibliography[edit]

Works used in this article[edit]

  • Dachez, Roger (2003). Histoire de la franc-maçonnerie française. Que sais-je?. PUF. ISBN 2-13-053539-9. 
  • la présente éd. a été réalisée sous la présidence de Peter. F. Baumberger; Jacques Mitterrand, Serge Hutin and Alain Guichard (1992). article « Franc-maçonnerie » 9. Encyclopédie Universalis. ISBN 2-85229-287-4. 
  • Naudon, Paul (1981). Histoire générale de la franc-maçonnerie. PUF. ISBN 2-13-037281-3. 
  • Franc-maçonnerie, avenir d'une tradition. Musée des Beaux-Arts de Tours. 1997. ISBN 2-84099-061-X. 
  • sous la direction de Daniel Ligou. et al. (2000). Histoire des Francs-Maçons en France 1. private publisher. ISBN 2-7089-6838-6. 
  • sous la direction de Daniel Ligou. et al. (2000). Histoire des Francs-Maçons en France 2. private publisher. ISBN 2-7089-6839-4. 
  • Garibal, Gilbert (1994). Être franc-maçon aujourd'hui 2. Marabout. ISBN 2-501-02029-4. 
  • <Please add first missing authors to populate metadata.> (1997). "Les francs-maçons". Historia 48. ISSN 0018-2281. 
  • Christian Guigue (2013). La Formation Maçonnique. Christian Guigue. ISBN 2-9506708-9-X. 

Documentaries[edit]

  • "Grand Orient les frères invisibles" - script by Alain Moreau, directed by Patrick Cabouat, produced by France 5 / Program 33.

Other authorities in this area[edit]