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Le Parkour Brasil - Pkbrws.jpg
Brazilian freerunners move fluidly through urban environment
Country of origin  France  United Kingdom
Creator Sebastien Foucan
Famous practitioners Daniel Ilabaca
Ryan Doyle, Tim Shieff
Ancestor arts Parkour
Olympic sport Not currently; IOC discussions underway[citation needed]

Freerunning (or free running) is a martial discipline founded by Sébastien Foucan, who wrote a book on the subject. Foucan started what he termed "freerunning" in 2003, which he developed as a more inclusive form of parkour.


The word "freerunning" was first used in the documentary, Jump London.[1] The name came about because of a suggestion by Guillaumme Pelletier, who was working with Foucan at the time. The reasoning behind the name was, to quote Foucan, "'Free' because it's free, and just 'running'."[1] In the documentary, freerunning was defined as an English translation of parkour.[2]


The central principle of freerunning is that one should express oneself by moving fluidly in one's environment; there are no limitations on the form of this movement.[3] Foucan expands on a number of basic principles of the sport in his book, Freerunning.[3] Other practitioners have suggested other principles. For example, Daniel Ilabaca encourages people to think positively, suggesting that practitioners of freerunning will sometimes fall—largely because they think they might.[4]


Origins in parkour[edit]

Main article: Parkour § History

In Western Europe the idea of moving past obstacles for personal development or sport originated with Georges Hébert.[5] He observed untrained native tribes in Africa with fantastic athletic ability and created the 'natural method' system to train people using the same ideas. His ideas eventually led to the parcours du combattant ('assault' or 'obstacle' course), which is now a standard of military training.[6]

These ideas were picked up by a young Raymond Belle, who used them to practical effect while separated from his family during the First Indochina War. When he moved to France and started a family, he passed on these ideas to his son, David. 30 years later, other young people were attracted to these ideas and a small group formed, the "Yamakasi," which included Foucan.[5][7] This group trained together for several years and in 1997, through David Belle's brother, Jean-Francois, they started to attract attention and be invited to perform at events. The Yamakasi eventually split apart, though, because some members sought to find more individual expressions of the discipline.[8][9]

Further development[edit]

Foucan wanted to create a discipline that was more personal to the individual than parkour and more easily adapted to suit each person's individual goals.[3] His idea was similar to that of Bruce Lee's creation of Jeet Kune Do. Foucan wanted to take everything that he had found useful and that he liked from his parkour experiences and combine it into one sport.[1]

Foucan's early ideas were first spread through the Jump London documentary (2003) and its sequel, Jump Britain (2005). Foucan has appeared in other productions, such as Casino Royale and Madonna's Confessions Tour.[8] With each appearance both the discipline and Foucan himself increased in fame.[3]

Freerunning in popular culture[edit]

Freerunning has spawned a number of international events, such as the Red Bull Art of Motion[citation needed], and it is the primary navigation system used in the Assassin's Creed series of video games.[citation needed]


  1. ^ a b c Foucan, Sebastien (28 October 2012). Sebastien Foucan - Find your way - London Real. (Interview). London Real. London. Retrieved 3 July 2013. 
  2. ^ Note: Foucan has since said that the confusion regarding the roots of the term came out of the fact that he was still formulating his ideas at the time of the filming.
  3. ^ a b c d Foucan, Sebastien (2008). Freerunning. U.K.: Michael O'Mara Books. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-56975-652-2. 
  4. ^ Declan Saldana (27 January 2012). "Parkour Legends: Daniel Ilabaca, Tim Shieff and Oleg Vorslov". Retrieved 3 July 2013. 
  5. ^ a b Parkour History; by Edwardes, Dan; Parkour Generations; website; accessed January 2014.
  6. ^ "George Hébert and the Natural Method of Physical Culture". Archived from the original on 23 March 2005. Retrieved 3 July 2013. 
  7. ^ Belle, David (2009). Parkour. Intervista. pp. 31–70. ISBN 978-2-35756-025-3. 
  8. ^ a b Angel, Julie (2011). Ciné Parkour. pp. 17–20. ISBN 978-0-9569717-1-5. 
  9. ^ Belle, David (2009). Parkour. Intervista. pp. 71–79. ISBN 978-2-35756-025-3.