Freimut Börngen

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Asteroids discovered: 538
2424 Tautenburg [1] October 27, 1973
2861 Lambrecht [1] November 3, 1981
3181 Ahnert March 8, 1964
3245 Jensch October 27, 1973
3338 Richter October 28, 1973
3499 Hoppe [1] November 3, 1981
3539 Weimar April 11, 1967
3540 Protesilaos October 27, 1973
3802 Dornburg August 7, 1986
3808 Tempel March 24, 1982
3826 Handel October 27, 1973
3917 Franz Schubert February 15, 1961
3941 Haydn October 27, 1973
3943 Silbermann September 3, 1981
3954 Mendelssohn April 24, 1987
3955 Bruckner September 9, 1988
3975 Verdi October 19, 1982
3992 Wagner September 29, 1987
4003 Schumann March 8, 1964
4076 Dörffel October 19, 1982
4098 Thraen November 26, 1987
4117 Wilke September 24, 1982
4134 Schütz February 15, 1961
4246 Telemann September 24, 1982
4330 Vivaldi October 19, 1982
4347 Reger August 13, 1988
4382 Stravinsky November 29, 1989
4406 Mahler December 22, 1987
4559 Strauss January 11, 1989
4579 Puccini January 11, 1989
4727 Ravel October 24, 1979
4734 Rameau October 19, 1982
4802 Khatchaturian October 23, 1989
4850 Palestrina October 27, 1973
4872 Grieg December 25, 1989
4889 Praetorius October 19, 1982
4972 Pachelbel October 23, 1989
5004 Bruch September 8, 1988
5039 Rosenkavalier April 11, 1967
5063 Monteverdi February 2, 1989
5157 Hindemith October 27, 1973
5177 Hugowolf January 10, 1989
5210 Saint-Saëns March 7, 1989
5224 Abbe February 21, 1982
5312 Schott November 3, 1981
5375 Siedentopf January 11, 1989
5409 Saale September 30, 1962
5478 Wartburg October 23, 1989
5509 Rennsteig September 8, 1988
5616 Vogtland September 29, 1987
5628 Preussen [2] September 13, 1991
5689 Rhön [2] September 9, 1991
5792 Unstrut January 18, 1964
5816 Potsdam January 11, 1989
5820 Babelsberg October 23, 1989
5835 Mainfranken September 21, 1992
5846 Hessen January 11, 1989
5866 Sachsen August 13, 1988
5904 Württemberg January 10, 1989
6044 Hammer-Purgstall [2] September 13, 1991
6068 Brandenburg [2] October 10, 1990
6070 Rheinland December 10, 1991
6099 Saarland October 30, 1991
6120 Anhalt August 21, 1987
6124 Mecklenburg September 29, 1987
6157 Prey [2] September 9, 1991
6209 Schwaben [2] October 12, 1990
6293 Oberpfalz November 26, 1987
6305 Helgoland April 6, 1989
6320 Bremen January 15, 1991
6332 Vorarlberg March 30, 1992
6396 Schleswig January 15, 1991
6402 Holstein April 9, 1991
6439 Tirol February 13, 1988
6442 Salzburg September 8, 1988
6451 Kärnten April 9, 1991
6457 Kremsmünster [2] September 2, 1992
6482 Steiermark January 10, 1989
6488 Drebach April 10, 1991
6563 Steinheim December 11, 1991
6653 Feininger December 10, 1991
6717 Antal [2] October 10, 1990
6718 Beiglböck [2] October 14, 1990
6776 Dix April 6, 1989
6864 Starkenburg [2] September 12, 1991
6966 Vietoris [2] September 13, 1991
7054 Brehm April 6, 1989
7117 Claudius February 14, 1988
7121 Busch January 10, 1989
7127 Stifter [2] September 9, 1991
7130 Klepper April 30, 1992
7256 Bonhoeffer November 11, 1993
7280 Bergengruen September 8, 1988
7414 Bosch [2] October 13, 1990
7571 Weisse Rose March 7, 1989
7580 Schwabhausen [2] October 13, 1990
7583 Rosegger January 17, 1991
7584 Ossietzky April 9, 1991
7586 Bismarck [2] September 13, 1991
7655 Adamries December 28, 1991
7698 Schweitzer January 11, 1989
7700 Rote Kapelle [2] October 13, 1990
7767 Tomatic [2] September 13, 1991
7873 Böll January 15, 1991
7945 Kreisau [2] September 13, 1991
8019 Karachkina [2] October 14, 1990
8020 Erzgebirge [2] October 14, 1990
8089 Yukar [2] October 13, 1990
8108 Wieland January 30, 1995
8130 Seeberg February 27, 1976
8158 Herder October 23, 1989
8171 Stauffenberg [2] September 5, 1991
8268 Goerdeler September 29, 1987
8282 Delp September 10, 1991
8284 Cranach October 8, 1991
8381 Hauptmann September 21, 1992
8382 Mann September 23, 1992
8501 Wachholz [2] October 13, 1990
8502 Bauhaus [2] October 14, 1990
8661 Ratzinger [2] October 14, 1990
8666 Reuter April 9, 1991
8667 Fontane April 9, 1991
8684 Reichwein March 30, 1992
8827 Kollwitz August 13, 1988
8831 Brändström February 2, 1989
8847 Huch [2] October 12, 1990
8853 Gerdlehmann April 9, 1991
8860 Rohloff [2] October 5, 1991
8861 Jenskandler [2] October 3, 1991
9052 Uhland October 30, 1991
9187 Walterkröll [2] September 12, 1991
9189 Hölderlin September 10, 1991
9204 Mörike August 4, 1994
9307 Regiomontanus August 21, 1987
9315 Weigel August 13, 1988
9322 Lindenau January 10, 1989
9336 Altenburg January 15, 1991
9344 Klopstock September 12, 1991
9351 Neumayer [2] October 2, 1991
9413 Eichendorff September 21, 1995
9577 Gropius February 2, 1989
9610 Vischer [2] September 2, 1992
9645 Grünewald January 5, 1995
9742 Worpswede November 26, 1987
9761 Krautter [2] September 13, 1991
9762 Hermannhesse [2] September 13, 1991
9764 Morgenstern October 30, 1991
9833 Rilke February 21, 1982
9854 Karlheinz January 15, 1991
9861 Jahreiss [2] September 9, 1991
9863 Reichardt [2] September 13, 1991
9872 Solf February 27, 1992
9956 Castellaz [2] October 5, 1991
9957 Raffaellosanti October 6, 1991
9962 Pfau December 28, 1991
10055 Silcher December 22, 1987
10067 Bertuch January 11, 1989
10095 Carlloewe [2] September 9, 1991
10100 Bürgel December 10, 1991
10114 Greifswald [2] September 4, 1992
10116 Robertfranz [2] September 21, 1992
10331 Peterbluhm April 9, 1991
10340 Jostjahn September 10, 1991
10348 Poelchau April 29, 1992
10543 Klee February 27, 1992
10740 Fallersleben September 8, 1988
10745 Arnstadt January 11, 1989
10746 Mühlhausen February 10, 1989
10747 Köthen February 1, 1989
10749 Musäus April 6, 1989
10753 van der Velde November 28, 1989
10761 Lyubimets [2] October 12, 1990
10762 von Laue [2] October 12, 1990
10763 Hlawka [2] October 12, 1990
10764 Rübezahl [2] October 12, 1990
10774 Eisenach January 15, 1991
10775 Leipzig January 15, 1991
10778 Marcks April 9, 1991
10781 Ritter August 6, 1991
10782 Hittmair [2] September 12, 1991
10786 Robertmayer [2] October 7, 1991
10787 Ottoburkard [2] October 4, 1991
10801 Lüneburg September 23, 1992
10825 Augusthermann September 18, 1993
10835 Fröbel November 12, 1993
10839 Hufeland April 3, 1994
10847 Koch January 5, 1995
10856 Bechstein March 4, 1995
10857 Blüthner March 5, 1995
11037 Distler February 2, 1989
11043 Pepping December 25, 1989
11050 Messiaën [2] October 13, 1990
11061 Lagerlöf September 10, 1991
11075 Dönhoff September 23, 1992
11313 Kügelgen April 3, 1994
11485 Zinzendorf September 8, 1988
11496 Grass January 10, 1989
11508 Stolte [2] October 12, 1990
11537 Guericke April 29, 1992
11547 Griesser October 31, 1992
11573 Helmholtz [2] September 20, 1993
11588 Gottfriedkeller October 28, 1994
11847 Winckelmann January 20, 1988
11853 Runge September 7, 1988
11854 Ludwigrichter September 8, 1988
11855 Preller September 8, 1988
11886 Kraske [2] October 10, 1990
11887 Echemmon [2] October 14, 1990
11899 Weill April 9, 1991
11916 Wiesloch [2] September 24, 1992
12182 Storm October 27, 1973
12240 Droste-Hülshoff August 13, 1988
12241 Lefort August 13, 1988
12244 Werfel September 8, 1988
12298 Brecht August 6, 1991
12318 Kästner April 30, 1992
12323 Haeckel [2] September 4, 1992
12327 Terbrüggen [2] September 21, 1992
12329 Liebermann September 23, 1992
12350 Feuchtwanger April 23, 1993
12401 Tucholsky July 21, 1995
12659 Schlegel October 27, 1973
12661 Schelling February 27, 1976
12694 Schleiermacher March 7, 1989
12729 Berger [2] September 13, 1991
12782 Mauersberger March 5, 1995
13024 Conradferdinand January 11, 1989
13055 Kreppein [2] October 14, 1990
13084 Virchow April 2, 1992
13086 Sauerbruch April 30, 1992
13092 Schrödinger [2] September 24, 1992
13093 Wolfgangpauli September 21, 1992
13149 Heisenberg March 4, 1995
13478 Fraunhofer February 27, 1976
13530 Ninnemann [2] September 9, 1991
13531 Weizsäcker [2] September 13, 1991
13559 Werth [2] September 4, 1992
13610 Lilienthal October 5, 1994
13954 Born [2] October 13, 1990
13977 Frisch April 29, 1992
14014 Münchhausen January 14, 1994
14025 Fallada September 2, 1994
14041 Dürrenmatt September 21, 1995
14365 Jeanpaul September 8, 1988
14366 Wilhelmraabe September 8, 1988
14367 Hippokrates September 8, 1988
14372 Paulgerhardt January 9, 1989
14412 Wolflojewski [2] September 9, 1991
14413 Geiger [2] September 5, 1991
14836 Maxfrisch February 14, 1988
14845 Hegel November 3, 1988
14871 Pyramus [2] October 13, 1990
14940 Freiligrath March 4, 1995
15262 Abderhalden [2] October 12, 1990
15263 Erwingroten [2] October 13, 1990
15264 Delbrück [2] October 11, 1990
15265 Ernsting [2] October 12, 1990
15282 Franzmarc [2] September 13, 1991
15301 Marutesser [2] September 21, 1992
15342 Assisi April 3, 1994
15346 Bonifatius September 2, 1994
15710 Böcklin January 11, 1989
15724 Zille [2] October 12, 1990
15727 Ianmorison [2] October 10, 1990
15728 Karlmay [2] October 11, 1990
15761 Schumi [2] September 24, 1992
15762 Rühmann September 21, 1992
15808 Zelter April 3, 1994
15811 Nüsslein-Volhard July 10, 1994
16355 Buber October 29, 1975
16398 Hummel September 24, 1982
16418 Lortzing September 29, 1987
16438 Knöfel January 11, 1989
16441 Kirchner March 7, 1989
16459 Barth November 28, 1989
16505 Sulzer [2] October 12, 1990
16522 Tell January 15, 1991
16524 Hausmann January 17, 1991
16544 Hochlehnert [2] September 9, 1991
16590 Brunowalter [2] September 21, 1992
16705 Reinhardt March 4, 1995
16714 Arndt September 21, 1995
17458 Dick [2] October 13, 1990
17459 Andreashofer [2] October 13, 1990
17460 Mang [2] October 10, 1990
17484 Ganghofer [2] September 13, 1991
17486 Hodler September 10, 1991
17488 Mantl [2] October 2, 1991
17489 Trenker [2] October 2, 1991
17492 Hippasos December 10, 1991
17496 Augustinus February 29, 1992
17579 Lewkopelew October 5, 1994
17597 Stefanzweig March 4, 1995
18286 Kneipp October 27, 1973
18359 Jakobstaude [2] October 13, 1990
18360 Sachs [2] October 10, 1990
18395 Schmiedmayer [2] September 21, 1992
18396 Nellysachs [2] September 21, 1992
18398 Bregenz September 23, 1992
18430 Balzac January 14, 1994
18458 Caesar March 5, 1995
19126 Ottohahn August 22, 1987
19136 Strassmann January 10, 1989
19139 Apian April 6, 1989
19162 Wambsganss [2] October 10, 1990
19178 Walterbothe [2] September 9, 1991
19182 Pitz [2] October 7, 1991
19183 Amati [2] October 5, 1991
19185 Guarneri October 4, 1991
19189 Stradivari December 28, 1991
19208 Starrfield [2] September 2, 1992
19263 Lavater July 21, 1995
19914 Klagenfurt October 27, 1973
19970 Johannpeter September 8, 1988
19992 Schönbein [2] October 10, 1990
19993 Gunterseeber [2] October 10, 1990
20006 Albertus Magnus April 11, 1991
20012 Ranke [2] September 13, 1991
20016 Rietschel October 8, 1991
20074 Laskerschüler January 14, 1994
21010 Kishon August 13, 1988
21050 Beck [2] October 10, 1990
21059 Penderecki April 9, 1991
21074 Rügen [2] September 12, 1991
21075 Heussinger [2] September 12, 1991
21076 Kokoschka [2] September 12, 1991
21109 Sünkel [2] September 4, 1992
21110 Karlvalentin [2] September 4, 1992
21118 Hezimmermann [2] September 24, 1992
21125 Orff December 30, 1992
22291 Heitifer February 2, 1989
22322 Bodensee [2] September 13, 1991
22348 Schmeidler [2] September 24, 1992
22354 Sposetti October 31, 1992
22369 Klinger [2] September 18, 1993
23472 Rolfriekher [2] October 10, 1990
23473 Voss [2] October 11, 1990
23490 Monikohl [2] September 12, 1991
23514 Schneider [2] September 2, 1992
23520 Ludwigbechstein September 23, 1992
23578 Baedeker February 22, 1995
24665 Tolerantia September 8, 1988
24666 Miesvanrohe September 8, 1988
24671 Frankmartin January 10, 1989
24699 Schwekendiek [2] October 13, 1990
24711 Chamisso August 6, 1991
24712 Boltzmann [2] September 12, 1991
24713 Ekrutt [2] September 12, 1991
24748 Nernst [2] September 26, 1992
24749 Grebel [2] September 24, 1992
24750 Ohm [2] September 24, 1992
24751 Kroemer September 21, 1992
26119 Duden October 7, 1991
26821 Baehr March 17, 1988
26842 Hefele [2] October 2, 1991
27710 Henseling September 7, 1988
27712 Coudray November 3, 1988
27758 Michelson [2] September 12, 1991
27764 von Flüe September 10, 1991
27765 Brockhaus September 10, 1991
27845 Josephmeyer October 5, 1994
27846 Honegger October 5, 1994
27864 Antongraff March 5, 1995
29185 Reich [2] October 13, 1990
29197 Gleim January 15, 1991
29203 Schnitger April 9, 1991
29204 Ladegast April 11, 1991
29208 Halorentz [2] September 9, 1991
29212 Zeeman September 10, 1991
29214 Apitzsch [2] October 2, 1991
29227 Wegener February 29, 1992
29246 Clausius [2] September 2, 1992
29250 Helmutmoritz [2] September 24, 1992
29329 Knobelsdorff October 5, 1994
30778 Döblin September 29, 1987
30788 Angekauffmann September 8, 1988
30798 Graubünden February 2, 1989
30826 Coulomb [2] October 10, 1990
30827 Lautenschläger [2] October 10, 1990
30828 Bethe [2] October 12, 1990
30829 Wolfwacker [2] October 10, 1990
30830 Jahn [2] October 14, 1990
30836 Schnittke January 15, 1991
30837 Steinheil January 15, 1991
30847 Lampert [2] September 13, 1991
30850 Vonsiemens [2] October 7, 1991
30851 Reißfelder [2] October 2, 1991
30852 Debye [2] October 2, 1991
30882 Tomhenning [2] September 21, 1992
30883 de Broglie [2] September 24, 1992
30933 Grillparzer October 17, 1993
32808 Bischoff [2] October 10, 1990
32809 Sommerfeld [2] October 10, 1990
32810 Steinbach [2] October 10, 1990
32811 Apisaon [2] October 14, 1990
32821 Posch [2] September 9, 1991
32853 Döbereiner [2] September 21, 1992
32855 Zollitsch [2] September 24, 1992
32899 Knigge August 4, 1994
35229 Benckert March 24, 1995
37573 Enricocaruso October 23, 1989
37582 Faraday [2] October 12, 1990
37583 Ramonkhanna [2] October 13, 1990
37584 Schleiden [2] October 10, 1990
37592 Pauljackson [2] October 3, 1991
37608 Löns [2] September 24, 1992
39464 Pöppelmann October 27, 1973
39536 Lenhof [2] October 10, 1990
39540 Borchert April 11, 1991
39549 Casals February 27, 1992
39571 Pückler September 21, 1992
42482 Fischer-Dieskau September 8, 1988
42487 Ångström [2] September 9, 1991
42492 Brüggenthies [2] October 3, 1991
42516 Oistrach November 11, 1993
43724 Pechstein October 29, 1975
43751 Asam October 19, 1982
43775 Tiepolo February 2, 1989
43790 Ferdinandbraun [2] October 12, 1990
43804 Peterting [2] September 10, 1991
43806 Augustepiccard [2] September 13, 1991
43813 Kühner [2] October 7, 1991
46563 Oken [2] September 12, 1991
48415 Dehio August 21, 1987
48422 Schrade November 3, 1988
48425 Tischendorf February 2, 1989
48434 Maxbeckmann October 23, 1989
48435 Jaspers October 23, 1989
48447 Hingley [2] October 10, 1990
48456 Wilhelmwien [2] September 12, 1991
48457 Joseffried [2] September 12, 1991
48458 Merian [2] September 13, 1991
48471 Orchiston [2] October 7, 1991
48472 Mössbauer [2] October 2, 1991
48480 Falk December 28, 1991
48492 Utewielen [2] September 24, 1992
48588 Raschröder September 2, 1994
52271 Lecorbusier September 8, 1988
52291 Mott [2] October 10, 1990
52292 Kamdzhalov [2] October 10, 1990
52293 Mommsen [2] October 12, 1990
52294 Detlef [2] October 12, 1990
52301 Qumran [2] September 9, 1991
52308 Hanspeterröser [2] October 7, 1991
52309 Philnicolai October 7, 1991
52334 Oberammergau March 30, 1992
52337 Compton [2] September 2, 1992
52341 Ballmann [2] September 21, 1992
55733 Lepsius November 27, 1986
55735 Magdeburg August 22, 1987
55749 Eulenspiegel January 15, 1991
55753 Raman [2] September 13, 1991
55759 Erdmannsdorff December 10, 1991
55772 Loder December 30, 1992
58152 Natsöderblom August 12, 1988
58163 Minnesang October 23, 1989
(58186) 1991 RT4 [2] September 13, 1991
58191 Dolomiten December 28, 1991
58215 von Klitzing [2] September 21, 1992
(58217) 1992 SP16 [2] September 24, 1992
65675 Mohr-Gruber January 11, 1989
65685 Behring [2] October 10, 1990
(65692) 1991 RH3 [2] September 12, 1991
65694 Franzrosenzweig September 10, 1991
65708 Ehrlich [2] September 4, 1992
(65712) 1992 SJ17 [2] September 24, 1992
65769 Mahalia March 4, 1995
69264 Nebra August 14, 1988
69275 Wiesenthal November 28, 1989
69286 von Liebig [2] October 10, 1990
(69287) 1990 TW10 [2] October 10, 1990
69288 Berlioz [2] October 11, 1990
(69295) 1991 TO6 [2] October 2, 1991
69312 Rogerbacon [2] September 24, 1992
(73686) 1990 TV1 [2] October 10, 1990
73687 Thomas Aquinas [2] October 10, 1990
73692 Gürtler [2] September 12, 1991
73693 Dorschner [2] September 12, 1991
(73699) 1991 TH3 [2] October 4, 1991
73700 von Kues [2] October 5, 1991
(73701) 1991 TU5 [2] October 3, 1991
79087 Scheidt [3] [4] October 17, 1977
79129 Robkoldewey [2] October 11, 1990
(79138) 1991 RS4 [2] September 13, 1991
85179 Meistereckhart [2] October 11, 1990
(85190) 1991 RR3 [2] September 12, 1991
85195 von Helfta [2] October 7, 1991
(85196) 1991 TG3 [2] October 4, 1991
85197 Ginkgo [2] October 5, 1991
(85198) 1991 TC6 [2] October 2, 1991
85199 Habsburg [2] October 3, 1991
(85214) 1992 SZ1 [2] September 21, 1992
85215 Hohenzollern [2] September 26, 1992
(85216) 1992 SL17 [2] September 24, 1992
85217 Bilzingsleben October 31, 1992
85299 Neander October 5, 1994
85317 Lehár January 30, 1995
85320 Bertram March 4, 1995
90703 Indulgentia September 8, 1988
90709 Wettin [2] October 12, 1990
(90711) 1990 TB10 [2] October 10, 1990
90712 Wittelsbach [2] October 12, 1990
(90718) 1991 RW3 [2] September 12, 1991
96205 Ararat [2] September 24, 1992
(96206) 1992 SU17 [2] September 24, 1992
100019 Gregorianik October 23, 1989
100027 Hannaharendt [2] October 10, 1990
(100028) 1990 TZ9 [2] October 10, 1990
100029 Varnhagen [2] October 10, 1990
100033 Taizé April 9, 1990
(100046) 1991 TT6 [2] October 2, 1991
100047 Leobaeck [2] October 2, 1991
(100084) 1992 SY13 [2] September 26, 1992
100268 Rosenthal October 5, 1994
118173 Barmen April 11, 1991
118178 Rinckart September 23, 1992
120460 Hambach [2] October 13, 1990
(120461) 1990 TK9 [2] October 10, 1990
120481 Johannwalter [2] September 24, 1992
134348 Klemperer October 31, 1992
(150118) 1993 SZ2 [2] September 18, 1993
152559 Bodelschwingh [2] October 12, 1990
(160018) 1991 TY2 [2] October 7, 1991
160512 Franck-Hertz [2] October 11, 1990
(160513) 1990 TD13 [2] October 12, 1990
162001 Vulpius [2] October 10, 1990
(162002) 1990 TC10 [2] October 10, 1990
168321 Josephschmidt [2] September 12, 1991
(173120) 1990 TL9 [2] October 10, 1990
178294 Wertheimer [2] October 11, 1990
(190283) 1991 RE3 [2] September 12, 1991
192293 Dominikbrunner [2] October 10, 1990
(204967) 1991 TH7 [2] October 3, 1991
(279723) 1991 RM3 [2] September 12, 1991
(282028) 1990 TV9 [2] October 10, 1990
322510 Heinrichgrüber [2] October 10, 1990
(350178) 2011 UR139 March 30, 1992
(373394) 1990 TQ9 [2] October 10, 1990
  1. 1 with K. Kirsch
  2. 2 with Lutz D. Schmadel
  3. 3 with P. Lochno
  4. 4 with Rainer Ziener

Freimut Börngen (born October 17, 1930) is a German astronomer. A few sources give his first name wrongly as Freimuth.

He has studied galaxies with the Schmidt telescope at the Karl Schwarzschild Observatory in Tautenburg, Germany. In 1995 he retired, but continues to work as a freelancer for the observatory. As a by-product of his work, he has discovered numerous asteroids (519, as of July 2006). The research on asteroids had to be done in his spare time, as the search for small objects was not considered prestigious enough by the GDR research managers. During the GDR regime, Börngen restricted himself to politically neutral names for his asteroids, such as topics related to Thuringia or famous scientists and composers. Examples include 2424 Tautenburg, 3181 Ahnert, 3245 Jensch, or 3941 Haydn. After the German reunification, he chose systematically historical, cultural, scientific and geographical namings, and at times honoured amateur astronomers. Other names include references to resistance fighters against the Nazi suppression, or document a religious interest.[1]

Freimut Börngen has achieved great reputation in the international scientific community for his human qualities and the well-substantiated choice of names. The IAU honoured him with asteroid 3859 Börngen, which was discovered by E. Bowell at the Anderson Mesa Station of the Lowell Observatory, Arizona.

In the year 2006, he was also awarded the Bundesverdienstkreuz am Bande (Cross of Merit on ribbon) by German Federal President Horst Köhler.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ As, e.g., in naming Asteroid 12694 Schleiermacher after German theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher.