Freiwirtschaft (German for "free economy") is an economic idea founded by Silvio Gesell in 1916. He called it Natürliche Wirtschaftsordnung (natural economic order). In 1932, a group of Swiss businessmen used his ideas to found WIR Bank (WIR).
Freiwirtschaft consists of three central aspects, usually summed up as The Three Fs:
- Freigeld (free money)
- Freiland (free land)
- All land is owned by public institutions and can only be rented, not purchased (see also Henry George).
- Freihandel (Free Trade)
- Free Trade has long been a mainstream position now, but the anti-globalization movement largely opposes it.
The basic economic ideas of Freiwirtschaft were published in 1890 by the Hungarian-Austrian economist Theodor Hertzka in his novel Freiland - ein soziales Zukunftsbild (Freeland - A Social Anticipation).
Flaws of the monetary system
Freiwirtschaft claims that current monetary systems are flawed. In mainstream economics, prices convey information. For example, dropping prices on a product mean that there is less demand or more supply of that product. This leads to a buyer buying more, or a seller/producer starting to sell/produce something else, thereby reducing the supply of that product. As a reaction, assuming constant desirability, the price of the product rises again. So, the price, together with the market participants, builds up a feedback loop around a stable, "ideal" price. At this stable price, the market is ideal, no one pays too much or earns too little, and there are no tendencies from either party to change that price. The "wobbling" around that ideal price is called self-stabilizing.
The key error of the current system, according to Gesell, is the ill-transported information in the price. Money is nothing but claim for goods and services, usable in the economies that accept money in exchange for the former. In a weak economy, money is worth less in goods. But instead of an inflation, the result is a deflation as described above, and less money can now buy the same goods. This feedback loop is self-destabilizing, according to the "Freiwirtschaft" theory.
- Theodor Hertzka: Freiland - ein soziales Zukunftsbild, Leipzig 1890 – Summary on the website of the Otto-Lilienthal-Museum
- Theodor Hertzka: Freeland - A Social Anticipation, St. Loyes, Bedford, June, 1891. Book online at Project Gutenberg
- Norbert Rost: Eine experimentelle Überprüfung der Aussagen der Freiwirtschaftslehre (An experimental check of the statements of the Freiwirtschaft) (diploma thesis, Dresden, 2003), p. 25 seqq.
- Helmut Creutz, Das Geld-Syndrom – Wege zu einer krisenfreien Wirtschaftsordnung. Mainz, Aachen 2004.
- Günter Bartsch, Die NWO-Bewegung Silvio Gesells – Geschichtlicher Grundriß 1891-1992/93. Gauke, Lütjenburg 1994.
- Knulp Goeke, Die verteilungspolitische Problematik der Freiwirtschaftslehre. Cologne 1961.
- Johannes Heinrichs, Sprung aus dem Teufelskreis. Sozialethische Wirtschaftstheorie Vol. I, Munich 2005.
- Hans-Joachim Werner, Geschichte der Freiwirtschaftsbewegung. 100 Jahre Kampf für eine Marktwirtschaft ohne Kapitalismus. Waxmann, Münster 1990.
- Introduction to Freiwirtschaft
- Materialien zur Geld-, Zins- und Schuldenproblematik (in German, partly English)
- Fairconomy (in German, partly English)