French Suites (Bach)

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"French Suites" redirects here. For other uses, see Suite française.

The French Suites, BWV 812–817, are six suites which Johann Sebastian Bach wrote for the clavier (harpsichord or clavichord) between the years of 1722 and 1725.[1] Although Suites 1–4 are typically dated to 1722, it is possible that the first was written somewhat earlier.[2]

The suites were later given the name 'French' (first recorded usage by Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg in 1762). Likewise, the English Suites received a later appellation. The name was popularised by Bach's biographer Johann Nikolaus Forkel, who wrote in his 1802 biography of Bach, "One usually calls them French Suites because they are written in the French manner."[3] This claim, however, is inaccurate: like Bach's other suites, they follow a largely Italian convention.[4] There is no surviving definitive manuscript of these suites, and ornamentation varies both in type and in degree across manuscripts.[5] The Courantes of the first (in D minor) and third (in B minor) suites are in the French style, the Courantes of the other four suites are all in the Italian style. In any case Bach also employed dance movements (such as the Polanaise of the Sixth suite) that are foreign to the French manner. Normally, the swift second movement after the Allemande is usually named either Courante (French style) or Corrente (Italian style), but in all these suites the second movements are named Courante, according to the Bach catalog listing, which adds to the suggestiveness that these suites are "French". Some of the manuscripts that have come down to us are titled "Suites Pour Le Clavecin", which is what probably led to the tradition of calling them "French" Suites.

Two additional suites, one in A minor (BWV 818), the other in E-flat Major (BWV 819), are linked to the familiar six in some manuscripts. The Overture in the French style, BWV 831, which Bach published as the second part of Clavier-Übung, is a suite in the French style but not connected to the French suites.[6] Some manuscripts have movements not found in other copies, which are probably spurious.

Structure[edit]

Suite No. 1 in D minor, BWV 812[edit]

  1. Allemande
  2. Courante
  3. Sarabande
  4. Menuet I/II
  5. Gigue

Suite No. 2 in C minor, BWV 813[edit]

  1. Allemande
  2. Courante
  3. Sarabande
  4. Air
  5. Menuet
  6. Menuet – Trio (in BWV 813a)
  7. Gigue

Suite No. 3 in B minor, BWV 814[edit]

  1. Allemande
  2. Courante
  3. Sarabande
  4. Anglaise – Bach originally titled this movement Gavotte (a dance type very similar to the Angloise). [7]
  5. Menuet
  6. Trio.
  7. Gigue

Suite No. 4 in E-flat major, BWV 815[edit]

  1. Allemande
  2. Courante
  3. Sarabande
  4. Gavotte
  5. Air
  6. Minuet
  7. Gigue

Suite No. 5 in G major, BWV 816[edit]

  1. Allemande
  2. Courante
  3. Sarabande
  4. Gavotte
  5. Bourrée
  6. Loure
  7. Gigue

The first few bars of this suite were written in 1722, but it was not completed until 1723.

Suite No. 6 in E major, BWV 817[edit]

  1. Allemande
  2. Courante
  3. Sarabande
  4. Gavotte
  5. Polonaise
  6. Bourrée
  7. Menuet
  8. Gigue

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Bach. The French Suites: Embellished version. Barenreiter Urtext
  2. ^ Bach. The French Suites: Embellished version. Barenreiter Urtext
  3. ^ Bach. The French Suites: Embellished version. Barenreiter Urtext
  4. ^ Christophe Rousset, notes to the recording of the French Suites, Ambroisie AMB9942
  5. ^ Bach. The French Suites: Embellished version. Barenreiter Urtext
  6. ^ Although see the discussion of French influences in Hans-Joachim Schulze, The French Influence in Bach's Instrumental Music, Early Music, 13:2, 1985 (J. S. Bach Tercentenary Issue, 180–184.
  7. ^ Bach. The French Suites: Embellished version. Barenreiter Urtext

External links[edit]