|73.8 million (2007)
338 million total (L1 plus L2 speakers) (2013)
|Latin (French alphabet)
Official language in
Numerous international organisations
|Regulated by||Académie française (French Academy)|
|ISO 639-2||fre (B)
Regions where French is the main language
Regions where it is an official language
Regions where it is a second language
Regions where it is a minority language
|Part of a series on the|
French (le français [lə fʁɑ̃sɛ] ( ) or la langue française [la lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family. It descended from the spoken Latin language of the Roman Empire, as did languages such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Romanian, Catalan and others. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Roman Gaul and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian.
French is the second-most widespread language worldwide after English, as both languages are the sole to be spoken on the 5 continents. French is an official language in 29 countries, most of which form la francophonie (in French), the community of French-speaking countries. It is spoken as a first language in France, southern Belgium, western Switzerland, Monaco, the provinces of Québec, New Brunswick and some parts of Ontario in Canada, parts of the U.S. states of Louisiana, Maine and Vermont, among educated classes in Haiti, North Africa, Lebanon and by various communities elsewhere. According to a survey of the European Commission, French is the fourth-most widely spoken mother tongue in the European Union. It is also the third-most widely understood language in the EU. As a result of French and Belgian colonialism during the 17th and 20th centuries, French was introduced to colonies in the Americas, Africa and Asia. Most second language speakers reside in Francophone Africa, in particular Gabon, Algeria, Mauritius, Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire. French is estimated to have around 73.8 million native speakers; and including native speakers, there are around 338 million people that are able to speak it. According to a demographic projection led by the Université Laval and the Réseau Démographie de l'Agence universitaire de la francophonie, total French speakers will number approximately 500 million people in 2025 and 650 million people by 2050.
It is an official language of many international organisations including the United Nations, the European Union, NATO, the WTO and the ICRC. In 2011, French was deemed by Bloomberg Businessweek to be one of the top three most useful languages for business, behind English and Chinese.
- 1 Geographic distribution
- 1.1 Europe
- 1.2 North and South America
- 1.3 Africa
- 1.4 Asia
- 1.5 Oceania and Australasia
- 2 Dialects
- 3 History
- 4 Current status and economic, cultural and institutional importance
- 5 Phonology
- 6 Writing system
- 7 Grammar
- 8 Vocabulary
- 9 Words
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes and references
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Spoken by 12% of the EU population, French is the fourth most widely spoken mother tongue in the European Union (after German, English and Italian; it is also the third most widely known language of the Union, after English and German (33% of the EU population report to know how to speak English, whilst 22% of Europeans understand German and 20% French).
Legal status in France
Under the Constitution of France, French has been the official language of the Republic since 1992 (although the ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts made it mandatory for legal documents in 1539). France mandates the use of French in official government publications, public education except in specific cases (though these dispositions are often ignored) and legal contracts; advertisements must bear a translation of foreign words.
In addition to French, a variety of regional languages and dialects are constitutionally recognised as being part of the French patrimony. France has signed the European Charter for Regional Languages, but did not ratify it since it was ruled non-compliant by the Constitutional council in 1999.
In Belgium, French is the official language of Wallonia (excluding a part of the East Cantons, which are German-speaking) and one of the two official languages—along with Dutch—of the Brussels-Capital Region, where it is spoken by the majority of the population often as their primary language. French and German are not official languages nor recognized minority languages in the Flemish Region, although along borders with the Walloon and Brussels-Capital regions, there are a dozen municipalities with language facilities for French speakers. A mirror situation exists for the Walloon Region with respect to the Dutch and German languages. In total, native French speakers make up about 40% of the country's population, while the remaining 60% speak Dutch as a first language. Of the latter, 59% claim French as a second or third language, meaning that about three quarters of the Belgian population can speak French.
French is one of the four official languages of Switzerland (along with German, Italian and Romansh) and is spoken in the western part of Switzerland called Romandie, of which Geneva is the largest city. The language divisions in Switzerland do not coincide with political subdivisions and some cantons have bilingual status for example, cities such Biel/Bienne or cantons such as Valais-Fribourg-Berne. French is the native language of about 20% of the Swiss population and is spoken by 50.4% of the population.
Most of Swiss French is mutually compatible with the standard French spoken in France, but it is often used with small differences, such as those involving numbers after 69 and slight differences in other vocabulary terms.
Catalan is the only official language of Andorra; however, French is commonly used because of the proximity to France and the fact that the French President is, with the bishop of Urgell, Spain, a co-prince of the territory. French nationals make up 7% of the population.
French is one of three official languages of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, alongside German and Luxembourgish, the natively spoken language of Luxembourg. French is primarily used for administrative purposes by the government, and is also the primary language used to converse with foreigners. Luxembourg's education system is trilingual: the first cycle of basic school is in Luxembourgish, before changing officially to German for most branches; while in secondary school, the language of instruction changes to French for most subjects, such as mathematics and science. At the Luxemborg University courses are offered in French, German and English.
French is also an official language in the small region of Aosta Valley, Italy. Though most non-Italophone people in the region speak Franco-Provençal as their mother tongue, they use standard French to write, because the international recognition of Franco-Provençal as a separate language (as opposed to a dialect or patois of French) was quite recent. In 2001, 75.41% of the Valdotainian population is French-speaking, 96.01% declared to know Italian, 55.77% the Valdotainian Franco-Provençal patois, and 50.53% all of them.
The United Kingdom and the Channel Islands
French is a large minority language and immigrant language in the United Kingdom. Over 310,000 French people live in the UK, and the language is also spoken by a large number of the African immigrants in the UK. French is also the most popular foreign language studied in UK schools. According to a 2006 European Commission report, 23% of UK residents are able to carry on a conversation in French.
Modern and Middle English reflect a mixture of Oïl and Old English lexicons after the Norman Conquest of England in 1066, when a Norman-speaking aristocracy took control of a population whose mother tongue was Germanic in origin. Due to the intertwined histories of England and continental possessions of the English Crown, many formal and legal words from Modern English have French roots. Therefore words such as buy and sell are of Germanic origin, purchase and vend are from Old French.
French is an official language in both Jersey and Guernsey. Both use French to some degree, mostly in an administrative or ceremonial capacity. Jersey Legal French is the standardized variety used in Jersey. However, Norman (in its local forms, Guernésiais and Jèrriais) is the historical vernacular of the islands.
North and South America
French is the second most common language in Canada, after English, and both are official languages at the federal level. French is the sole official language in the province of Quebec, being the mother tongue for some 7 million people, or almost 80.1% (2006 Census) of the province. About 95.0% of the people of Quebec speak French as either their first or second language, and for some as their third language. Quebec is also home to the city of Montreal, which is the world's second largest French speaking city, by number of first language speakers. New Brunswick and Manitoba are the only officially bilingual provinces, though full bilingualism is enacted only in New Brunswick, where about one third of the population is Francophone. French is also an official language of all of the territories (Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and Yukon). Out of the three, Yukon has the most French speakers, comprising just under 4% of the population. Furthermore, while French is not an official language in Ontario, the French Language Services Act ensures that provincial services are to be available in the language. The Act applies to areas of the province where there are significant Francophone communities, namely Eastern Ontario and Northern Ontario. Elsewhere, sizable French-speaking minorities are found in southern Manitoba, Nova Scotia, and the Port au Port Peninsula in Newfoundland and Labrador, where the unique Newfoundland French dialect was historically spoken. Smaller pockets of French speakers exist in all other provinces.
About 9,487,500 Canadians speak French as their first language, or around 30% of the country, with 2,065,300 constituting secondary speakers. Due to the increased bilingual school programs and French immersion classes in English Canada, the portion of Canadians proficient in French has risen significantly in the past two decades, and is still rising.
The difference between French spoken in Quebec and French spoken in France is similar in degree to that between American and British English. In Quebec, where the majority of French-speaking Canadians live, the Office québécois de la langue française (English: Quebec Board of the French language) regulates Quebec French and ensures the Charter of the French Language (Bill 101 & 104) is respected.
French is one of Haiti's two official languages. It is the principal language of writing, school instruction, and administrative use. It is spoken by all educated Haitians and is used in the business sector. It is also used in ceremonial events such as weddings, graduations and church masses. About 70%–80% of the country's population have Haitian Creole as their first language; the rest speak French as a first language. The second official language is the recently standardized Haitian Creole, which virtually the entire population of Haiti speaks. Haitian Creole is one of the French-based creole languages, drawing the large majority of its vocabulary from French, with influences from West African languages, as well as several European languages. Haitian Creole is closely related to Louisiana Creole and the creole from the Lesser Antilles.
French overseas regions and collectivities in the Americas
French is the official language in France's overseas regions of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique, and overseas collectivities of Saint Barthélemy, St. Martin and Saint Pierre and Miquelon. These overseas regions and collectivities had a population of 1,094,442 inhabitants in Jan. 2013:
- Guadeloupe: 405,739
- Martinique: 386,486
- French Guiana: 250,109
- Saint Martin: 36,703
- Saint Barthélemy: 9,343
- Saint Pierre and Miquelon: 6,062
According to the U.S. Census Bureau (2011), French is the fourth most-spoken language in the United States after English, Spanish, and Chinese, when all forms of French are considered together and all dialects of Chinese are similarly combined. French remains the second most-spoken language in the states of Louisiana, Maine, Vermont and New Hampshire.
Louisiana is home to many distinct dialects, collectively known as Louisiana French. Cajun French has the largest number of speakers, mostly living in Acadiana. According to the 2000 United States Census, there are over 194,000 people in Louisiana who speak French at home, the most of any state if Creole French is excluded. New England French, essentially a variant of Canadian French, is spoken in parts of New England. Missouri French was historically spoken in Missouri and Illinois (formerly known as Upper Louisiana), but is nearly extinct today.
The Portuguese language is heavily influenced by more than a millennium of perennial contact with several dialects of both Oïl (chiefly French after France became the major European power) and Occitan (chiefly Provençal around the troubadour apex in the Middle Ages, see Galician-Portuguese lyric), in lexicon (up to 15–20% in some estimates, at least 5000 word roots), phonology (chiefly among the European and more Europeanized Brazilian dialects) and orthography. After greater and continual Portuguese immigration, and Tupi influence, the status of French as a language of culture in the Western world for centuries and the presence of Swiss immigrants (sixth largest European group to Brazil) for a considerable span of time is popularly regarded to be the main source of difference between the group of dialects spoken in Florianópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and surrounding regions, and those elsewhere in Brazil (it was also more indirectly influenced by French due to the larger Portuguese influence there and the stronger Francophile feel in the Portuguese culture—Portuguese and French influence are often confused). The learning of French is historically the most important and has always been strong among the Lusophone high societies, and for a great span of time it was also a foreign language strong among the [middle class] general populaces of both Portugal and Brazil, only surpassed in the globalised postmodernity by English, in both, and more recently by Spanish, in the latter.
The French language was also briefly spoken in Brazil during the colonial attempts of France Antarctique and France équinoxiale at the 16th and 17th centuries respectively (the expulsing of early French colonists by the Portuguese culminated on the founding of the cities of Rio de Janeiro and São Luís respectively). Also, as mentioned above, the language was used by several communities of immigrants and expatriates in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries, chiefly Swiss, but also some French and Belgians, and the anti-Portuguese factor of Brazilian nationalism in the 19th century led to an increased use of the French language in detriment of Portuguese, as France was seen at the time as a model of civilization and progress.
A majority of the world's French-speaking population lives in Africa. According to the 2007 report by the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, an estimated 115 million African people spread across 31 Francophone countries can speak French as either a first or a second language. This number does not include the people living in non-Francophone African countries who have learned French as a foreign language. Due to the rise of French in Africa, the total French-speaking population worldwide is expected to reach 700 million people in 2050.
French is mostly a second language in Africa, but it has become a first language in some urban areas, such as the region of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire and in Libreville, Gabon. French is also becoming a first language in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. The classification of French as a second language in Francophone Africa is debatable because it is often the only language spoken and written in schools, administration, radio, television and the Internet; for many Africans, it is the only language in which they know how to read and write fluently. The following thirteen countries use French exclusively to teach school: Bénin, Burkina Faso, Centrafrique, Congo, Congo (République démocratique du), Côte d'Ivoire, Gabon, Guinée, Mali, Niger, Sénégal, Chad and Togo. The prevalence of the language is noticeable in popular music, in which French is often mixed with various indigenous languages. There is not a single African French, but multiple forms that diverged through contact with various indigenous African languages. In fact, the term African French is a misnomer, as forms are different from country to country, and the root of the French spoken in a particular country depends on its former colonial empire. French spoken in Benin, for example, is closer to that spoken in France than to French spoken in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which is chiefly derived from Belgian French.
In the territories of the Indian Ocean, the French language is often spoken alongside French-derived creole languages, the major exception being Madagascar. There, a Malayo-Polynesian language (Malagasy) is spoken alongside French.
Sub-Saharan Africa is the region where the French language is most likely to expand, because of the expansion of education and rapid population growth. It is also where the language has evolved the most in recent years. Some vernacular forms of French in Africa can be difficult to understand for French speakers from other countries, but written forms of the language are very closely related to those of the rest of the French-speaking world.
French is an official language in the following African countries, most of them former French or Belgian colonies:
In addition, French is an administrative language and widely used, though not on an official basis, in Mauritius, where approximately 78% of the population speak French. French is also spoken in the Maghreb states:
- Algeria (see also languages of Algeria)
- Mauritania (see also languages of Mauritania)
- Morocco (see also languages of Morocco)
- Tunisia (see also languages of Tunisia)
Most urban Algerians have some working knowledge of French, and a high (though unknown) percentage speak it fluently (as much as around 70-80%). However, because of the country's colonial past, the predominance of French has long been politically problematic.
Numerous reforms have been implemented in recent decades to improve the status of both Arabic and, in recent years to a much minor degree, Tamazight in relation to French, especially in education. For this reason, although Algeria is certainly one of the most Francophone of countries in the world outside of France, and has perhaps the second largest number of French speakers, it does not participate in the Francophonie association.
The official language in Egypt is literary Arabic, and it is mandatory in all schools. While English is the most commonly used second language in Egypt, French is known by some Egyptians. Many Egyptians learn English and French in addition to Arabic. Private schools have either English or French as the main language of instruction. Egypt participates in the Francophonie. There are two French-speaking universities in the country, the Université Française d'Égypte and the Université Senghor.
French overseas departments and territories in Africa
French was the official language of the colony of French Indochina, comprising modern-day Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. It continues to be an administrative language in Laos and Cambodia, although its influence has waned in recent years. In colonial Vietnam, the elites primarily spoke French, while many servants who worked in French households spoke a French pidgin known as "Tây Bồi" (now extinct). After French rule ended, South Vietnam continued to use French in administration, education, and trade. Since the Fall of Saigon and the opening of a unified Vietnam's economy, French has gradually been effectively displaced as the main foreign language of choice by English. French nevertheless maintains its colonial legacy by being spoken as a second language by the elderly and elite populations and is presently being revived in higher education and continues to be a diplomatic language in Vietnam.
A former French colony, Lebanon designates Arabic as the sole official language, while a special law regulates cases when French can be publicly used. French is widely used as a second language by the Lebanese, and is taught in many schools as a secondary language along with Arabic and English. The language is also used on bank notes, on road signs, and on official buildings (alongside Arabic). Similarly, Syria was also a French colony until 1943, but the French language is largely extinct in the country and is only limited to some members of the elite and middle classes. A significant French-speaking community is also present in Israel, primarily among the community of Maghrebi Jews, and many secondary schools offer French as a foreign language. The United Arab Emirates has joined the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie as an observer, and Qatar has joined as a "member-state". However, in both countries French is not spoken by almost any of the general population or migrant workers, but spoken by a small minority of those who invest in Francophone countries or have other financial or family ties. Their entrance into the organisation was aided a good deal by their investments into the Organisation and France itself.
French has de jure official status in the Indian union territory of Puducherry (formerly Pondicherry) along with the native languages of Tamil, Telugu, and Malayalam. However at the district level, French is only official in the districts of Pondicherry and Mahé, while the other two districts of the territory designate local languages as official. Furthermore, according to the French Institute of Pondicherry, French is "very little spoken" in Puducherry, with only about 1% of the territory's population being able to speak the language. (See also: French India)
Oceania and Australasia
French is an official language of the Pacific Island nation of Vanuatu where 45% of the population can speak French. In the French special collectivity of New Caledonia, 97% of the population can speak, read and write French, whereas only 1% have no knowledge of French. In French Polynesia, 95% of the population can speak, read and write French, whereas only 2% have no knowledge of French. In the French collectivity of Wallis and Futuna, 78% of the population can speak, read and write French, whereas 17% have no knowledge of French.
- Acadian French
- African French including sub-branch Maghreb French (North African French)
- Aostan French
- Belgian French
- Cambodian French
- Canadian French
- Guyanese French
- Haitian French
- Indian French
- Jersey Legal French
- Lao French
- Louisiana French
- Meridional French
- Metropolitan French
- Missouri French
- New Caledonian French
- Newfoundland French
- New England French
- Quebec French
- South East Asian French
- Swiss French
- Vietnamese French
- West Indian French
French replaced Latin as the most important language of diplomacy and international relations in the 17th century. It retained this role until approximately the middle of the 20th century, when it was replaced by English as the United States became the dominant global power following the Second World War. Stanley Meisler of the Los Angeles Times said that the fact that the Treaty of Versailles was also written in English as well as French was the "first diplomatic blow" against the language.
Current status and economic, cultural and institutional importance
French remains one of the most important diplomatic languages, with the language being one of the working languages of NATO, the International Olympic Committee, the UN Secretariat, the Council of Europe, the International Court of Justice, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization of American States, European Commission, the Eurovision Song Contest the European Space Agency, World Trade Organisation and the North American Free Trade Agreement. It is also a working language in nonprofit organisations such as the Red Cross, Amnesty International, Médecins sans Frontières, or Médecins du Monde.
In 1997, George Werber published in Language Today a comprehensive academic study entitled "The World's 10 most influencial languages" (he then reassessed his article in 2008, and concluded that his findings were still correct since "the situation among the top ten remains unchanged"). In his article, Werber ranked French as being the second - after English - most influential language of the world, ahead of Spanish. His criteria were not solely the numbers of native speakers, but also included the number of secondary speakers (which tends to be specially high for French among fellow world languages); the economic power of the countries using the language; the number of major areas in which the language is used; the number of countries using the language, and their respective population; and the linguistic prestige associated with the mastery of the language (Werber highlighted in particular that French benefits from a considerable linguistic prestige).
French is widely considered to be a crucial skill for business owners in the United Kingdom, as a 2014 study found that half of the British managers considered French to be a valuable asset for their business, thus ranking French as the most-sought after foreign language there, ahead of German (49%) and Spanish (44%).
Although there are many French regional accents, foreign learners normally use only one variety of the language.
- There are a maximum of 17 vowels in French, not all of which are used in every dialect: /a/, /ɑ/, /e/, /ɛ/, /ɛː/, /ə/, /i/, /o/, /ɔ/, /y/, /u/, /œ/, /ø/, plus the nasalized vowels /ɑ̃/, /ɛ̃/, /ɔ̃/ and /œ̃/. In France, the vowels /ɑ/, /ɛː/ and /œ̃/ are tending to be replaced by /a/, /ɛ/ and /ɛ̃/ in many people's speech, but the distinction of /ɛ̃/ and /œ̃/ is present in Meridional French. In Quebec and Belgian French, the vowels /ɑ/, /ə/, /ɛː/ and /œ̃/ are present.
- Voiced stops (i.e., /b, d, ɡ/) are typically produced fully voiced throughout.
- Voiceless stops (i.e., /p, t, k/) are unaspirated.
- Nasals: The velar nasal /ŋ/ can occur in final position in borrowed (usually English) words: parking, camping, swing. The palatal nasal /ɲ/ can occur in word initial position (e.g., gnon), but it is most frequently found in intervocalic, onset position or word-finally (e.g., montagne).
- Fricatives: French has three pairs of homorganic fricatives distinguished by voicing, i.e., labiodental /f/~/v/, dental /s/~/z/, and palato-alveolar /ʃ/~/ʒ/. Notice that /s/~/z/ are dental, like the plosives /t/~/d/ and the nasal /n/.
- French has one rhotic whose pronunciation varies considerably among speakers and phonetic contexts. In general, it is described as a voiced uvular fricative, as in [ʁu] roue, "wheel". Vowels are often lengthened before this segment. It can be reduced to an approximant, particularly in final position (e.g., fort), or reduced to zero in some word-final positions. For other speakers, a uvular trill is also common, and an apical trill [r] occurs in some dialects.
- Lateral and central approximants: The lateral approximant /l/ is unvelarised in both onset (lire) and coda position (il). In the onset, the central approximants [w], [ɥ], and [j] each correspond to a high vowel, /u/, /y/, and /i/ respectively. There are a few minimal pairs where the approximant and corresponding vowel contrast, but there are also many cases where they are in free variation. Contrasts between /j/ and /i/ occur in final position as in /pɛj/ paye, "pay", vs. /pɛi/ pays, "country".
French pronunciation follows strict rules based on spelling, but French spelling is often based more on history than phonology. The rules for pronunciation vary between dialects, but the standard rules are:
- final consonants: Final single consonants, in particular s, x, z, t, d, n, p and g are normally silent. (A consonant is considered "final" when no vowel follows it even if one or more consonants follow it.) The final letters f, k, q, and l, however, are normally pronounced. The final c is sometimes pronounced like in bac, sac, roc but can also be silent like in blanc or estomac. The final r is usually silent when it follows an e in a word of two or more syllables, but it is pronounced in some words (hiver, super, cancer etc.).
- When the following word begins with a vowel, however, a silent consonant may once again be pronounced, to provide a liaison or "link" between the two words. Some liaisons are mandatory, for example the s in les amants or vous avez; some are optional, depending on dialect and register, for example, the first s in deux cents euros or euros irlandais; and some are forbidden, for example, the s in beaucoup d'hommes aiment. The t of et is never pronounced and the silent final consonant of a noun is only pronounced in the plural and in set phrases like pied-à-terre.
- Doubling a final n and adding a silent e at the end of a word (e.g., chien → chienne) makes it clearly pronounced. Doubling a final l and adding a silent e (e.g., gentil → gentille) adds a [j] sound if the l is preceded by the letter i.
- elision or vowel dropping: Some monosyllabic function words ending in a or e, such as je and que, drop their final vowel when placed before a word that begins with a vowel sound (thus avoiding a hiatus). The missing vowel is replaced by an apostrophe. (e.g., je ai is instead pronounced and spelled → j'ai). This gives, for example, the same pronunciation for l'homme qu'il a vu ("the man whom he saw") and l'homme qui l'a vu ("the man who saw him"). However, for Belgian French the sentences are pronounced differently; in the first sentence the syllable break is as "qu'il-a", while the second breaks as "qui-l'a". It can also be noted that, in Quebec French, the second example (l'homme qui l'a vu) is more emphasized on l'a vu.
There are two ligatures, "œ" and "æ".
French spelling, like English spelling, tends to preserve obsolete pronunciation rules. This is mainly due to extreme phonetic changes since the Old French period, without a corresponding change in spelling (see Vocabulary below). Moreover, some conscious changes were made to restore Latin orthography:
- Old French doit > French doigt "finger" (Latin digitus)
- Old French pie > French pied "foot" [Latin pes (stem: ped-)]
As a result, it can be difficult to predict the spelling of a word based on the sound. Final consonants are generally silent, except when the following word begins with a vowel (see Liaison (French)). For example, the following words end in a vowel sound: pied, aller, les, finit, beaux. The same words followed by a vowel, however, may sound the consonants, as they do in these examples: beaux-arts, les amis, pied-à-terre.
On the other hand, a given spelling usually leads to a predictable sound. In particular, a given vowel combination or diacritic predictably leads to one phoneme.
French writing, as with any language, is affected by the spoken language. In Old French, the plural for animal was animals. The /als/ sequence was unstable and was turned into a diphthong /aus/. This change was then reflected in the orthography: animaus. The us ending, very common in Latin, was then abbreviated by copyists (monks) by the letter x, resulting in a written form animax. As the French language further evolved, the pronunciation of au turned into /o/ so that the u was reestablished in orthography for consistency, resulting in modern French animaux (pronounced first /animos/ before the final /s/ was dropped in contemporary French). The same is true for cheval pluralized as chevaux and many others. In addition, castel pl. castels became château pl. châteaux
- Nasal: n and m. When n or m follows a vowel or diphthong, the n or m becomes silent and causes the preceding vowel to become nasalized (i.e., pronounced with the soft palate extended downward so as to allow part of the air to leave through the nostrils). Exceptions are when the n or m is doubled, or immediately followed by a vowel. The prefixes en- and em- are always nasalized. The rules are more complex than this but may vary between dialects.
- Digraphs: French uses not only diacritics to specify its large range of vowel sounds and diphthongs, but also specific combinations of vowels, sometimes with following consonants, to show which sound is intended.
- Gemination: Within words, double consonants are generally not pronounced as geminates in modern French (but geminates can be heard in the cinema or TV news from as recently as the 1970s, and in very refined elocution they may still occur). For example, illusion is pronounced [ilyzjɔ̃] and not [ilːyzjɔ̃]. But gemination does occur between words. For example, une info ("a news item" or "a piece of information") is pronounced [ynɛ̃fo], whereas une nympho ("a nymphomaniac") is pronounced [ynːɛ̃fo].
- Accents are used sometimes for pronunciation, sometimes to distinguish similar words, and sometimes for etymology alone.
- Accents that affect pronunciation
- The acute accent (l'accent aigu) é (e.g., école—school) means that the vowel is pronounced /e/ instead of the default /ə/.
- The grave accent (l'accent grave) è (e.g., élève—pupil) means that the vowel is pronounced /ɛ/ instead of the default /ə/.
- The circumflex (l'accent circonflexe) ê (e.g. forêt—forest) shows that an e is pronounced /ɛ/ and that an ô is pronounced /o/. In standard French, it also signifies a pronunciation of /ɑ/ for the letter â, but this differentiation is disappearing. In the late 19th century, the circumflex was used in place of s after a vowel, where that letter s was not pronounced. Thus, forest became forêt and hospital became hôpital.
- The diaeresis (le tréma) (e.g., naïf—naive, Noël—Christmas) as in English, specifies that this vowel is pronounced separately from the preceding one, not combined, and is not a schwa.
- The cedilla (la cédille) ç (e.g., garçon—boy) means that the letter ç is pronounced /s/ in front of the back vowels a, o and u (c is otherwise /k/ before a back vowel). C is always pronounced /s/ in front of the front vowels e, i, and y, thus ç is never found in front of front vowels.
- Accents with no pronunciation effect
- The circumflex does not affect the pronunciation of the letters i or u and, in most dialects, a as well. It usually indicates that an s came after it long ago, as in île (isle, compare with English island). The explanation is that some words share the same orthography, so the circumflex is put here to mark the difference between the two words. For example, dites (you say) / dîtes (you said), or even du (of the) / dû (past for the verb devoir = must, have to, owe; in this case, the circumflex disappears in the plural and the feminine).
- All other accents are used only to distinguish similar words, as in the case of distinguishing the adverbs là and où ("there", "where") from the article la ("the" feminine singular) and the conjunction ou ("or"), respectively.
- Accents that affect pronunciation
French grammar shares several notable features with most other Romance languages, including
- the loss of Latin's declensions
- only two grammatical genders
- the development of grammatical articles from Latin demonstratives
- new tenses formed from auxiliaries
French declarative word order is subject–verb–object although a pronoun object precedes the verb. Some types of sentences allow for or require different word orders, in particular inversion of the subject and verb like "Parlez-vous français?" when asking a question rather than just "Vous parlez français?" Both questions mean the same thing, however, a rising inflection is always used on both of them whenever asking a question, especially on the second one. Specifically, the first translates into "Do you speak French?" while the second one is literally just "You speak French?" To avoid inversion while asking a question, 'Est-ce que' (literally 'is it that') may be placed in the beginning of the sentence. "Parlez-vous français?" may become "Est-ce que vous parlez français?"
The majority of French words derive from Vulgar Latin or were constructed from Latin or Greek roots. In many cases a single etymological root appears in French in a "popular" or native form, inherited from Vulgar Latin, and a learned form, borrowed later from Classical Latin. The following pairs consist of a native noun and a learned adjective:
- brother: frère / fraternel from Latin frater / fraternalis
- finger: doigt / digital from Latin digitus / digitalis
- faith: foi / fidèle from Latin fides / fidelis
- eye: œil / oculaire from Latin oculus / ocularis
However a historical tendency to gallicise Latin roots can be identified, whereas English conversely leans towards a more direct incorporation of the Latin:
- rayonnement / radiation
- éteindre / extinguish
- noyau / nucleus
- surhomme / superman
- ensoleillement / insolation
There are also noun-noun and adjective-adjective pairs:
It can be difficult to identify the Latin source of native French words, because in the evolution from Vulgar Latin, unstressed syllables were severely reduced and the remaining vowels and consonants underwent significant modifications.
More recently the linguistic policy of the French language academies of France and Quebec has been to provide French equivalents to (mainly English) imported words, either by using existing vocabulary, extending its meaning or deriving a new word according to French morphological rules. The result is often two (or more) co-existing terms for describing the same phenomenon, with varying rates of success for the French equivalent.
- mercatique / marketing
- finance fantôme / shadow banking
- bloc-notes / blog
- ailière / wingsuit
- tiers-lieu / coworking
It is estimated that 12% (4,200) of common French words found in a typical dictionary such as the Petit Larousse or Micro-Robert Plus (35,000 words) are of foreign origin (where Greek and Latin learned words are not seen as foreign). About 25% (1,054) of these foreign words come from English and are fairly recent borrowings. The others are some 707 words from Italian, 550 from ancient Germanic languages, 481 from other Gallo-Romance languages, 215 from Arabic, 164 from German, 160 from Celtic languages, 159 from Spanish, 153 from Dutch, 112 from Persian and Sanskrit, 101 from Native American languages, 89 from other Asian languages, 56 from other Afro-Asiatic languages, 55 from Slavic languages and Baltic languages, 10 from Basque and 144 (about 3%) from other languages.
The French word for 80 is quatre-vingts, literally "four twenties", and the word for 75 is soixante-quinze, literally "sixty-fifteen". This reform arose after the French Revolution to unify the different counting systems (mostly vigesimal near the coast, because of Celtic (via Breton) and Viking influences).
This system is comparable to the archaic English use of score, as in "fourscore and seven" (87), or "threescore and ten" (70).
In Old French (during the Middle Ages), all numbers from 30 to 99 could be said in either base 10 or base 20, e.g. vint et doze (twenty and twelve) for 32, dous vinz et diz (two twenties and ten) for 50, uitante for 80, or nonante for 90.
In Belgium and Switzerland 70 and 90 are septante and nonante. In Switzerland, depending on the local dialect, 80 can be quatre-vingts (Geneva, Neuchâtel, Jura) or huitante (Vaud, Valais, Fribourg). Octante had been used in Switzerland in the past, but is now considered archaic. In Belgium and in its former African colonies, however, quatre-vingts is universally used.
It should also be noted that French, like most European languages, uses a space to separate thousands where English uses a comma or (more recently) a space. The comma is used in French numbers as a decimal point: 2,5 = deux virgule cinq.
Cardinal numbers in French, from 1 to 20, are as follows:
- One: un/une /œ̃/ (m) ~ /yn/ (f)
- Two: deux /dø/
- Three: trois /tʁwɑ/
- Four: quatre /katʁ/
- Five: cinq /sɛ̃k/
- Six: six /sis/
- Seven: sept /sɛt/
- Eight: huit /ɥit/
- Nine: neuf[a] /nœf/
- Ten: dix /dis/
- Eleven: onze /ɔ̃z/
- Twelve: douze /duz/
- Thirteen: treize /tʁɛz/
- Fourteen: quatorze /katɔʁz/
- Fifteen: quinze /kɛ̃z/
- Sixteen: seize /sɛz/
- Seventeen: dix-sept /dissɛt/
- Eighteen: dix-huit /diz‿ɥit/
- Nineteen: dix-neuf /diznœf/
- Twenty: vingt /vɛ̃/
After Twenty, numbers use base ten logic (vingt et un, vingt-deux, vingt-trois...)
Cardinal numbers in French, by tens from 10 to 100, are as follow:
- Ten: dix /dis/
- Twenty: vingt /vɛ̃/
- Thirty: trente /tʁɑ̃t/
- Forty: quarante /ka.ʁɑ̃t/
- Fifty: cinquante /sɛ̃.kɑ̃t/
- Sixty: soixante /swa.sɑ̃t/
- Seventy: soixante-dix /swa.sɑ̃t.dis/ or septante[b] /sɛp.tɑ̃t/
- Eighty: quatre-vingts /ka.tʁɘ.vɛ̃/, huitante[c] or octante[d] /ɔk.tɑ̃t/
- Ninety: quatre-vingt-dix /kat.ʁvɛ̃.dis/ or nonante[e] /nɔ.nɑ̃t/
- One hundred: cent /sɑ̃(t)/
After Twenty, numbers use base ten logic (cent dix, cent vingt, cent trente...)
Cardinal numbers in French, by hundreds from 100 to 2000, are as follow:
- One hundred: cent /sɑ̃(t)/
- Two hundreds: deux cents
- Three hundreds: trois cents, (Archaism: quinze-vingts)
- Four hundreds: quatre cents
- Five hundreds: cinq cents
- Six hundreds: six cents
- Seven hundreds: sept cents
- Eight hundreds: huit cents
- Nine hundreds: neuf cents
- One thousand: mille[f]
- One thousand one hundred: onze cents or mille cent[g]
- One thousand two hundreds: douze cents or mille deux cents[g]
- One thousand three hundreds: treize cents or mille trois cents[g]
- One thousand four hundreds: quatorze cents or mille quatre cents[g]
- One thousand five hundreds: quinze cents or mille cinq cents[g]
- One thousand six hundreds: seize cents or mille six cents[g]
- One thousand seven hundreds: dix-sept cents or mille sept cents
- One thousand eight hundreds: dix-huit cents or mille huit cents
- One thousand nine hundreds: dix-neuf cents or mille neuf cents
- Two thousands: deux mille
After deux mille (2000), only the second option is used (deux mille cent, deux mille deux cents, deux mille trois cents...)
Nota Bene: The words vingt and cent take the plural -s only when they are the last word of the number: quatre-vingts (eighty) and quatre-vingt-un (eighty-one), cinq cents (five hundreds) and cinq cent trente (five hundreds and thirty). When a number using vingt or cent is used as an ordinal numeral adjective, the words vingt or cent stay unchanged
Cardinal numbers in French, by exponentiation points, from 100 to 1020, are as follow:
- One: un/une /œ̃/ (m) ~ /yn/ (f)
- Ten: dix /dis/
- One hundred: cent /sɑ̃(t)/
- One thousand: mille /mil/
- Ten thousands: dix mille
- Hundred thousand: cent mille
- One million: un million /mi.ljɔ̃/
- Ten millions: dix millions
- Hundred millions: cent millions
- One billion: un milliard
- Ten billion: dix milliards
- Hundred billion: cent milliards
- One trillion: un billion /bi.ljɔ̃/
- Ten trillion: dix billions
- Hundred trillion: cent billions
- One quadrillion: un billiard
- Ten quadrillion: dix billiards
- Hundred quadrillion: cent billiards
- One quintillion: un trillion
- Ten quintillion: dix trillions
- Hundred quintillion: cent trillions
- It has been suggested that Nine and New homophonographs are related and that it would be an unusual preservation of the octal number system speculated to be formerly used in proto-Indo-European language, though the evidence supporting this is slim.
- Septante is used in Belgium and in Switzerland. Its use is dated in Eastern France and archaic elsewhere in France.
- Huitante is used in Vaud, Valais, Fribourg, archaic in France.
- Octante is used, but dated, in Romandie, in French Canada and in Southern France. Its use is archaic in other parts of France.
- Nonante is used in Belgium, Switzerland and, dated, in Eastern France, archaic in other parts of France.
- Formerly singular of the now invariable mille, mil is now only used in formal documents to write dates between mil un (1001) and mil neuf cent quatre-vingt-dix-neuf (1999).
- While both styles are correct and concurrently used, numbers above mille and under deux mille are usually counted by hundreds from onze cents up to seize cent quatre-vingt-dix-neuf and are then indifferently counted both styles in informal language while the count by adding hundreds to one thousand, like in mille cent, mille six cents, is favoured in written language, especially in juridical, administrative and scientific works.
- Nota Bene that English use the short scale while French use the long scale.
|English||French||Quebec accent||Touraine accent|
|French||Français (people) or français (language)||[fʁ̥ãsɛ]||[fʁ̥ɒ̃sɛ]|
|English||Anglais (people) or anglais (language)||[ãɡlɛ]||[ɒ̃ɡlɛ]|
|Yes||Oui (si when countering an assertion or a question expressed in the negative)||[wi]||[wi]|
|Hello!||Bonjour ! (formal) or Salut ! (informal) or "Allô" (Quebec French or when answering on the telephone)||[bõʒuːʁ]||[bõʒuʁ]|
|Good evening!||Bonsoir !||[bõswɑːʁ]||[bõswaʁ]|
|Good night!||Bonne nuit !||[bɔn nɥi]||[bʌn nɥi]|
|Goodbye!||Au revoir !||[ɔʁvwɑːʁ]||[oʁ(ø)vwaʁ]|
|Have a nice day!||Bonne journée !||[bɔn ʒuʁne]||[bʌn ʒuʁne]|
|Please/if you please||S’il vous plaît (formal) or S’il te plaît (informal)||[sɪl vu plɛ]||[sil vu plɛ]|
|You are welcome||De rien (informal) or Ce n’est rien (informal) ("it is nothing") or Je vous en prie (formal) or Je t’en prie (informal) or Bienvenue (Quebec)||[də ʁjẽ]||[dœ ʁjæ̃]|
|I am sorry||Pardon or Désolé or Je suis désolé (if male) / Je suis désolée (if female) or Excuse-moi (informal) / Excusez-moi (formal) / "Je regrette"||[paʁdɒ̃] / [dezɔle]||[paʁdõ] / [dezɔle]|
|What?||Quoi ? (←informal; used as "What?" in English) or Pardon ? (←formal; used the same as "Pardon ?" in English)||[kwa]||[kwa]|
|What is your name?||Comment vous appelez-vous ? (formal) or Comment t’appelles-tu ? (informal)||[kɔmã vu z‿aple vu], [kɔmã t‿apɛl t͡sy]||[kɔmɒ̃ vu z‿aple vu], [kɔmɒ̃ t‿apɛl t͡sy]|
|My name is...||Je m'appelle...||[ʒø mapɛl]|
|Because||Parce que / Car||[paʁ̥skœ]||[paʁ̥s(ø)kø]|
|Because of||À cause de||[a kou̯z dœ]||[a koz dø]|
|How much?||Combien ?||[kõbjẽ]||[kõbjæ̃]|
|I do not understand.||Je ne comprends pas.||[ʒœ nœ kõpʁ̥ã pɔ]||[ʒø nø kõpʁ̥ɒ̃ pa]|
|Yes, I understand.||Oui, je comprends. Except when responding to a negatively posed question, in which case Si is used preferentially over Oui||[wi ʒœ kõpʁ̥ã]||[wi ʒø kõpʁ̥ɒ̃]|
|I agree||Je suis d’accord. "D’accord" can be used without je suis.||[ʒə sɥi dakɑɔ̯ʁ]||[ʒø sɥi dakɔʁ]|
|Help!||Au secours ! (à l’aide !)||[o skuːʁ]||[o søkuːʁ]|
|At what time...?||À quelle heure...?||[a kɛl aœ̯ʁ]||[a kɛl œʁ]|
|Can you help me, please?||Pouvez-vous m’aider s’il vous plaît ? / Pourriez-vous m’aider s’il vous plaît ? (formal) or Peux-tu m’aider s’il te plaît ? / Pourrais-tu m’aider s’il te plaît (informal)||[puve vu mɛːde sɪl vu plɛ]||[puve vu mede sil vu plɛ]|
|Where are the toilets?||Où sont les toilettes ?||[u sõ le twalɛt]||[u sõ le twalɛt]|
|Do you speak English?||Parlez-vous (l')anglais ? / Est-ce que vous parlez (l')anglais ?||[ɛs kœ vu paʁle lãɡlɛ]||[paʁle vu ɒ̃ɡlɛ]|
|I do not speak French.||Je ne parle pas français.||[ʒœ nœ paʁl pɔ fʁãsɛ]||[ʒø nø paʁl pa fʁɒ̃sɛ]|
|I do not know.||Je sais pas. (syntax mistake and over-familiar)
Je ne sais pas.
Je ne sais. (formal)
| [ʒœ se pɔ]
[ʒœ n(œ) se pɔ]
[ʒœ n(œ) se]
|[ʒø sɛ pa]
[ʒø n(ø) sɛ pa]
[ʒø n(ø) sɛ]
|I know.||Je sais.||[ʒœ se]||[ʒø sɛ]|
|I am thirsty.||J’ai soif. (literally, "I have thirst")||[ʒe swaf]||[ʒe swaf]|
|I am hungry.||J’ai faim. (literally, "I have hunger")||[ʒe fẽ]||[ʒɛ fæ̃]|
|How are you? / How are things going? / How is everything?||Comment allez-vous ? (formal) or Ça va ? / Comment ça va ? (informal)||[kɔmã t‿ale vu]||[kɔmɒ̃ t‿ale vu]|
|I am (very) well / Things are going (very) well // Everything is (very) well||Je vais (très) bien (formal) or Ça va (très) bien. / Tout va (très) bien (informal)||[ʒœ vɛ (tʁɛ) bjẽ]||[ʒø vɛ (tʁɛ) bjæ̃]|
|I am (very) bad / Things are (very) bad / Everything is (very) bad||Je vais (très) mal (formal) or Ça va (très) mal / Tout va (très) mal (informal)||[ʒœ vɛ (tʁɛ) mal]||[ʒø vɛ (tʁɛ) mal]|
|I am all right/so-so / Everything is all right/so-so||Assez bien or Ça va comme ci, comme ça or simply Ça va.. (Sometimes said: « Couci, couça. », informal: "bof") i.e. « Comme ci, comme ça. »)||[ase bjẽ]||[ase bjæ̃]|
|I am fine.||Ça va bien.||[sa vɔ bjẽ]||[sa va bjæ̃]|
|(How) may I help you? / Do you need help? / We need help!||(Comment) puis-je vous aider ? Avez-vous besoin d'aide ? Nous avons besoin d'aide !||[(kɔmã) pɥiʒ vu z‿ɛːde]||[(kɔmɑ̃) pɥiʒ vu z‿ede]|
- Alliance Française
- Français fondamental
- French language in the United States
- French AZERTY keyboard
- French proverbs
- Language education
- List of countries where French is an official language
- List of English words of French origin
- List of French loanwords in Persian
- List of French words and phrases used by English speakers
- Official bilingualism in Canada
Notes and references
- Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2007" The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007
- La Francophonie.
- European Commission (August 2011), Europeans and their Languages, Special Eurobarometer 386 (Europa): 5, retrieved 7 September 2014
- Frequently Asked Questions - European Commission
- (French) La Francophonie dans le monde 2006–2007 published by the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Nathan, Paris, 2007.
- "Agora: La francophonie de demain". Retrieved 13 June 2011.
- Mandarin Chinese Most Useful Business Language After English John Lauerman, Aug 30, 2011, Bloomberg News
- (French) Loi constitutionnelle 1992 – C'est à la loi constitutionnelle du 25 juin 1992, rédigée dans le cadre de l'intégration européenne, que l'on doit la première déclaration de principe sur le français, langue de la République.
- 99-412 DC (Conseil constitutionnel 15 June 1999). Has decided as follows: ↲ Article 1 ↲ The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages contains clauses contrary to the Constitution.
- The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages and Education Mercator Retrieved 11 April 2011
- Van Parijs, Philippe, Professor of economic and social ethics at the UCLouvain, Visiting Professor at Harvard University and the KULeuven. "Belgium's new linguistic challenge" (pdf 0.7 MB). KVS Express (supplement to newspaper De Morgen) March–April 2006: Article from original source (pdf 4.9 MB) pages 34–36 republished by the Belgian Federal Government Service (ministry) of Economy – Directorate–general Statistics Belgium. Retrieved 5 May 2007. – The linguistic situation in Belgium (and in particular various estimations of the population speaking French and Dutch in Brussels) is discussed in detail.
- (French) De Broe ME, De Weerdt DL, Ysebaert DK, Vercauteren SR, De Greef KE, De Broe LC; Victor Ginsburgh, Shlomo Weber (June 2006). "La dynamique des langues en Belgique" (PDF). Regards économiques, Publication préparée par les économistes de l'Université Catholique de Louvain 19 (Numéro 42): 282–9. doi:10.1159/000013462. PMID 10213829. Retrieved 7 May 2007. "Les enquêtes montrent que la Flandre est bien plus multilingue, ce qui est sans doute un fait bien connu, mais la différence est considérable : alors que 59 % et 53 % des Flamands connaissent le français ou l'anglais respectivement, seulement 19 % et 17 % des Wallons connaissent le néerlandais ou l'anglais. ... 95 pour cent des Bruxellois déclarent parler le français, alors que ce pourcentage tombe à 59 pour cent pour le néerlandais. Quant à l’anglais, il est connu par une proportion importante de la population à Bruxelles (41 pour cent)"
- Le français et les langues ... – Google Books. Books.google.com. 1 January 2007. ISBN 978-2-87747-881-6. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
- EUROPA, data for EU25, published before 2007 enlargement.
- "Ministère de l’Éducation nationale et de la Formation professionnelle / Luxembourg - Quelles langues apprend-on à l'école luxembourgeoise ?". Men.public.lu. 2012-10-25. Retrieved 2013-05-25.
- "University of Luxembourg - Multilingualism". N.uni.lu. 2003-08-12. Retrieved 2013-05-25.
- "Vda.it". Regione.vda.it. Retrieved 21 April 2010.[dead link]
- Assessorat de l'éducation et la culture de la région autonome Vallée d'Aoste - Département de la surintendance des écoles, Profil de la politique linguistique éducative, Le Château éd., 2009, p. 20.
- "EUROPA" (PDF). Retrieved 21 April 2010.
- "Detailed Mother Tongue (186), Knowledge of Official Languages (5), Age Groups (17A) and Sex (3) (2006 Census)". 2.statcan.ca. December 7, 2010. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
- "Qu'est-ce Que La Francophonie". Tlfq.ulaval.ca. Retrieved 2013-05-25.
- Ministere de L'eduaction Nationale
- Language Use in the United States: 2011, American Community Survey Reports, Camille Ryan, Issued August 2013
- U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 Summary File 3 – Language Spoken at Home: 2000.
- Ammon, Ulrich; International Sociological Association (1989). Status and Function of Languages and Language Varieties. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 306–308. ISBN 0-89925-356-3. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
- (Portuguese) Exhibition at the Museum of the Portuguese Language shows the French influence in our language
- (Portuguese) Contacts between French and Portuguese or the first's influences on the second
- (Portuguese) The influence of loanwords in the Portuguese language: a process of globalization, ideology and communication
- (Portuguese) Dialects of Brazil: the palatalization of the phonemes /t/ and /d/
- (Portuguese) The importance of the French language in Brazil: marks and milestones in the early periods of teaching
- (Portuguese) Presence of the French language and literature in Brazil – for a history of Franco-Brazilian bonds of cultural affection
- (Portuguese) What are the French thinking influences still present in Brazil?
- (Portuguese) France in Brazil Year – the importance of cultural diplomacy
- Barbosa, Rosana (2009). Immigration and Xenophobia: Portuguese Immigrants in Early 19th Century Rio de Janeiro. United States: University Press of America. ISBN 978-0-7618-4147-0., p. 19
- Population Reference Bureau. "2014 World Population Data Sheet" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-08-12.
- United Nations. "World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision" (XLS). Retrieved 2013-09-12.
- "Agora: La francophonie de demain". Retrieved 2011-06-13.
- "Bulletin de liaison du réseau démographie". Retrieved 2011-06-14.
- "French language growing, especially in Africa - Francophonie - RFI". Retrieved 2013-05-25.
- (French) Le français à Abidjan : Pour une approche syntaxique du non-standard by Katja Ploog, CNRS Editions, Paris, 2002.
- "L’aménagement linguistique dans le monde". CEFAN (Chaire pour le développement de la recherche sur la culture d’expression française en Amérique du Nord, Université Laval (in French). Jacques Leclerc. Retrieved May 19, 2013.
- fr:Burkina Faso#Le français langue officielle et administrative
- (French) "En Afrique, il est impossible de parler d'une forme unique du français mais..."
- France-Diplomatie "Furthermore, the demographic growth of Southern hemisphere countries leads us to anticipate a new increase in the overall number of French speakers."
- (French) "Le français, langue en évolution. Dans beaucoup de pays francophones, surtout sur le continent africain, une proportion importante de la population ne parle pas couramment le français (même s'il est souvent la langue officielle du pays). Ce qui signifie qu'au fur et à mesure que les nouvelles générations vont à l'école, le nombre de francophones augmente : on estime qu'en 2015, ceux-ci seront deux fois plus nombreux qu'aujourd'hui."
- (French) c) Le sabir franco-africain: "C'est la variété du français la plus fluctuante. Le sabir franco-africain est instable et hétérogène sous toutes ses formes. Il existe des énoncés où les mots sont français mais leur ordre reste celui de la langue africaine. En somme, autant les langues africaines sont envahies par les structures et les mots français, autant la langue française se métamorphose en Afrique, donnant naissance à plusieurs variétés."
- (French) République centrafricaine: Il existe une autre variété de français, beaucoup plus répandue et plus permissive : le français local. C'est un français très influencé par les langues centrafricaines, surtout par le sango. Cette variété est parlée par les classes non instruites, qui n'ont pu terminer leur scolarité. Ils utilisent ce qu'ils connaissent du français avec des emprunts massifs aux langues locales. Cette variété peut causer des problèmes de compréhension avec les francophones des autres pays, car les interférences linguistiques, d'ordre lexical et sémantique, sont très importantes. (One example of a variety of African French that is difficult to understand for European French speakers).
- Algérie: situation géographique et démolinguistique (French)
- French Declines in Indochina, as English Booms, International Herald Tribune, 16 October 1993: "In both Cambodia and Laos, French remains the official second language of government."
- [dead link]
- French Institute of Pondicherry "French is however very little spoken, Tamil and English being the dominant languages."
- Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. "Estimation du nombre de francophones dans le monde1". Retrieved 3 October 2009.
- (French) INSEE, Government of France. "P9-1 – Population de 14 ans et plus selon la connaissance du français, le sexe, par commune, "zone" et par province de résidence" (XLS). Retrieved 3 October 2009.
- (French) Institut Statistique de Polynésie Française (ISPF). "Recensement 2007 – Langues : Chiffres clés". Retrieved 3 October 2009.[dead link]
- (French) INSEE, Government of France. "Tableau Pop_06_1 : Population selon le sexe, la connaissance du français et l'âge décennal" (XLS). Retrieved 3 October 2009.
- The World's 10 Most Influential Languages Top Languages. Retrieved 11 April 2011.
- The French language today: a linguistic introductionGoogle Books Retrieved 27 June 2011
- Meisler, Stanley. "Seduction Still Works : French--a Language in Decline." Los Angeles Times. March 1, 1986. p. 2. Retrieved on May 18, 2013.
- French, an international language – French Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- The World's 10 most influencial languages, George Werber, 1997, Language Today, retrieved on scribd.com
- Foreign languages 'shortfall' for business, CBI says, Judith Burns, BBC News, 22 june 2014
- (French) Fonétik.fr writing system proposal.
- (French) Ortofasil writing system proposal.
- (French) Alfograf writing system proposal.
- (French) Ortograf.net writing system proposal.
- Walter & Walter 1998.
- Einhorn, E. (1974). Old French: A Concise Handbook. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 110. ISBN 0-521-09838-6.
- (French) "Septante, octante (huitante), nonante". langue-fr.net.. See also the English Wikipedia article on Welsh language, especially the section "Counting system" and its note on the influence of Celtic in the French counting system.
- "Nombres (écriture, lecture, accord)". Questions de langue (in French). Académie française. Retrieved 31 May 2014. Dans un souci de lisibilité, on sépare les milliers par une espace insécable dans les nombres exprimant une quantité : 1 000 m, 342 234 euros, 1 234 °C, etc. ↲ En revanche, dans les nombres ayant fonction de numérotage (pages, dates, articles de code), les chiffres ne sont jamais séparés : la page 1254 de l’édition de 1992 ; l’article 1246 du Code civil. ↲ La virgule (et non le point comme chez les anglo-saxons) sépare la partie entière de la partie décimale : π vaut environ 3,14 ; 14,5 est la moitié de 29.
- Winter, Werner (1991). "Some thoughts about Indo-European numerals". In Gvozdanović, Jadranka. Indo-European numerals. Trends in Linguistics 57. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 13–14. ISBN 3-11-011322-8. Retrieved 2013-06-09.
- "" An deux mil " ou " an deux mille " ?". Questions de langue. Académie française. Retrieved 30 May 2014. L’Académie n’admet (et ne privilégie) la variante mil de mille, dans les dates, que lorsque le numéral au singulier est suivi d’un ou plusieurs autres nombres.
- Lexique des règles typographiques en usage à l'imprimerie nationale (in French) (6th ed.). Paris: Imprimerie nationale. March 2011. p. 41. ISBN 978-2-7433-0482-9. Au-delà de mille, on compte habituellement : ↲ onze, douze, treize, quatorze, quinze, seize cents ↲ plutôt que : ↲ mille cent, mille deux cents, mille trois cents... ↲ mais on emploiera indifféremment : ↲ dix-sept cents ou mille sept cents...
- "Nombres (écriture, lecture, accord)". Questions de langue (in French). Académie française. Retrieved 31 May 2014. Pour les dates (et les nombres en général) entre 1000 et 2000, il y a concurrence entre deux lectures : mille six cent trente-cinq ou seize cent trente-cinq. ↲ Aucune de ces formes ne peut être considérée comme fautive. Cependant, dans l’usage courant, on dit plutôt onze cents, douze cents, etc. : onze cents francs, seize cents euros, tandis que dans la langue écrite, et notamment dans un texte juridique, administratif ou scientifique, on préférera les formes : mille cent, mille deux cents, etc.
- "Nombres (écriture, lecture, accord)". Questions de langue (in French). Académie française. Retrieved 31 May 2014. Vingt et cent se terminent par un s quand ils sont précédés d'un nombre qui les multiplie mais ils restent invariable s'ils sont suivis d'un autre nombre ou de mille. On dira ainsi euros mais deux cent vingt euros ; quatre-vingts hommes mais quatre-vingt-deux hommes. Ils restent également invariables lorsqu’ils sont employés comme adjectifs numéraux ordinaux : page deux cent ; page quatre-vingt ; l’an mille neuf cent. En revanche, vingt et cent varient devant millier, million, milliard, qui sont des noms et non des adjectifs numéraux : deux cents millions d’années ; trois cents milliers d’habitants.
- "Ne". Dire, Ne pas dire. Académie française. 3 November 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2014. On néglige trop souvent de faire entendre l’adverbe ne, en faisant de pas l’unique marque de négation : Je veux pas, je sais pas. Cette habitude, répandue dans le langage parlé, est une véritable faute.
- "Pas". Trésor de la langue française informatisé. Analyse et traitement informatique de la langue française. Retrieved 30 May 2014. − Pop. ou très fam. [Avec suppression de ne]
- Nadeau, Jen-Benoît, and Julie Barlow (2006). The Story of French. First U.S. ed. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-34183-0
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