French legislative election, 1986

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French legislative election, 1986
France
1981 ←
16 March 1986
→ 1988

All 573 seats to the French National Assembly
287 seats were needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party Third party
  Laurent Fabius - Royal & Zapatero's meeting in Toulouse for the 2007 French presidential election 0538 2007-04-19.jpg Jacques Chirac.png Jean-Claude Gaudin IMG 3321.jpg
Leader Laurent Fabius Jacques Chirac Jean-Claude Gaudin
Party PS RPR UDF
Leader's seat Seine-Maritime Corrèze Bouches-du-Rhône
Last election 283 seats 85 seats 62 seats
Seats won 206 149 127
Seat change -77 +64 +65
Popular vote 8,693,939 (1st round) 3,143,224 (1st round)
6,008,612 (RPR-UDF common list)
2,330,167 (1st round)
6,008,612 (RPR-UDF common list)
Percentage 31.02% (1st round) 11.22% (1st round)
21.44% (RPR-UDF common list)
8.31% (1st round)
21.44% (RPR-UDF common list)

PM before election

Laurent Fabius
PS

Elected PM

Jacques Chirac
RPR

Armoiries république française.svg
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The French legislative elections took place on 16 March 1986 to elect the 8th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. Contrary to other legislative elections of the Fifth Republic, the electoral system used was that of Party-list proportional representation.

Since the 1981 election of François Mitterrand, the Presidential Majority was divided. In March 1983, Prime Minister Pierre Mauroy renounced the left's radical Common Programme which had been agreed in the 1970s. Wages and prices were frozen. This change of economic policy was justified by the will to stay in the European Monetary System. One year later, the Communist ministers refused to remain in Laurent Fabius' cabinet.

In opposition, the two main right-wing parties tried to forget their past quarrels. They were able to win the mid-term elections (1982 departmental elections, 1983 municipal elections, 1984 European Parliament election) and succeeded in forcing the government to abandon its policy of limiting the financing of private schools in 1984. The Rally for the Republic (RPR), led by Jacques Chirac, abandoned the traditional dirigiste and Eurosceptic Gaullist doctrines about the economy and European integration. It was then able to sign an electoral platform with the Union for French Democracy (UDF). It proposed notably to sell the companies nationalized by President Mitterrand and Pierre Mauroy.

However, France had also witnessed the electoral rise of the National Front (FN). Its leader, Jean-Marie Le Pen, made nationalist and xenophobic remarks. He appealed to part of the conservative electorate, notably some RPR voters. The right-wing opposition was divided on the question of an alliance with the FN. In 1985, President Mitterrand's decision to re-establish Party-list proportional representation at the legislative election caused political outrage. The RPR/UDF opposition accused him of wanting to strengthen the FN in order to weaken the Republican Right, which was favourite to win according to the polls. Indeed, proportional representation was the only electoral system which permitted the election of FN deputies.

While the polls indicated a win by the RPR/UDF coalition, the former UDF Prime minister Raymond Barre argued that the next parliamentary majority should refuse to govern if President Mitterrand did not resign. Advised by Edouard Balladur, Jacques Chirac noted, however, that impeachment did not exist in the French Constitution. Instead, the next majority would "cohabit" with Mitterrand. The right-wing cabinet would enforce its domestic policy programme and Mitterrand would keep control of foreign and military affairs.

Eventually, the RPR/UDF coalition obtained only a two seat majority. Consequently, for the first time of the history of the Fifth Republic, the parliamentary majority is opposed to President. Nevertheless, the Socialist Party held more seats than the polls had indicated. The FN could form a parliamentary group with its 35 elected members. The decline of the French Communist Party continued. Mitterrand nominated Chirac as Prime Minister. The first "cohabitation" of the Fifth Republic started. The new cabinet abolished proportional representation for the next legislative elections. The "cohabitation" ended with the 1988 presidential election.

Results[edit]

e • d 
Parties and coalitions Abbr. Votes  % Seats
Rally for the Republic/

Union for French Democracy Common lists

RPR/

UDF

6,008,612 21.44 73 RPR

74 UDF

Rally for the Republic (Rassemblement pour la République) RPR 3,143,224 11.22 76
Union for French Democracy (Union pour la démocratie française) UDF 2,330,167 8.31 53
Miscellaneous Right-wing DVD 1,083,711 3.87 14
Total "RPR-UDF Union" (Right) 12,565,714 44.84 290
Socialist Party (Parti socialiste) PS 8,693,939 31.02 206
French Communist Party (Parti communiste français) PCF 2,739,225 9.78 35
Miscellaneous Left DVG 301,063 1.07 5
Movement of Left Radicals (Mouvement des radicaux de gauche) MRG 107,769 0.38 2
UNG (Aimé Césaire, Martinique) UNG 56,044 0.20 0
Total Left ("Presidential Majority" and PCF) 11,898,040 42.45 248
National Front (Front national and Rassemblement national) FN 2,703,442 9.65 35
Far-Left EXG 430,352 1.54 -
Ecologists ECO 340,109 1.21 -
Far-Right EXD 57,432 0.20 -
Regionalists REG 28,379 0.10 -
Total 28,024,168 100.00 573
Abstention: 22.00%
Popular vote
RPR-UDF
  
40.97%
PS
  
31.02%
PCF
  
9.77%
FN
  
9.65%
DVD
  
3.87%
EXG
  
1.54%
ECO
  
1.21%
DVG
  
1.07%
Others
  
0.89%

8th Assembly by Parliamentary Group[edit]

Group Members Caucusing Total
  Socialist Group 196 16 212
  RPR Group 147 8 155
  UDF Group 114 17 131
  Communist Group 32 3 35
  FN Group 32 3 35
  Non-Inscrits 9 0 9
Total: 557 20 577