Friedrich Fromm

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Friedrich Fromm
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1969-168-07, Friedrich Fromm.jpg
Generaloberst Friedrich Fromm
Born 8 October 1888
Berlin, Germany
Died 12 March 1945 (aged 56)
Brandenburg an der Havel, Germany
Allegiance German Empire German Empire (to 1918)
Germany Weimar Republic (to 1933)
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany
Service/branch Army
Rank Generaloberst
Commands held Chef der Heeresausrüstung und Befehlshaber des Ersatzheeres
Battles/wars World War I
World War II
Awards Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross

Friedrich Fromm (8 October 1888 – 12 March 1945) was a German army officer. A recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross, he was executed for failing to act against the 20 July plot to assassinate Hitler.

Early life[edit]

Fromm was born in Charlottenburg. He served as a lieutenant during World War I.

Fromm played at the beginning of the Nazi era an important role in the power structure of the regime: From 1933, he was responsible for the human and material upgrade of the German army. Also from 1939 Chief of Army armour and commander of the Reserve Army (the de:Ersatzheer).[1]

Head of the Reserve Army[edit]

When Operation Barbarossa stalled outside of Moscow in December 1941 and the Russian counter-attack started, Hitler took direct command of the Army and re-organized the armed forces command structure. The Office of the Chief of Army Armament and the Replacement Army under Generaloberst Friedrich Fromm was created, subordinate to the commander in chief, army (head of the OKH, i.e Hitler). Fromm had enough power at his disposal to control the German state because his position controlled army procurement and production and commanded all army troops inside Germany.[2]

At the start of 1942 Fromm, apparently, recommended going over to the defensive for the whole year; because of the exhausted army stockpiles and the diversion of production, after Barbarossa initial success in the summer of 1941.[2]

The 20 July plot[edit]

Main article: 20 July plot

In World War II, Fromm was Commander in Chief of the Reserve Army (Ersatzheer), in charge of training and personnel replacement for the German Army, a position he occupied for most of the war. Though he was aware that some of his subordinates—most notably Claus von Stauffenberg, his Chief of Staff—were planning an assassination attempt against Adolf Hitler, he remained quiet and agreed to have a part in it if he became a top official of the new government after the mutiny, though he didn't have any direct involvement in the conspiracy. When the attempt to proceed with the mutiny on 15 July failed, Fromm refused to have any further part in their mutiny.

However, on 20 July the news broke out that Hitler had been the victim of an explosion in a Nazi base in Poland near Russia; the Wolf's Lair. Fromm quickly realized that it was Stauffenberg and the plotters that did it, and when he tried to arrest them, they overthrew him and locked him in a jail cell in the headquarters.

When the mutiny failed, Fromm was found by Nazis and freed. Against Hitler's orders to take the conspirators alive, he had them executed immediately[3] to cover up potential allegations that he himself was involved. However, these actions did not save him.

Trial and execution[edit]

After executing the top plotters, Fromm returned to his office for the night after a reported upcoming air-raid. There in his office he was met by various Nazi officers, Joseph Goebbels was among them. Fromm tried to claim credit for ending the coup.

The next morning on 22 July 1944, Fromm was arrested by Nazi officials and locked in jail to await trial. Fromm was discharged from the German Army on 14 September 1944. The civilian Fromm was sentenced to death and considered unworthy for military duty by the Volksgerichtshof on 7 March 1945. Since the court failed to prove a direct association with the 20 July plotters, he had been charged and convicted for cowardice before the enemy. The loss of his worthiness for military service led to a permanent loss of all honors, ranks and orders.[4] On 12 March 1945, Fromm was executed at the Brandenburg-Görden Prison by firing squad as part of the post-conspiracy purge. His last words before the firing squad were reported to be "I die, because it was ordered. I had always wanted only the best for Germany."[5]

Awards[edit]

Film portrayals[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Obermüller, Benjamin (13 January 2006). "Friedrich Fromm - nicht nur eine Figur um den "20. Juli"". http://rezensionen.ch. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 
  2. ^ a b Ziemke, Earl F.; Bauer, Magna E. (1985). Moscow To Stalingrad: Decision In The East. U.S. Army Center of Military History. ISBN 9780160019425. 
  3. ^ Clark, Alan (1965). Barbarossa. Cassell & Co. p. 478. ISBN 0304358649. 
  4. ^ Scherzer 2007, p. 131.
  5. ^ Mueller, Gene: Generaloberst Friedrich Fromm. In: Gerd R. Ueberschär (ed.): Hitlers militärische Elite. Vol. 1, Primus Verlag, Darmstadt 1998, ISBN 3-89678-083-2, p. 76.
  6. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 188.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000). Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 – Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtsteile [The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6. 
  • Kroener, Bernhard R. (2005). "Der starke Mann im Heimatkriegsgebiet". Generaloberst Friedrich Fromm. Eine Biographie. Paderborn: Schoeningh, Oler family (Alberta, Canada)
  • Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Miltaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2. 

External links[edit]