Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research

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Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research
Established 1970
Research type
Field of research
Director Susan M. Gasser
Affiliations University of Basel

The Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research (FMI) is a world-class center for basic research in life sciences based in Basel, Switzerland.

Scientific activities[edit]

The FMI is devoted to the pursuit of fundamental biomedical research. Areas of expertise are:

In these fields the FMI has gained international recognition as a center of excellence in innovative biomedical research.

Research is carried out in 22 independent but highly interactive research teams. In addition, seven technology platforms, ranging from functional genomics to microscopy and imaging, support the research activities with cutting-edge technology.

As of 2011, the institute counts 320 collaborators of which 90 are postgraduate students participating in the FMI International PhD Program, 100 are postdoctoral collaborators and 22 are research group leaders. Since 2004, the institute is led by Susan M. Gasser.

Research Highlights[edit]

in chronological order

  • Publication of two protocols for plant transgenesis, which were widely used in the 1980s.[2][3]
  • Discovery that the gene for the human growth factor receptor 2 (ErbB2) is amplified in around 25% of primary breast tumors and dissection of its role in the pathogenesis and prognosis of breast cancer.[4]
  • Discovery of the key signaling kinase PKB (Act) and demonstration of its central role in cancer cell signaling.[5]

Teaching and Training[edit]

The FMI is an affiliated institute of the University of Basel.[12] It provides biomedical research and career training for over 90 PhD students. FMI selects its highly international student body during a twice-yearly interview-based selection program.[13] 12 FMI scientists have adjunct or full professorships at the University of Basel in the Natural Sciences Faculty. In particular, the FMI participates actively in the teaching program of the Biozentrum of the University of Basel.

The FMI also offers training in biomedical research to postdoctoral fellows. It was designated by a survey of The Scientist in 2006, as the “best place for postdoctoral training” outside of the US.[14][15]

Patents and translational implementation[edit]

The FMI has as a major goal the patenting of its discoveries and implementation of its basic research into pharmaceutical development.[16]

History[edit]

The Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research is named after the Basel scientist Friedrich Miescher who discovered nucleic acids in the mid-19th century.

The research institute and foundation of the same name was created in 1970, a hundred years after Miescher’s discovery, as a collaborative effort of two Basel-based pharmaceutical companies, Ciba Aktiengesellschaft and J. R. Geigy Ltd.[17] The founding charter describes the aims of the institute as to “pursue and promote basic research in the fields of biochemistry and medicine…“ and “…to provide young scientists from all over the world with an opportunity to participate in scientific research.” [18] The Founding Director was Professor Hubert Bloch (died 1974) who had been Director of Research at Ciba Aktiengesellschaft, and Professor of Microbiology and Immunology at the University of Basel. He was an expert in tuberculosis[19][20] and was also instrumental in the founding of the Institut Suisse pour les Recherches Experimentales sur la Cancer (ISREC), Epalinges, Switzerland. Between 1997 and 2012, the FMI was part of the Novartis Research Foundation.[21] Since 2012 the FMI is an independent foundation.[22]

FMI Directors[edit]

1970 – 1974   Hubert Bloch
1974 – 1974   Denis Monard
1974 – 1976   Matthys Staehelin
1976 – 1981   Co-directorship of four-member Executive Committee
1982 – 1984   Edward Reich
1984 – 1987   Karl Heusler
1987 – 2001   Max M. Burger
2001 – 2002   Yves Alain Barde
2002 – 2004   Denis Monard
2004 – present   Susan M. Gasser

Susan M. Gasser is also a Professor of Molecular Biology at the University of Basel and pursues research in the field of epigenetics.[23][24]

Friedrich Miescher Award[edit]

The Friedrich Miescher Award is Switzerland's highest honor for up-and-coming biochemical researchers. The award is granted every year by the Swiss Society for Biochemistry[25] to the best scientific contribution in this field. Prize winners must be under 40 and must either be Swiss citizens or have conducted the prize-winning research in this country. The award was instituted in 1970, proposed and donated by the FMI. It is named after the Basel scientist who discovered DNA.

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Towbin H, Staehelin T, Gordon J. (Sep 1979). "Electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets: procedure and some applications.". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 76 (9): 4350–4354. doi:10.1073/pnas.76.9.4350. PMC 411572. PMID 388439. 
  2. ^ Pietrzak M, Shillito R, Hohn T, Potrykus I. (Jul 1986). "Expression in plants of two bacterial antibiotic resistance genes after protoplast transformation with a new plant expressionvector.". Nucleic Acids Res 14 (14): 5857–5867. doi:10.1093/nar/14.14.5857. PMC 311596. PMID 3016666. 
  3. ^ Grimsley N, Hohn T, Davies JW, Hohn B (1987). "Transformation of maize plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.". Nature 325 (6100): 177–179. doi:10.1038/325177a0. 
  4. ^ Berger MS, Locher GW, Saurer S, Gullick WJ, Waterfield MD, Groner B, Hynes NE. (Mar 1988). "Correlation of c-erbB-2 gene amplification and protein expression in human breast carcinoma with nodal status and nuclear grading.". Cancer Research 48 (5): 1238–1243. ISSN 0008-5472. PMID 2893663. 
  5. ^ Cross DA, Alessi DR, Cohen P, Andjelkovich M, Hemmings BA. (Dec 1995). "Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 by insulin mediated by protein kinase B.". Nature 378 (6559): 785–789. doi:10.1038/378785a0. PMID 8524413. 
  6. ^ Ludin B, Doll T, Meili R, Kaech S, Matus A. (1996). "Application of novel vectors for GFP-tagging of proteins to study microtubule-associated proteins.". Gene 173: 107–111. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(95)00899-3. PMID 8707048. 
  7. ^ Kaech S, Ludin B, Matus A. (1996). "Cytoskeletal plasticity in cells expressing neuronal microtubule-associated proteins.". Neuron 17: 1189–1199. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(00)80249-4. PMID 8982165. 
  8. ^ Saitoh M, Pullen N, Brennan P, Cantrell D, Dennis PB, Thomas G. (May 2002). "Regulation of an activated S6 kinase 1 variant reveals a novel mammalian target of rapamycin phosphorylation site.". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 277 (22): 20104–20112. doi:10.1074/jbc.M201745200. PMID 11914378. 
  9. ^ Zhang H, Kolb FA, Brondani V, Billy E, Filipowicz W. (Nov 2002). "Human Dicer preferentially cleaves dsRNAs at their termini without a requirement for ATP.". The EMBO Journal 21 (21): 5875–5885. doi:10.1093/emboj/cdf582. PMC 131079. PMID 12411505. 
  10. ^ Weber M, Davies JJ, Wittig D, Oakeley EJ, Haase M, Lam WL, Schübeler D. (Aug 2005). "Chromosome-wide and promoter-specific analyses identify sites of differential DNA methylation in normal and transformed human cells.". Nature Genetics 37 (8): 853–862. doi:10.1038/ng1598. PMID 16007088. 
  11. ^ Busskamp V, Duebel J, Balya D, Fradot M, Viney TJ, Siegert S, Groner AC, Cabuy E, Forster V, Seeliger M, Biel M, Humphries P, Paques M, Mohand-Said S, Trono D, Deisseroth K, Sahel JA, Picaud S, Roska B. (Jul 2010). "Genetic reactivation of cone photoreceptors restores visual responses in retinitis pigmentosa.". Science 329 (5990): 413–417. doi:10.1126/science.1190897. PMID 20576849. 
  12. ^ "Stärkere Zusammenarbeit zwischen Universität Basel und Friedrich Miescher Institut". University of Basel. 2011-04-15. Retrieved 2011-09-20. 
  13. ^ http://www.fmi.ch/Training/PhD/ The FMI International PhD Program
  14. ^ "Best Places to Work 2006: Postdocs". The Scientist. 2006-03-01. 
  15. ^ "Switzerland: High Standards and Quality Science". The Scientist. 2006-03-01. 
  16. ^ http://www.fmi.ch/Collaboration/Licensing/ Licensing Opportunities at the FMI
  17. ^ Stefen Dickman (Nov 1988). "Friedrich Miescher Institute: Plans for rejuventation.". Nature 336 (5990): 337. doi:10.1038/336337a0. 
  18. ^ Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Founding charter, signed on April 10, 1970
  19. ^ Bloch H. (Jun 1948). "The effect of chick embryo extract on the growth and morphology of tubercle bacilli.". The Journal of Experimental Medicine 88 (3): 355–360. doi:10.1084/jem.88.3.355. 
  20. ^ Bloch H. (1960). "Biochemical properties of virulent and avirulent strains of mycobacterium-tuberculosis.". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 88 (5): 1075–1086. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1960.tb20097.x. 
  21. ^ King, Patrick J. “FMI – 40 Years On”, Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Basel. ISBN 978-3-033-02820-3
  22. ^ "Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research". Moneyhouse. 2012-04-02. 
  23. ^ http://epigenome.eu/en/4,14,66 Susan Gasser, Permanent member of the Epigenome Network of Excellence
  24. ^ "Zwei neue Ordinariae und zwei Assistenzprofessuren für die Universität Basel.". University of Basel. 2005-01-24. Retrieved 2011-09-20. 
  25. ^ "Announcements: Friedrich Miescher-Award 1991.". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 46 (8): 878. 1990. doi:10.1007/BF01935546. 

See also[edit]

External links[edit]