Schneider studied piano first with his father Johann Gottlob Schneider (senior), and then at the Zittau Gymnasium with Schönfelder and Unger. His first published works were a set of three piano sonatas in 1804. In 1805, he commenced studies at the University of Leipzig. He became an organist at St. Thomas Church, Leipzig in 1812, and was named conductor in Dessau in 1821. It is thought that Schneider premiered Ludwig van Beethoven's Piano Concerto No. 5 in Leipzig in 1811. In 1824, he was festival director of the Lower Rhenish Music Festival and his oratorio "Die Sündflut" was premiered during this event.
Schneider composed copiously. Among his works are seven operas, four masses, six oratorios, 25 cantatas, 23 symphonies, seven piano concertos, sonatas for violin, flute, and cello, and a number of shorter works for voice and for piano, as well as both solo and part songs.
Friedrich Lux was one of his pupils.
His brothers Johann Gottlob Schneider (junior; 1789-1864) and Johann Gottlieb Schneider (1797-1856) were organists, the former achieving great fame and notability, with artistic connections to Mendelssohn, Liszt, Schumann and many others.
- Don Randel, The Harvard Biographical Dictionary of Music. Harvard, 1996, pp. 803–804.