He initially learned the pharmacy profession at his father's store in Zweibrücken. In 1827 be began studies in Munich, later performing post-doctoral work in Tübingen. In 1832 he became owner of a pharmacy in Bitsch, and in 1853 relocated to Weissenburg.
Schultz was a specialist regarding the botanical family Orobanchaceae. One of his better known publications was a book on Palatinate flora called Flora der Pfalz. With Paul Constant Billot (1796-1863), he was co-author of Archives de la flore de France et d’Allemagne.
In 1840 with his brother, Carl Heinrich Schultz (1805-1867), et al., he founded the scientific society POLLICHIA, a group specializing in nature studies of the Rheinland-Pfalz region.