Friends of New Germany
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Nazis outside of Germany made considerable efforts to establish an American counterpart organization. Recruiting commenced as early as 1924 with the formation of the Free Society of Teutonia. Yet the first significantly large organized group was the Friends of New Germany.
In May 1933, the Nazi Deputy Führer, Rudolf Hess, gave German immigrant and German Nazi Party member Heinz Spanknöbel authority to form an American Nazi organization. The result was the creation of the Friends of New Germany in July 1933. Assistance was given to its formation by the German consul in the City of New York. The organization took over the membership of two older pro-Nazi organizations in the United States, Gau-USA and the Free Society of Teutonia, which were both small groups with only a few hundred members each. The new entity was based in New York City, but had a strong presence in Chicago, Illinois. The previous organisations were dissolved.
The Friends of New Germany was led by Spanknöbel and was openly pro-Nazi, and engaged in activities such as storming the German language New Yorker Staats-Zeitung with the demand that Nazi-sympathetic articles be published, and the infiltration of other non-political German-American organizations. One of the Friends early initiatives was to counter, with propaganda, a Jewish boycott of businesses in the heavily German neighborhood of Yorkville, Manhattan. Members wore a uniform, a white shirt and black trousers for men with a black hat festooned with a red symbol. Women members wore a white blouse and a black skirt.
At the same time, Congressman Samuel Dickstein was Chairman of the Committee on Naturalization and Immigration, where he became aware of the substantial number of foreigners legally and illegally entering and residing in the country, and the growing anti-Semitism along with vast amounts of anti-Semitic literature being distributed in the country. This led him to investigate independently the activities of Nazi and other fascist groups. This led to the formation of the Special Committee on Un-American Activities Authorized to Investigate Nazi Propaganda and Certain Other Propaganda Activities. Throughout the rest of 1934, the Committee conducted hearings, bringing before it most of the major figures in the US fascist movement. Dickstein's investigation concluded that the Friends represented a branch of German dictator Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party in America.
The organization existed into the mid-1930s, although it always remained small, with a membership of between 5,000-10,000, consisting mostly of German citizens living in America and German emigrants who only recently had become citizens. In December 1935, Rudolf Hess ordered all German citizens to leave the Friends of New Germany and recalled to Germany all its leaders. By March 1936, Friends of New Germany was dissolved and its membership transferred to a newly formed German American Bund, the new name being chosen to emphasise the group's American credentials after press criticism that the organisation was unpatriotic. The Bund was to consist only of American citizens of German descent.
- Jim Bredemus. "American Bund - The Failure of American Nazism: The German-American Bund’s Attempt to Create an American "Fifth Column"". TRACES. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- IMDb Biography for Fritz Kuhn
- Chip Berlet, Matthew Nemiroff Lyons (2000). Right-Wing Populism in America: Too Close for Comfort. Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1-57230-562-5.
- Shaffer, Ryan (Spring 2010). "Long Island Nazis: A Local Synthesis of Transnational Politics" 21 (2). Journal of Long Island History. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- Investigation on un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States
- Erik V. Wolter, Loyalty On Trial: One American's Battle With The FBI. (iUniverse, 2004) ISBN 9780595327034. p. 65
- Americans for Hitler - America in WWII
- The German National Revolution a pamphlet issues by FNG
- 1934 German language yearbook of the Brooklyn chapter
- Materials produced by FNG are found in the Florence Mendheim Collection of Anti-Semitic Propaganda (#AR 25441); Leo Baeck Institute, New York.