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100-130, see text
Fritillaria is a genus of about 100 to 130 species of bulbous plants in the family Liliaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, especially the Mediterranean, southwest Asia, and western North America. The name is derived from the Latin term for a dice-box (fritillus), and probably refers to the checkered pattern of the flowers of many species. Plants of the genus are known in English as fritillaries. Some North American species are called mission bells.
Fritillaries often have nodding, bell- or cup-shaped flowers, and the majority are spring-flowering. Certain species have flowers that emit disagreeable odors. The scent of Fritillaria imperialis has been called "rather nasty", while that of F. agrestis, known commonly as stink bells, is reminiscent of dog droppings. On the other hand, F. striata has a sweet fragrance.
Fritillaria extracts are used in traditional Chinese medicine under the name chuan bei mu, and in Latin, bulbus fritillariae cirrhosae. Species such as F. cirrhosa and F. verticillata are used in cough remedies. They are listed as chuān bèi (Chinese: 川貝) or zhè bèi (Chinese: 浙貝), respectively, and are often in formulations combined with extracts of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica).
The major name of herbs and true species listed on the Chinese Pharmacopoeia & National Standards are as follows:
- 川贝母ChuānBèiMǔ BULBUS FRITILLARIAE CIRRHOSAE:
- Classified by shape :松贝 Songbei, 青贝 Qingbei , 炉贝, Cultivated form.
- Classified by species:川贝母 Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don, 暗紫贝母 Fritillaria unibracteata Hsiao et K.C.Hsia, 甘肃贝母 Fritillaria przewalskii Maxim, 梭砂贝母 Fritillaria delavayi Franch, 太白贝母 Fritillaria taipaiensis P.Y. Li, 瓦布贝母 Fritillaria unibracteata Hsiao et K. C. Hsia var. wabuensis(S. Y. Tang et S. C. Yueh)Z. D. Liu,S. Wang et S. C. Chen
- 浙贝母 ZhèBèiMǔ BULBUS FRITILLARIAE THUNBERGII :浙贝母 Fritillaria thunbergii Miq.
- 伊贝母 YīBèiMǔ BULBUS FRITILLARIAE PALLIDIFLORAE : 新疆贝母Fritillaria walujewii Regel or 伊犁贝母Fritillaria pallidiflora Schrenk
- 湖北贝母 HúBěiBèiMǔ BULBUS FRITILARIAE HUPEHENSIS: 湖北贝母 Fritillaria hupehensis Hsiao et K.C.Hsia
- 平贝母 PingBèiMǔ BULBUS FRITILLARIAE USSURIENSIS : 平贝母 Fritillaria ussuriensis Maxim.
Though there are many local farms which grow the local native Fritillaria species for the market of herb, there are only three companies (1 川贝母ChuānBèiMǔ and 2 平贝母 PingBèiMǔ) which are certified growing under the regulation of the "Good Agricultural Practice for Chinese Crude Drugs" so far.
F. verticillata bulbs are also traded as bèi mǔ or, in Kampō, baimo (Chinese/Kanji: 貝母, Katakana: バイモ). In one study fritillaria reduced airway inflammation by suppressing cytokines, histamines, and other compounds of inflammatory response.
Most fritillaries contain poisonous alkaloids such as imperialin; some may even be deadly if ingested in quantity. But the bulbs of a few species, such as F. affinis, F. camschatcensis, and F. pudica, are edible if prepared carefully. They were commonly eaten by indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest coast.
At least one species, F. assyrica, has a very large genome. With approximately 130,000,000,000 base pairs, it equals the largest known vertebrate animal genome known to date, that of the marbled lungfish (Protopterus aethiopicus), in size.
The emblematic and often unusually-colored fritillaries are commonly used as floral emblems. F. meleagris (snake's head fritillary) is the county flower of Oxfordshire, UK, and the provincial flower of Uppland, Sweden, where it is known as kungsängslilja ("Kungsängen lily"). In Croatia this species is known as kockavica, and the checkerboard pattern of its flowers may have inspired the šahovnica pattern on the nation's coat of arms. F. camschatcensis (Kamchatka fritillary) is the floral emblem of Ishikawa Prefecture and Obihiro City in Japan. Its Japanese name is kuroyuri (クロユリ), meaning "dark lily". F. tenella is the floral emblem of Giardino Botanico Alpino di Pietra Corva, a botanical garden in Italy.
Formerly placed here:
- Erythronium multiscapoideum (as F. multiscapoidea)
- Flora of North America: Fritillaria
- Flora of China: Fritillaria
- RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964.
- Shorter Oxford English dictionary, 6th ed. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. 2007. p. 3804. ISBN 0199206872.
- McGary, J. Fritillaria and the Pacific Garden. Pacific Horticulture 73(2). April, 2012.
- yuan, Chen shi lin, lin yu lin, guo jia yao dian wei yuan hui, yi ke (2010). Zhong hua ren min gong he guo yao dian zhong yao cai ji yuan zhi wu cai se tu jian. Bei jing: Ren min wei sheng chu ban she. ISBN 9787117129275.
- "公众服务 > 数据查询 > 公告查询 > 中药材GAP".
- Yeum, H. S., et al. (2007). Fritillaria cirrhosa, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, lee‐mo‐tang and cyclosporine a inhibit ovalbumin‐induced eosinophil accumulation and Th2‐mediated bronchial hyperresponsiveness in a murine model of asthma. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 100(3) 205-13.
- Turner, Nancy; Harriet V. Kuhnlein (1983). "Camas (Camassia spp.) and riceroot (Fritillaria spp.): two Liliaceous "root" foods of the Northwest Coast Indians". Ecology of Food and Nutrition 13: 199–219. doi:10.1080/03670244.1983.9990754. Retrieved June 22, 2013.
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