Fritillaria biflora

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Chocolate Lily
mission bells
Fritillaria biflora2.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order: Liliales
Family: Liliaceae
Genus: Fritillaria
Species: F. biflora
Binomial name
Fritillaria biflora
Lindl.
Synonyms[1]
  • Amblirion lanceolatum Sweet
  • Fritillaria biflora var. inflexa Jeps.
  • Fritillaria kamtschatcensis Torr. (not Fritillaria camschatcensis (L.) Ker Gawler)
  • Fritillaria lanceolata Torr.
  • Fritillaria succulenta Elmer
  • Liliorhiza viridis Kellogg

Fritillaria biflora (Chocolate Lily, mission bells) is a species of fritillary native to western California and northern Baja California.[2][3] It occurs in the chaparral and woodlands ecoregion, often in serpentine soil formations and hillside grassland habitats.[4]


Fritillaria biflora is a perennial herb up to 60 cm tall. It is called "Chocolate Lily" because its flowers can resemble the color of chocolate, although sometimes they are dark brown, greenish purple, or yellowish green.[4][5]


Fritillaria biflorashould not be confused with Arthropodium strictum, which is also called "chocolate lily" but which resembles the scent of chocolate rather than the color. The Kamchatka Fritillary (F. camschatcensis) is sometimes also called "chocolate lily" in Alaska.

Varieties[edit]

Two varieties are recognized:[1][4]

  • Fritillaria biflora var. biflora -- leaves widely lanceolate, most of the species range
  • Fritillaria biflora var. ineziana Jeps., Fl. Calif. 1: 306 (1922). -- leaves narrowly lanceolate, endangered taxon known only from one location in San Mateo County


See also[edit]

References and external links[edit]