9 March 1912|
|Died||28 September 1969
|Allegiance|| Weimar Republic (to 1933)
|Years of service||1930–1945|
|Unit||2nd U-boat Flotilla
1st U-boat Flotilla
7th U-boat Flotilla
23rd U-boat Flotilla
29th U-boat Flotilla
|Commands held||U-21, 1 October 1937 - 6 January 1940
U-101, 11 March 1940 - 18 November 1940
Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross
|Other work||Oil industry|
Fritz Frauenheim (9 January 1912 – 28 September 1969) was a German U-boat commander of the Second World War. From September 1939 until retiring from front line service in December 1940, he sank 19 ships for a total of 78,853 gross register tons (GRT), and damaged two others. For this he received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (German: Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes), among other commendations. The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross was awarded to recognise extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership.
Frauenheim was born in Berlin-Friedenau on 9 March 1912. He entered the navy and spent his initial training on the cadet ship Schleswig-Holstein, followed by a period on the light cruiser Karlsruhe. He was transferred to the U-boat force in January 1936 and rose quickly through the ranks and on 1 April 1939 he was promoted to Kapitänleutnant. He appears to have spent time with the German forces supporting the Spanish Nationalist forces during the Spanish Civil War, as he was awarded the Spanish Cross on 6 June 1939.
Frauenheim had been made watch officer on U-25 in 1938, eventually spending over a year in this role, until October 1939. He was appointed to command U-21 on 1 October 1937, eventually carrying out five patrols, eventually sinking four merchant ships. He also laid mines, one of which damaged HMS Belfast on 21 November, putting her out of action for nearly three years. The Net-class boom defence vessel Bayonet was sunk by one of U-21’s mines on 21 December.
Frauenheim left U-21 on 6 January 1940, taking over command of the newly built U-101 on 11 March 1940. He commissioned the boat and took her on four successful patrols. He sank a total of 12 ships, including three sunk and one damaged from convoy SC-7. He left U-101 on 18 November 1940 and became a teacher in the 2nd ULD. He went on to hold a number of staff positions, before taking command of 23rd U-boat Flotilla in the Mediterranean in September 1941. In 1942 he moved to command 29th U-boat Flotilla. On 1 March 1943 he was promoted to Korvettenkapitän. In February 1944 Frauenheim joined the staff of the Admiral der Kleinkampfverbände (Admiral of Midget Assault Units), where he remained for the rest of the war. He was again promoted, this time to Fregattenkapitän on 1 December 1944.
After the end of the war Frauenheim spent eight months in Allied captivity before being released. Frauenheim for almost 20 years until his death worked at the Mobil Oil AG in the Federal Republic of Germany. His last position was a member of the board and head of the department of Marine Transportation and Pipelines. He died in Hamburg on 28 September 1969, aged 57.
Summary of career
As a U-boat commander of U-21 and U-101 Fritz Frauenheim is credited with the sinking of 18 ships for a total of 78,248 gross register tons (GRT), further damaging one ship of 4,166 GRT, sinking one auxiliary warship of 605 metric tons (595 long tons; 667 short tons), and damaging one warship of 11,500 metric tons (11,300 long tons; 12,700 short tons).
|21 November 1939||U-21||HMS Belfast||UK||11,500||Damaged (mine)|
|1 December 1939||U-21||Mercator||Finland||4,620||Sunk|
|21 December 1939||U-21||Carl Henckel||Sweden||1,352||Sunk|
|21 December 1939||U-21||HMS Bayonet||UK||605||Sunk (mine)|
|21 December 1939||U-21||Mars||Sweden||1,475||Sunk|
|31 January 1940||U-21||Vidar||Denmark||1,353||Sunk|
|24 February 1940||U-21||Royal Archer||UK||2,266||Sunk (mine)|
|26 May 1940||U-101||Stanhall||UK||4,831||Sunk|
|31 May 1940||U-101||Orangemoor||UK||5,775||Sunk|
|2 June 1940||U-101||Polycarp||UK||3,577||Sunk|
|11 June 1940||U-101||Mount Hymettus||Greece||5,820||Sunk|
|12 June 1940||U-101||Earlspark||UK||5,250||Sunk|
|14 June 1940||U-101||Antonis Georgandis||Greece||3,557||Sunk|
|16 June 1940||U-101||Wellington Star||UK||13,212||Sunk|
|19 August 1940||U-101||Ampleforth||UK||4,576||Sunk|
|28 August 1940||U-101||Elle||Finland||3,868||Sunk|
|1 September 1940||U-101||Efploia||Greece||3,867||Sunk|
|12 October 1940||U-101||Saint-Malo||Canada||5,799||Sunk|
|18 October 1940||U-101||Blairspey||UK||4,155||Damaged|
|18 October 1940||U-101||Creekirk||UK||3,917||Sunk|
|19 October 1940||U-101||Assyrian||UK||2,962||Sunk|
|19 October 1940||U-101||Soesterberg||Netherlands||1,904||Sunk|
- Wehrmacht Long Service Award 4th Class (2 October 1936)
- Spanish Cross in Bronze (6 June 1939)
- Iron Cross (1939)
- Sudetenland Medal (20 December 1938)
- Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 29 August 1940 as Kapitänleutnant and commander of U-101
- Knight's Cross of the Order of the Roman Eagle with Swords (18 June 1943)
- German Cross in Gold on 23 November 1944 as Korvettenkapitän with the Admiral of the Kleinkampfverbände
- Mentioned twice in the Wehrmachtbericht (17 June 1940 and 19 October 1940)
References in the Wehrmachtbericht
|Date||Original German Wehrmachtbericht wording||Direct English translation|
|Monday, 17 June 1940||Ein Unterseeboot unter Führung des Kapitänleutnants Frauenheim meldet die Versenkung von 41 500 BRT Schiffsraum, darunter den britischen Dampfer "Wellington Star" von 11 400 BRT.||A submarine under the command of Lieutenant Frauenheim reports the sinking of 41 500 tons of shipping, including the British steamer "Wellington Star" of 11 400 tons.|
|Saturday, 19 October 1940||... An diesen Erfolgen ist das unter Führung des Kapitänleutnants Frauenheim stehende Unterseeboot mit zehn Dampfern von 51 000 BRT, das Unterseeboot des Kapitänleutnants Kretschmer mit sieben Dampfern von 45 000 BRT, das Unterseeboot des Kapitänleutnants Moehle mit sieben Dampfern von 44 050 BRT beteiligt.||The submarines led by Lieutenant Frauenheim contributed with ten steamships of 51 000 tons, the submarine of Lieutenant Kretschmer with seven steamships of 45 000 tons, the submarine of Lieutenant Moehle with seven steamships of 44 050 tons, to these successes.|
- Helgason, Guðmundur (1995–2013). "Fritz Frauenheim". The Men – U-boat Commanders – Top U-boat Aces. Guðmundur Helgason.
- Erdöl & Kohle, Erdgas, Petrochemie 22. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Mineralölwissenschaft und Kohlechemie (Hrsg.), Industrieverlag von Hernhaussen. 1969. p. 650.
- Helgason, Guðmundur (1995–2013). "Ships hit by U-21". WW II U-boat Successes. Guðmundur Helgason.
- Busch & Röll 2003, p. 58.
- Busch & Röll 2003, p. 59.
- Scherzer 2007, p. 317.
- Patzwall & Scherzer 2001, p. 121.
- Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 1, p. 215
- Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 1, p. 335
- Busch, Hans-Joachim; Röll (2003). Der U-Boot-Krieg 1939–1945 — Die Ritterkreuzträger der U-Boot-Waffe von September 1939 bis Mai 1945 [The U-Boat War 1939–1945 — The Knight's Cross Bearers of the U-Boat Force from September 1939 to May 1945] (in German). Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn Germany: Verlag E.S. Mittler & Sohn. ISBN 978-3-8132-0515-2.
- Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000). Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 – Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtsteile [The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6.
- Kurowski, Franz (1995). Knight's Cross Holders of the U-Boat Service. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Publishing. ISBN 978-0-88740-748-2.
- Patzwall, Klaus D.; Scherzer, Veit (2001). Das Deutsche Kreuz 1941 – 1945 Geschichte und Inhaber Band II [The German Cross 1941 – 1945 History and Recipients Volume 2] (in German). Norderstedt, Germany: Verlag Klaus D. Patzwall. ISBN 978-3-931533-45-8.
- Range, Clemens (1974). Die Ritterkreuzträger der Kriegsmarine [The Knight's Cross Bearers of the Navy]. Stuttgart, Germany: Motorbuch Verlag. ISBN 978-3-87943-355-1.
- Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Miltaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2.
- Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945, 1. September 1939 bis 31. Dezember 1941 (in German) 1. München: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH & Co. KG. 1985. ISBN 3-423-05944-3.
- Frauenheim's life and career (German)
Kapitänleutnant Werner Jacobsen
|Commander of the 4th U-boat Flotilla
Fregattenkapitän Heinz Fischer
Korvettenkapitän Franz Becker
|Commander of the 29th U-boat Flotilla
May 1942 – July 1943
Korvettenkapitän Gunter Jahn