Johann Friedrich Ludwig “Fritz” Scheel (7 November 1852 – 13 March 1907) was a German conductor born in Fackenburg, in present-day Schleswig-Holstein. Scheel was the founder and first music director of the Philadelphia Orchestra in 1900. He conducted rehearsals in German, and played mostly German music. After its first season, he fired half the musicians and replaced them with European players.
Scheel continued as the Philadelphia Orchestra's music director until his death in Philadelphia in 1907. He died at age 54 and is buried in West Laurel Hill Cemetery, Bala Cynwyd, Pennsylvania.