Frontal eye fields

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Brain: Frontal eye fields
Gray726-Brodman.svg
Frontal eye fields is roughly located between regions #4, #6, and #8
Brodmann area 8

The frontal eye fields (FEF) is a region located in the frontal cortex, more specifically in Brodmann area 8 or BA8,[1] of the primate brain. The FEF is responsible for non-tracking, voluntary eye movements. The FEF communicates with extraoccular muscles indirectly via the paramedian pontine reticular formation. Destruction to FEF causes deviation of the eyes to the ipsilateral side.

Function[edit]

The cortical area called frontal eye fields (FEF) plays an important role in the control of visual attention and eye movements.[2] Electrical stimulation in the FEF elicits saccadic eye movements. The FEF have a topographic structure and represents saccade targets in retinotopic coordinates.[3]

The frontal eye field is reported to be activated during the initiation of eye movements, such as voluntary saccades[4] and pursuit eye movements.[5] There is also evidence that it plays a role in purely sensory processing and that it belongs to a “fast brain” system through a superior colliculusmedial dorsal nucleus – FEF ascending pathway.[6]

In humans, its earliest activations in regard to visual stimuli occur at 45 ms with activations related to changes in visual stimuli within 45–60 ms (these are comparable with response times in the primary visual cortex).[6] This fast brain pathway also provides auditory input at even shorter times starting at 24 ms and being affected by auditory characteristics at 30–60 ms.[6]

The FEF constitutes together with the supplementary eye fields (SEF), the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and the superior colliculus (SC) one of the most important brain areas involved in the generation and control of eye movements, particularly in the direction contralateral to the frontal eye fields' location.

Clinical significance[edit]

Lesions[edit]

Unilateral stimulation of a FEF causes conjugate gaze contralateral to the stimulation. Therefore a unilateral destructive lesion to a FEF causes conjugate gaze towards the lesion, while an irritative (stimulating) lesion of a FEF causes conjugate gaze away from the lesion.

See also[edit]

This article uses anatomical terminology; for an overview, see anatomical terminology.

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Frontal Eye Field--Scholarpedia". 
  2. ^ Schall, J. D. (2004). "On the role of frontal eye field in guiding attention and saccades". Vision Research 44 (12): 1453–67. doi:10.1016/j.visres.2003.10.025. PMID 15066404.  edit
  3. ^ Bruce, C. J.; Goldberg, M. E.; Bushnell, M. C.; Stanton, G. B. (1985). "Primate frontal eye fields. II. Physiological and anatomical correlates of electrically evoked eye movements". Journal of neurophysiology 54 (3): 714–34. PMID 4045546.  edit
  4. ^ "Medical Neurosciences". 
  5. ^ Mustari MJ, Ono S, Das VE (May 2009). "Signal processing and distribution in cortical-brainstem pathways for smooth pursuit eye movements". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1164: 147–54. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.03859.x. PMC 3057571. PMID 19645893. 
  6. ^ a b c Kirchner, H; Barbeau, E. J.; Thorpe, S. J.; Régis, J; Liégeois-Chauvel, C (2009). "Ultra-rapid sensory responses in the human frontal eye field region". Journal of Neuroscience 29 (23): 7599–606. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1233-09.2009. PMID 19515928.  edit