Frontier Force Regiment

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Frontier Force Regiment
Piffer logo.jpg
"Piffer" regimental badge and motto
Active 1957 – present
Country Pakistan
Branch Army
Type Infantry
Size 55 battalions
Depot Abbottabad
Nickname FF or Piffers
Motto (Arabic: لبیک ) ("Here I am")
Facings Colour Red
March A Hundred Pipers
Anniversaries Piffer Week[1]
Engagements Pak-Indo War 1965
Pak-Indo War 1971
Siachen Conflict
Battle of Mogadishu (1993)
Kargil War
Commanders
Colonel-in-Chief
of the Frontier Force Regiment
General Raheel Sharif
Notable
commanders
General Muhammad Musa
General Abdul Waheed Kakar
Lieutenant General Ahmad Shuja Pasha
General Raheel Sharif

For Pakistan's Border Guard see: Frontier Corps

The Frontier Force Regiment (popularly known as the "Piffers" or the "FF") is one of six infantry regiments of the Pakistan Army. At present, the regiment consists of 67 battalions and has its regimental depot at Abbottabad in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa.[2] For that reason Abbottabad is also known as the "Home of Piffers".[3][4] Currently the regiment includes both mechanised and motorised infantry battalions. There are also some armoured and artillery battalions which were raised from the strength of the Frontier Force or one of its predecessor regiments.

The Frontier Force Regiment is Pakistan's third oldest regiment after the Punjab and Baloch. The regiment was raised in 1957 through the amalgamation of three Pakistan Army regiments,[5] all with their origins in two regiments which had been transferred to Pakistan from the British Indian Army at the time of the independence of Pakistan in 1947. These two regiments were the Frontier Force Regiment and the Frontier Force Rifles. The third component, the Pathan Regiment, had been raised after independence from elements of the former two. The merger took place when a major reorganisation of regiments was carried out in the Pakistan Army.[2]

The FF battalions have fought in several wars along Pakistan's borders. They have also served overseas, having been deployed to Saudi Arabia, and also to Somalia as part of a United Nations peacekeeping force. In Somalia, some of the Piffer battalions participated in the Battle of Mogadishu in 1993.[6]

The battalions are divided under independent formations and are commanded by their formation commander. Training and record keeping is undertaken by the regimental depot, which is usually commanded by a brigadier. The regiment's highest-ranking officer is given the honorary title of "Colonel Commandant" and "Colonel-in-Chief", if the highest-ranking officer is the Chief of Army Staff.

Origins[edit]

Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, meeting with officers of 6th Bn, Frontier Force Rifles (Now 1st FF).

The Frontier Force Regiment came into being in 1957 with the amalgamation of the Frontier Force Regiment, the Frontier Force Rifles and the Pathan Regiment, all of which had their origins in the British Indian Army. During the 1840s, after the first and second Anglo-Sikh Wars, Colonel Sir Henry Lawrence, the Honourable East India Company's agent to the Lahore Durbar (brother of the later Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab Sir John Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence) sanctioned the raising of the Corps of Guides and a number of infantry regiments by incorporating veterans from the disbanded Sikh Khalsa army. During the early 1850s some of Lawrence's Sikh regiments were designated the "Punjab Irregular Force", giving rise to the "Piffer" nickname which the Regiment carries to the present day, and through a series of reorganisations that culminated in 1922, these units would eventually become the 12th Frontier Force Regiment and 13th Frontier Force Rifles. The use of the pre-fixing regimental numbers was discontinued in 1945, the two regiments becoming the Frontier Force Regiment and the Frontier Force Rifles, and both regiments were transferred to Pakistan by the United Kingdom in 1947, on the independence to British India.[2][7]

The Pathan Regiment was raised after independence from the 4th Battalion of the Frontier Force Regiment and the 4th and 15th Battalions of the Frontier Force Rifles. Initially the regimental depot was at Dera Ismail Khan but it relocated to Kohat in 1949 and was later merged into the Frontier Force Regiment with its regimental depot at Abbottabad.[8] Fifteen of the modern Frontier Force Regiment's 52 battalions trace their origins back to British Indian Army units, as tabulated below.

Origins of merged battalions of the Frontier Force Regiment[2]
Battalion Founder units
1st 6th Royal Bn Frontier Force Rifles; 59th Royal Scinde Rifles (Frontier Force)
2nd 5th Bn Frontier Force Regiment; 1st Bn QVO Corps of Guides (Frontier Force) Lumsden's Infantry
3rd 1st Bn (PWO Sikhs) Frontier Force Regiment; 51st The Prince of Wales' Own Sikhs (Frontier Force)
4th 2nd Bn (Sikhs) Frontier Force Regiment; 52nd Sikhs (Frontier Force)
5th 3rd Royal Bn (Sikhs) Frontier Force Regiment; 53rd Sikhs (Frontier Force)
6th 4th Bn (Sikhs) Frontier Force Regiment; 54th Sikhs (Frontier Force)
7th 1st Bn Frontier Force Rifles; 55th Coke's Rifles (Frontier Force)
8th 2nd Punjab Infantry, 2/13 Frontier Force Rifles, 56th Punjabi Rifles (Frontier Force), Commonly known as BHAIBANDS
9th 4th Bn Frontier Force Rifles; 57th Wilde's Rifles (Frontier Force)
10th 5th Bn Frontier Force Rifles; 58th Vaughan's Rifles (Frontier Force)
11th 1st Bn Pathan Regiment; 4th Bn Frontier Force Regiment; 54th Sikhs (Frontier Force)
12th 3rd Bn Pathan Regiment; 15th Bn Frontier Force Rifles
13th 8th Bn Frontier Force Regiment
14th 9th Bn Frontier Force Regiment[A]
15th 2nd Bn Pathan Regiment; 4th Bn Frontier Force Rifles; 57th Wilde's Rifles
Note: The 10th (Training) Battalion of the original Frontier Force Regiment (originally raised as 2nd Battalion QVO Corps of Guides during World War I) became the Regimental Centre of the new merged regiment.[9]

A At the end of World War II the war-raised 9th Battalion, instead of being disbanded, was used to re-form the 2nd Battalion (Sikhs) Frontier Force Regiment which had been annihilated in Malaya during the war. On 1 October 1948 a new 9th Battalion was raised and it was this unit which was to become the 14th Battalion of the merged regiment.[9]

Composition[edit]

Main article: Piffer Units

At present the Frontier Force Regiment musters 67 infantry battalions, some of which are mechanised or motorised with the remainder known colloquially as "foot infantry".[citation needed] Each battalion is subdivided into four companies, normally named Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, and Delta.[10] The regiment also includes armoured and artillery units, established from among its strength.[11] All Piffer battalions serve alongside other Pakistan Army units in mixed formations; operational control resides with the appropriate brigade, whereas administrative control remains with the Frontier Force regimental depot. The regiment recruits mostly from the Pashtun tribes of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, although officers and other ranks from all over Pakistan have served and continue to serve in the regiment. Prior to 2000, the Piffers had been standardised to include equal numbers of Pashtuns and Punjabis in its non-officer ranks,[12] but in 2000, this composition was amended to include 10% Sindhis and 5% Balochis, reducing the quota of Punjabis to 35%. This measure was intended to diminish segregation within the Army.[13]

Headquarters[edit]

The regiment is currently based in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa's city of Abbottabad, which also houses the depots of the Baloch Regiment and the Army Medical Corps. The city was originally the headquarters of the Frontier Force Rifles prior to their merger with the Frontier Force Regiment and the Pathan Regiment (then based at Sialkot and Kohat respectively).[2] The Abbottabad depot is responsible for the regiment's basic recruit training. Initially recruits are trained for a period of 36 weeks.[14] Since 1981 has housed the Piffer Museum, which records the Piffer's regimental history. The museum's collection includes medals, weapons, dress and insignia, portraits and flags, history books, albums, paintings, cutlery and musical instruments.[5][15] Abbottabad is also home to the Piffer Memorial, a 28 feet (8.5 m) tall obelisk built of sandstone known as Yadgar-e-Shuhada. This was originally erected at Kohat by Field Marshal William Birdwood on 23 October 1924 in the memory of those killed in World War I,[16] but in 1964 on the orders of the then Commander-in-Chief General Muhammad Musa, it was moved to Abbottabad. It was unveiled in Abbottabad in April 1965. A Roll of Honour is displayed around the memorial on plates, and wreath-laying ceremonies are held on important national days and by visitors. Later a replica of the memorial was built at its original location at Kohat in 2001.[17]

Kashmir dispute[edit]

Since independence in 1947, India and Pakistan have fought three major wars and one minor war, and have been involved in an ongoing conflict since 1984.[18] The casus belli for most of these is the dispute between the two countries over the status of the state of Kashmir.[19][20][21] Piffers participated in each of these conflicts with the participation in the war of 1947 by its founding formations.[5]

Indo-Pakistani War of 1965[edit]

A contingent of the FF Regiment with Indian POWs captured by 6th FF

Concerned by what it saw as Indian attempts to absorb the disputed region of Kashmir, in 1965 Pakistan launched Operation Gibraltar to forment a popular uprising against Indian control in Jammu and Kashmir.[22] However, the operation did not produce the hoped-for results, and following a period of escalating clashes between Indian and Pakistani troops and irregulars from April to September, the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 began. Also known as the Second Kashmir War (the first having been fought in 1947), the five-week conflict led to territorial gains and losses, and caused thousands of casualties, on both sides,[23] before ending in a United Nations mandated ceasefire[24] followed by Russian mediation.[25]

The Frontier Force Regiment's units participated in the war in all active sectors along the Indo-Pakistani border, including Kashmir, Chhamb, Sialkot, Lahore, Khemkaran and Rajasthan. The 6th and 12th FF were involved in the advance on the Chhamb-Jaurian-Akhnur axis,[26] and the 6th FF also fought in the Badiana-Chawinda-Pasrur axis, along with the Guides Cavalry, the 11th Cavalry, 1st SP Artillery and the 3rd, 4th, 9th, 13th and 14th FF, where the largest tank battle at that time since World War II was fought.[27][28] The 3rd FF Battalion, while defending the border opposite Maharajke, was run over by the Indian Army's armoured division.[29] The 7th, 11th, 15th and 16th FF took part in the defence of Lahore; the 1st, 2nd, 5th and 10th FF took part in the capture of Khem Karan in the Kasur Sector, and the 8th and 18th FF made significant gains in the Rajhistan Sector. Some fighting continued after the ceasefire, and two months later in the Rajhistan Sector, the 23rd FF re-captured the Sadhewala Post.[30] The three Piffer armoured regiments successfully repulsed the Indian offensive in the Sialkot sector, while the Guides Cavalry turned back repeated assaults from India's 1st Armoured Division.[31] Another armoured regiment (the 11th Cavalry) also fought at Chhamb as part of the newly raised 6th Armoured Division.[32] The 1st SP Field Artillery, while providing fire support in the battle of Chawinda, lost their commanding officer Lieutenant Colonel Abdul Rehman.[33] Recognizing their combat performance, the unit was authorised to wear red piping on their collars.[34]

Indo-Pakistani War of 1971[edit]

In 1971, following a divisive election result, civil war broke out in the former East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) between the West Pakistani administrative authorities and the majority local population. India, to where many of East Pakistan's exiled political leaders and refugees from the fighting had fled, provided support for the dissidents including arming and training a Bangladeshi irregular force (the Mukti Bahini).[35] To relieve pressure on their forces in the east, in December 1971 Pakistani forces launched a pre-emptive attack on India from the west, which was only partially successful and met with massive retaliation. Fighting on two fronts, Pakistan agreed to a ceasefire after the surrender of her forces in the east and territorial losses in the west (later ceded back to Pakistan following the 1972 Simla Agreement).[36][37]

Piffer units fought in both east and west. The 31st FF, Pakistan's first national service battalion, raised in November 1971 just before the war, was deployed at Lahore and in the Khemkaran Sector. In East Pakistan, the 4th and 13th FF were present at the Battle of Hilli, where 4th FF held its position until ordered out.[38] Major Muhammad Akram of the 4th FF was posthumously awarded Pakistan's highest award for gallantry, the Nishan-e-Haider.[39] Other units which operated from East Pakistan were the 12th, 15th, 22nd, 24th, 25th, 26th, 30th and 38th FF. They became prisoners of war once Dhakka fell to the Indian army in December 1971.[40]

In West Pakistan, the 11th Cavalry saw heavy fighting in the Chhamb sector. The 2nd FF Battalion, while defending Shisabladi post at Kashmir sector, drove back an Indian brigade.[41] Along with 2nd FF 3rd, 5th, 17th and 33rd FF also operated in the Kashmir sector. In the Sialkot sector, the 19th, 23rd, 27th, 29th, 35th and 37th FF took part in fighting. The 35th FF Battalion suffered heavy casualties in an offensive at Jarpal, the area captured a day before.[42][43] An Indian commander, Lieutenant-Colonel V P Airy, of the 3rd Grenadier Guards who fought against 35th FF said: "35 FF's immortal attack won their commanding officer, Lieutenant-Colonel Akram Raja, a posthumous Hilal-e-Jurat, with the highest compliment a gallant soldier could receive".[44] The 8th and 18th FF fought on the Lahore front. In the Sulemanki sector, the 6th FF gained fame when it captured the Beriwala Bridge on Sabuna Drain on 3 December[45] and repulsed five attempts by opposition forces to retake it.[46] Major Shabbir Sharif, a holder of the Sitara-e-Jurat from the 1965 conflict, was awarded a posthumous Nishan-e-Haider. The 36th FF also fought in the Sulemanki sector, and the 20th, 21st, and 39th FF saw action in the Rajhisthan sector.[47] After enemy offensive the 21st and 39th FF withdrew from Parbat Ali, a stronghold in that sector.[48][49]

Siachen Conflict[edit]

Main article: Siachen Conflict

As a result of a vague demarcation of territory in the 1972 Simla Accord, both Pakistan and India lay claim to the Siachen Glacier, which lies in the eastern Karakorum mountain range at altitudes of up to 18,875 feet (5,753 m). Following a period of tension, in April 1984 the Indian Army launched Operation Meghdoot with the aim of capturing the glacier.[50] Pakistan responded in kind, but Indian troops had already occupied the major mountain passes west of the glacier and captured many strategic points. Both countries established military posts, and from 1984 until 2003, intermittent fighting took place.[51] The conflict is remarkable for the harsh conditions under which it was fought—on average, one Pakistani soldier died every fourth day, with most of the casualties caused by the severe climate.[52][53]

A number of Piffer units were deployed to the world's highest battleground,[54] including the 3rd, 4th, 8th, 24th, 26th, 28th, 31st, 36th, 38th, 39th and 47th FF. In addition, some Northern Light Infantry Battalions, who were the first to arrive, were led by Piffer officers.[citation needed] Frontier Force casualties in the conflict include three officers, two junior commissioned officers, and 81 other ranks killed in action.[55]

Kargil War[edit]

Main article: Kargil War

The town and district of Kargil in Jammu and Kashmir lies on the Line of Control (LOC), the de facto border between Pakistan and India in the Kashmir region. In May 1999 elements in the Pakistani Armed Forces covertly trained and sent troops and paramilitary forces into Indian territory. The aim was to sever the link between Kashmir and Ladakh, and cause Indian forces to withdraw from the Siachen Glacier, thus forcing India to negotiate a settlement of the broader Kashmir dispute.[56] The Kargil Conflict was triggered when Pakistan occupied around 130 Indian observation posts on the Indian side of the LOC. As India responded, regular Pakistan army units were called up.[57]

The 19th, 33rd, 38th and 44th FF Battalions, and some Piffer officers serving in Northern Light Infantry battalions, participated in the conflict.[58] In total four officers and twenty four other ranks were killed in action.[59] The war ended after the then Prime Minister of Pakistan, Nawaz Sharif, agreed to call the troops back on July 4, 1999, after meeting with U.S President Bill Clinton.[60]

International duty[edit]

Operations[edit]

A Piffer infantryman (centre) in Somalia, with the green flag of Pakistan.

The Frontier Force Regiment has served outside Pakistan in various multinational and peacekeeping roles. From 1981 to 1988, the Piffer's mechanised infantry battalions were stationed at Tabuk, Saudi Arabia, as part of a Pakistani armoured brigade allocated for the defence of the Islamic holy land.[55] However, the brigade was withdrawn after the Government of Pakistan was unable to accede to a Saudi request that only Sunnis be included in the troops sent to their land. Then President of Pakistan, General Zia-ul-Haq said, there was no discrimination in the Pakistan Armed Forces.[61]

Pakistan formed part of the multinational coalition force that participated in the 1991 Gulf War. Deploying up to 5,500 troops in a strictly defensive role,[62][63] the Pakistani contingent included the 63rd FF Battalion, which was stationed at Tabuk and Arar until the cessation of hostilities.[55] The early 1990s also saw Pakistan's increased participation in UN peacekeeping operations. In 1992, the 7th FF Battalion spearheaded the UN military mission to Somalia. The US Marine landing on Mogadishu beach was in an area secured by the 7th FF,[64] and the 5th, 8th and 15th FF were also deployed to the region. On October 3, 1993, the 15th FF's Quick Reaction Force participated in the Pakistani-led rescue operation of a force of US Rangers that had become pinned down in Mogadishu; contrary to the fictionalised depiction of events in the movie Black Hawk Down, a number of Rangers were taken to safety in the 15th's armoured personnel carriers.[6][55][65]

Following the operation the United Nations Secretary General's Special Representative, Admiral Jonathan Howe and UNOSOM Force Commander, Lieutenant General Cevik Bir appreciated Pakistani troops' efforts and thanked them for helping the US troops.[66] Major General Thomas M. Montgomery, Deputy Commander of the United Nations Forces in Somalia while praising Pakistani forces' said in a television interview, "Many of the soldiers are alive today because of the willingness and skill of the Pakistani soldiers who worked jointly in a rescue operation with Malaysian and American soldiers in most difficult and dangerous combat circumstances. Such splendid soldiers to Somalia who we feel proud to serve with. Pakistani soldiers have been completely dependable even in the most difficult circumstances. They have shouldered a huge and dangerous load for UNOSOM and the Somali people."[67]

Exercises[edit]

The 35th FF Battalion participated in Cambrian Patrol and won Gold medal in 2010.[68] Cambrian Patrol is a three day military exercise organized by 160th (Wales) Brigade (part of 5th Infantry Division) of the British Army in Wales.[69] The exercise involves various military drills including: Battle Procedure, Orders, Infiltration, Target Reconnaissance, Support to Friendly Forces, Battlefield Drills, Exfiltration, and Debriefing.[70] The other participant countries include USA, Canada, Germany, France, India.[71][72]

Commanders[edit]

Colonels in Chief[edit]

The officers of the regiment who are promoted to the designation of Chief of Army Staff are known as Colonels in Chief. It is an honorary appointment. The FF regiment has only three Colonels in Chief since its formation.[73]

Colonel Commandants[edit]

The Colonel Commandant is an honorary designation given to the highest-ranked officer in service of the regiment. The Colonel Commandants since the creation of the regiment are listed below:

Colonel Commandants[73]
Serial Number Name Decorations Term of Appointment Unit
1 Major General Mian Hayaud Din HJ, MBE, MC. May 8, 1954 – May 6, 1956 6 FF & 14 FF
2 Lieutenant General Khalid Masud Sheikh. HI (M) October 1, 1957 – June 30, 1962 13 FF
3 General Muhammad Musa HJ, HPk, HQA, MBE October 1, 1962 – February 5, 1965 1 FF
4 Lieutenant General Altaf Qadir MBE February 6, 1965 – August 27, 1969 6 FF
5 Lieutenant General Attiqur Rahman HPk, HQA, MC August 28, 1969 – November 19, 1973 6 FF
6 General Muhammad Iqbal Khan NI (M), HI (M), SBt August 21, 1978 – March 17, 1985 2 FF
7 Lieutenant General Khushdil Khan Afridi HI (M), SBt March 18, 1985 – January 6, 1986 10 FF, 12 FF & 18 FF
8 Lieutenant General Ahmed Kamal Khan HI (M), SI (M), SBt May 24, 1987 – May 23, 1991 10 FF
9 Lieutenant General Imran Ullah Khan HI (M), SI (M), SBt May 24, 1991 – May 22, 1995 5 FF & 40 FF
10 Lieutenant General Mumtaz Gul HI (M), TBt May 23, 1995 – April 24, 1999 2 FF, 3 FF & 19 FF
11 Lieutenant General Tahir Ali Qureshi HI (M), SBt May 10, 1999 – May 16, 2001 13 FF
12 Lieutenant General Mushtaq Hussain HI (M) May 17, 2001 – 4 FF
13 Lieutenant General Munir Hafiez HI (M) – October 2005 7 FF
14 Lieutenant General Syed Sabahat Hussain[75] HI (M) October 2005 – May 5, 2009 2 FF
15 Lieutenant General Ahmad Shuja Pasha HI (M) May 5, 2009 – March 19, 2012 5 FF & 16 FF
16 Lieutenant General Alam Khattak HI (M), TBt March 19, 2012 – October 4, 2013 14 FF
17 General Raheel Sharif[76] NI (M) October 4, 2013 - present 6 FF

Battle honours[edit]

Piffers have won many honours for their gallantry deeds in each battle. They were also awarded foreign medals before the independence of Pakistan, including Victoria Cross. The Pakistani medals and honours bestowed upon Piffers are listed here:

Honours & Awards[77]
War NH HJ SJ TJ Sitara-i-Basalat Tamgha-i-Basalat
1948 War 3 9 166
1965 War 2 284 313
1971 War 2 2 34 44
Siachen 133 133 144
Kargil 8 2 1 3
Miscellaneous 5 62 107
Total 2 7 473 525 196 254


Nishan-e-Haider recipients[edit]

Nishan-e-Haider is the highest military award given posthumously for valour, in Pakistan. The recipients of Nishan-e-Haider from the Frontier Force Regiment are:

  • Major Muhammad Akram (4th FF)
Main article: Muhammad Akram

When the Indo-Pak War of 1971 broke out, Major Muhammad Akram was commanding a company of 4th FF Battalion. His company was involved in the Battle of Hilli. On the opposite side India had an Infantry brigade with the support of a tank squadron which were making way for the 20th Mountain Division. Major Akram and his men fought for a whole fortnight against enemy who was superior both in number and fire power. Hilli was the only battle sector where the fight continued even after the Fall of Dhaka on December 16, 1971. Major Akram died in action while defending in an epic manner after defying surrender. For his sacrifice he was posthumously awarded Nishan-e-Haider.[78]

  • Major Shabbir Sharif (6th FF)
Main article: Shabbir Sharif

On December 3, 1971, Major Shabbir Sharif who was commanding a company of 6th FF Regiment near Sulemanki headworks, was assigned the task of capturing the high ground overlooking the Gurmukh Khera and Beriwala villages in the Sulemanki sector. On the opposite side India had more than a company of the Assam Regiment which was supported by a squadron of tanks. Also among the hurdles were an enemy minefield and a defensive canal, 30 feet (9.1 m) wide and 10 feet (3.0 m) deep. Shabbir Sharif succeeded in capturing the area by early evening on December 3. In this fight 43 Indian soldiers were killed, 28 were taken prisoner and four tanks were destroyed. Shabbir Sharif repelled repeated counterattacks by the opposing forces for the next three days and nights and kept strategically better position, holding two Indian battalions at bay. On the night of December 5/ 6, during one of the enemy attacks, Sharif hopped out of his trench, killed the enemy Company Commander of 4th Jat Regiment and recovered important documents from his possession. In another attack on the morning of December 6, Shabbir Sharif took over an anti tank gun from his gunner, and while engaging enemy tanks, he was killed in action by a direct hit from a tank. Major Shabbir Sharif already a recipient of Sitara-e-Jurat, was posthumously awarded Nishan-e-Haider for his sacrifice.[78]

Hilal-e-Jurat recipients[edit]

Hilal-e-Jurat is the second highest military award given for valour to Armed forces personnel of Pakistan. Piffers who received Hilal-e-Jurat are:

Sitara-e-Jurat recipients[edit]

Sitara-e-Jurat is the third highest military award given for valour to Armed forces personnel of Pakistan. Piffers who received Sitara-e-Jurat are:

  • Major Muhammad Akbar for Taitwal Sector 1948 (First recipient of SJ of Pakistan)
  • Second Lieutenant Shabbir Sharif of 6th FF (for Chhamb Sector 1965)
  • Captain Mujeeb Faqrullah Khan of 25th FFR (for Chamb-Jorian Sector 1971)

VC recipients[edit]

The Victoria Cross is the highest battle order of Britain, awarded for valour. As the Frontier Force regiment still maintains the lineage of its predecessor regiments, so this award was received by following Piffers:[79]

MC recipients[edit]

The Military Cross is the third highest battle honour of Britain, awarded for valour. The Frontier Force regiment still maintains the lineage of its predecessor regiments so this award was received by following Piffers:[80]

Legion d'Honneur recipients[edit]

Commandeur, the third highest of five classes of the Légion d'honneur was awarded by the Republic of France for securing areas of Indo-China in 1946, to the only Piffer to have received this distinction:

Legion of Merit recipients[edit]

This is the highest military decoration that may be bestowed by the US Government upon a foreign national. Piffers who received the Legion of Merit are:

Member of the Order of the British Empire (M.B.E) – Military[edit]

This is the fourth highest award in the Order of the British Empire. Piffers who received the military division of the MBE are:

Motto and colours[edit]

The motto of the regiment is Labbaik, an Arabic word, which means Here I Come. It is commonly used as an invocation to respond to Allah's call for pilgrimage during Hajj, the annual Muslims pilgrimage.[81] Before 1970, each Piffer unit had its own motto but on the whole the regiment had no motto, so it was decided at the Piffer Conference in 1970 to adopt Labbaik as the regimental motto. The official meaning of this motto is:[82]

—making all preparations required for going to battle, and putting ones heart and soul into the endeavour, aimed at achieving the assigned mission.

Piffers wear the same basic khaki uniform as in other regiments in the Pakistan Army, although the rank colour differs with Piffer personnel wearing rank insignia that are black with a red background. They also wear a badge on the shoulder strap of the uniform with "FF Regiment" written of it that uses the same colour combination. The colour of the Piffers' beret is rifle green with the insignia of the regiment at front. The Sam Browne Belt worn by members of the regiment, which was designed by General Sir Sam Browne, is black in colour.[83][84] The battle dress uniform worn by the regiment is camouflage with same distinctions as those that are worn on the khaki uniform.

Alliances[edit]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ General Rob Lockhart. "The Punjab Frontier Force: A century of service". The Asiatic review (London: London : Westminster Chamber). 45–46: 667. OCLC 1780097. Retrieved 18 March 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Mahmud, Babar (2002). "Pakistan: The Frontier Force Regiment". Orbat.com website. Ravi Rikhye. 
  3. ^ Arshad Qureshi, Hakeem (2002). The 1971 Indo-Pak War: A Soldier's Narrative. USA: Oxford University Press. p. 249. ISBN 978-0-19-579778-7. 
  4. ^ Kathryn Cramer: Google Earth Dynamic Overlay for Pakistan Now Available! (Plus "Home of the Piffers" and a Dragon Hunt)
  5. ^ a b c "Frontier Force Regiment". Pakistan Army Infantry Regiments. GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 12 February 2012. 
  6. ^ a b Stewart, Dr. Richard W. (2006). The United States Army in Somalia, 1992–1994. Washington DC: United States Army Center of Military History. pp. 22–23. CMH Pub 70-81-1. 
  7. ^ Gaylor, John (1992). "12th Frontier Force Regiment". Sons of John Company: the Indian and Pakistan Armies 1903-91. Spellmount. p. 173. ISBN 978-0946771981. 
  8. ^ Bajwa, Mandeep Singh (2002). "The Pathan Regiment". Orbat.com website. Ravi Rikhye.  Note that there is an error in this source. 4/12 was a Frontier Force Regiment battalion, not a Frontier Force Rifles btn.
  9. ^ a b Condon (1962), p. 592
  10. ^ Pakistan Army Infantry Divisions
  11. ^ (Akram 2002, p. 10)
  12. ^ M. Chengappa, Bidanda (2005). Pakistan Islamisation, army and foreign policy. APH Publishing Corporation. p. 22. ISBN 978-81-7648-548-7. 
  13. ^ (Akram 2002, pp. 15–16)
  14. ^ Singh, RSN (2009). The Military Factor in Pakistan. Lancer Publishers. p. 397. ISBN 978-0-9815378-9-4. 
  15. ^ (Akram 2002, p. 17)
  16. ^ (Rahman 1980, p. 12)
  17. ^ (Akram 2002, p. 19)
  18. ^ Paul, T.V. (2005). The India-Pakistan Conflict: An Enduring Rivalry. Cambridge University Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-521-67126-2. 
  19. ^ Kort, Michael (2010). Weapons of Mass Destruction (Global Issues (Facts on File)). New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-8160-7827-1. 
  20. ^ "Kashmir border deaths spark India and Pakistan row". BBC. Retrieved 12 February 2012. 
  21. ^ Lyon, Peter (2008). Conflict Between India and Pakistan: An Encyclopedia (Roots of Modern Conflict). ABC-CLIO. pp. 80–81. ISBN 978-1-57607-712-2. 
  22. ^ Kux, Dennis (1993). India and the United States: Estranged Democracies, 1941–1991. Washington DC: National Defense University Press. pp. 235–239. ISBN 978-0-7881-0279-0. 
  23. ^ Thomas M. Leonard (2006). Encyclopedia of the developing world. Taylor & Francis. pp. 806–. ISBN 978-0-415-97663-3. Retrieved 14 April 2011. 
  24. ^ Lowe, Vaughan (2008). The United Nations Security Council and War: The Evolution of Thought and Practice since 1945. USA: Oxford University Press. p. 646. ISBN 978-0-19-953343-5. 
  25. ^ D. Sisk, Timothy (2009). International Mediation in Civil Wars: Bargaining with Bullets. Oxon: Routledge. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-415-47705-5. 
  26. ^ Cloughley, Brian (2000). A History of the Pakistan Army: Wars and Insurrections. USA: Oxford University Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-19-579374-1. 
  27. ^ Singh, Harbakhsh (1990). War despatches: Indo-Pak Conflict, 1965. India: Lancer. pp. 165–167. ISBN 978-81-7062-117-1. 
  28. ^ Brzoska, Michael (1994). Arms and Warfare: Escalation, De-Escalation, and Negotiation. University of South Carolina Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-87249-982-9. 
  29. ^ Agha Humayun Amin (2001). "Battle of Chawinda:Comedy of Higher Command Errors". Defence Journal 4 (8). Retrieved 16 March 2012. 
  30. ^ (Akram 2002, p. 11)
  31. ^ Husain, Abrar (2006). Men of Steel: 6 Armoured Division in the 1965 War. USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 30–46. ISBN 978-969-8125-19-6. 
  32. ^ Bhupinder Singh (1982). 1965 War: Role of Tanks in India-Pakistan War. B.C. Publishers. p. 151. ASIN B0061UKCOC. Retrieved 23 March 2012. 
  33. ^ Husain, Abrar (2006). Men of Steel: 6 Armoured Division in the 1965 War. Oxford University Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-969-8125-19-6. 
  34. ^ "Frontier Force Regiment". Pakistan Army. Retrieved 16 March 2012. 
  35. ^ Sisson, Richard (1991). War and Secession: Pakistan, India, and the Creation of Bangladesh. University of California Press. pp. 182–185. ISBN 978-0-520-07665-5. 
  36. ^ Praval, KC (2009). Indian Army after Independence. Lancer. pp. 504–513. ISBN 978-1-935501-10-7. 
  37. ^ Chitkara, M.G (1996). Nuclear Pakistan. Ashish. pp. 146–147. ISBN 978-81-7024-767-8. 
  38. ^ (Rahman 1980, pp. 112–118)
  39. ^ Om, Gupta (2006). Encyclopaedia of India Pakistan & Bangladesh. Isha Books. p. 1449. ISBN 978-81-8205-389-2. 
  40. ^ (Akram 2002, p. 12)
  41. ^ (Singh 1994, p. 47)
  42. ^ P. Barua, Pradeep (2005). The State at War in South Asia (Studies in War, Society, and the Militar). University of Nebraska Press. p. 366. ISBN 978-0-8032-1344-9. 
  43. ^ (Singh 1994, pp. 100–102)
  44. ^ (Rahman 1980, p. 170)
  45. ^ (Singh 1994, pp. 196–197)
  46. ^ Singh, Jagjit (2001). With Honour & Glory: Wars Fought By India 1947–1999. Lancer Publishers. pp. 111–114. ISBN 978-81-7062-109-6. 
  47. ^ (Akram 2002, pp. 12–13)
  48. ^ P. Barua, Pradeep (2005). The State at War in South Asia (Studies in War, Society, and the Militar). University of Nebraska Press. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-8032-1344-9. 
  49. ^ (Singh 1994, p. 225)
  50. ^ Sciachen & LoC
  51. ^ "War at the Top of the World". Time. November 7, 2005. Retrieved May 3, 2010. [dead link]
  52. ^ Siachen: The Stalemate Continues
  53. ^ "No breakthrough in Siachen talks". BBC News. May 27, 2005. Retrieved May 3, 2010. 
  54. ^ VAUSE, Mikel. Peering Over the Edge: The Philosophy of Mountaineering, p. 194.
  55. ^ a b c d (Akram 2002, p. 14)
  56. ^ Robert G. Wirsing (2003). Kashmir in the Shadow of War: regional rivalries in a nuclear age. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-7656-1090-6.  Pg 38
  57. ^ Pervez Musharraf (2006). In the Line of Fire: A Memoir. Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-8344-9. OCLC 237066528. 
  58. ^ S Ludra, Kuldip (2000). The Kargil strike: A study of the failure of Indian strategic thought. T.K.S. Ludra. p. 51. ISBN 978-81-901218-9-7. 
  59. ^ (Akram 2002, p. 15)
  60. ^ "Pakistan and the Kashmir militants". BBC News. July 5, 1999. Retrieved May 3, 2010. 
  61. ^ Crossette, Barbara (August 14, 1990). "CONFRONTATION IN THE GULF; Pakistanis Agree to Join Defense of Saudi Arabia". The New York Times. Retrieved May 3, 2010. 
  62. ^ Public Diplomacy Query (PDQ)
  63. ^ W. Watson, Bruce; Bruce George; Peter Tsouras; B. L. Cyr (1991). Bruce W. Watson, ed. Military Lessons of the Gulf War. Greenhill Books. pp. 80–143. ISBN 1-85367-103-7. 
  64. ^ [1][dead link]
  65. ^ Musharraf, Pervez (2006). In the Line of Fire: A Memoir. Free Press. pp. 75–76. ISBN 978-0-7432-8344-1. 
  66. ^ "UNOSOM". UN Peace Keeping Missions. Pakistan Army. Retrieved 11 February 2012. 
  67. ^ "UN Somalia Operations". Tributes to the Pakistani Peacekeepers. Pakistan Army. Retrieved 11 February 2012. 
  68. ^ Haider, Ejaz (25 October 2010). "Tactical wins; strategic losses". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 18 March 2012. 
  69. ^ "Cambrian Patrol". Training and Exercises. Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom). Retrieved 18 March 2012. [dead link]
  70. ^ "Exercise Cambrian Patrol 2010 (CP 10)" (PDF). Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom). 18 October 2010. p. 1. Retrieved 18 March 2012. [dead link]
  71. ^ "Exercise Cambrian Patrol – United Kingdom" (Press release). Inter-Services Public Relations. 20 October 2010. Retrieved 18 March 2012. 
  72. ^ "Pakistan Army wins gold medal in Cambrian Patrol Exercise". Daily Times. 21 October 2010. Retrieved 18 March 2012. 
  73. ^ a b (Akram 2002, p. 28)
  74. ^ Radio Pakistan (4 May 2014). "General Raheel Sharif appointed as Col-in Chief of Frontier Force Regiment". Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 19 May 2014. 
  75. ^ Sharif, Arshad (5 May 2005). "New corps commander for Multan". DAWN, internet edition (6 May 2005 issue). [dead link]
  76. ^ "Who will be Gen Kayani’s successor?". Pakistan Today. 7 October 2013. Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  77. ^ (Akram 2002, p. 27)
  78. ^ a b "Nishan-E-Haider Series". Pakistan Post Office website. 2001. Retrieved 2008-02-10. 
  79. ^ VC Burials Pakistan
  80. ^ Mc Burials Pakistan
  81. ^ Hajj Glossary, Tawaf (Circumambulating Kaaba), Takbeer (Allahu Akbar), Talbiyah (Labbaik), Muzdalifa, Arafah, Kaffara
  82. ^ (Akram 2002, p. 16)
  83. ^ (Akram 2002, pp. 16–17)
  84. ^ [2][dead link]
  85. ^ a b The Argylls, allied regiments, volunteers and the militia
  86. ^ "The Frontier Force Regiment, Pakistan Army". Allied Regiments. The Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. Retrieved 12 March 2012. 
  87. ^ Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders – Allied Regiments
  88. ^ Alliances and Affiliations[dead link]
  89. ^ Christopher Chant (May 1988). Handbook of British Regiments. Routledge Kegan & Paul. p. 183. ISBN 978-0-415-00241-7. Retrieved 2 May 2012. 
  90. ^ "Affiliations". The Royal Irish Regiment. British Army. Archived from the original on 6 December 2005. Retrieved 2 May 2012. 
  91. ^ The Regimental Family[dead link]

References[edit]

  • Condon, Brigadier W.E.H. (1962). The Frontier Force Regiment. Aldershot: Gale & Polden. 
  • Akram, Agha Masood (2002). The Piffers. 
  • Rahman, Muhammad Attiqur (1980). The wardens of the marches : a history of the Piffers 1947–1971. Lahore: Wajidalis. ASIN B0000CQTM7. 
  • Singh, Jagjit (1994). Indian gunners at war, the western front-1971. Lancer International. ISBN 978-1-897829-55-4. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Major General M Hayaud Din (1950). One Hundred Glorious Years. Civil & Military Gazette Limited. 
  • Brigadier W E H Condon (1953). The Frontier Force Rifles. Gale & Polden Limited. 
  • Brigadier W E H Condon (1962). The Frontier Force Regiment. Gale & Polden Limited. 
  • Lieutenant General Attiqur Rahman (1980). The Wardens of the Marches. Wajidalis. 
  • John Gaylor (1993). Sons of John Company: The Indian and Pakistan Armies 1903–91. Lancer International. 
  • Capt. CW May (1933). History of the Second Sikhs, 12th Frontier Force Regiment 1846–1933. Mission Press Jubbulpore. 
  • Capt. SR Shirley (1915). History of the 54th Sikhs, Frontier Force Regiment 1846–1914. Gale & Polden. 
  • Col. H.C. Wylly (1930). The History of Coke's Rifles. Gale & Polden. 
  • Mohammad Nawaz Khan (1996). The glorious piffers, 1843–1995. The Frontier Force Regimental Centre. ASIN B0006FBFNU. 

External links[edit]