Fuad I of Egypt

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Fuad I
Fuad I of Egypt.jpg
King of Egypt and Sovereign of Nubia, the Sudan, Kurdufan and Darfur[1]
Reign 15 March 1922 – 28 April 1936
Predecessor Himself as Sultan of Egypt
Successor Farouk
Prime Ministers
Sultan of Egypt
Reign 9 October 1917 – 15 March 1922
Predecessor Hussein Kamel
Successor Himself as King of Egypt
Prime Ministers
Wives Shivakiar Khanum Effendi
(m. 1895; div. 1898)
Nazli Sabri
(m. 1919; wid. 1936)
Issue Prince Isma'il
Princess Fawkia
Farouk I
Princess Fawzia
Princess Faiza
Princess Faika
Princess Fathia
Full name
Ahmad Fuad
Arabic: أحمد فؤاد
House House of Muhammad Ali
(by birth)
Father Isma'il Pasha
Mother Ferial Hanım
Born (1868-03-26)26 March 1868
Giza Palace, Cairo, Khedivate of Egypt
Died 28 April 1936(1936-04-28) (aged 68)
Koubbeh Palace, Cairo, Kingdom of Egypt
Burial Al-Rifa'i Mosque, Cairo, Egypt
Religion Sunni Islam

Fuad I (Arabic: فؤاد الأول‎, Fu’ād al-Awwal; 26 March 1868 – 28 April 1936) was the Sultan and later King of Egypt and Sudan, Sovereign of Nubia, Kordofan, and Darfur. The ninth ruler of Egypt and Sudan from the Muhammad Ali dynasty, he became Sultan of Egypt and Sudan in 1917, succeeding his elder brother Sultan Hussein Kamel. He substituted the title of King for Sultan when the United Kingdom recognised Egyptian independence in 1922. His name is sometimes spelled Fouad.

Early life[edit]

Fuad was born in Giza Palace in Cairo, the seventh son of Isma'il the Magnificent. His mother was Farial Kadin.[2]

Prior to becoming sultan, Fuad had played a major role in the establishment of Cairo University. He became the university's first rector in 1908, and remained in the post until his resignation in 1913. He was succeeded as rector by then-minister of Justice Hussein Rushdi Pasha. In 1913, Fuad made unsuccessful attempts to secure for himself the throne of Albania, which had obtained its independence from the Ottoman Empire a year earlier. At the time, Egypt and Sudan was ruled by his nephew, Abbas II, and the likelihood of Fuad becoming the monarch in his own country seemed remote. This, and the fact that the Muhammad Ali dynasty was of Albanian descent, encouraged Fuad to seek the Albanian throne.[3] Fuad also served as President of the Egyptian Geographic Society from 1915 until 1918.[4]

Reign[edit]

Fuad ascended the throne of the Sultanate of Egypt upon the death of his brother Hussein Kamel in 1917. In the aftermath of the Egyptian Revolution of 1919, the United Kingdom ended its protectorate over Egypt, and recognised it as a sovereign state on 28 February 1922. On 15 March 1922, Fuad issued a decree changing his title from Sultan of Egypt to King of Egypt. In 1930, he attempted to strengthen the power of the Crown by abrogating the 1923 Constitution and replacing it with a new constitution that limited the role of parliament to advisory status only. Large scale public dissatisfaction compelled him to restore the earlier constitution in 1935.

The 1923 Constitution granted Fuad vast powers. He made frequent use of his right to dissolve Parliament. During his reign, cabinets were dismissed at royal will, and parliaments never lasted for their full four-year term but were dissolved by decree.[5]

Personal life[edit]

Fuad married his first wife in Cairo, 30 May 1895 at the Abbasiya Palace in Cairo, 14 February 1896, Princess Shivakiar Khanum Effendi (1876–1947). She was his cousin and the only daughter of Field Marshal Prince Ibrahim Fahmi Ahmad Pasha. They had two children, a son, Ismail Fuad, who died in infancy, and a daughter, Fawkia. Unhappily married, the couple divorced in 1898. During a dispute with the brother of his first wife, Fuad was shot in the throat. He survived, but carried that scar the rest of his life.

Fuad married his second wife at the Bustan Palace in Cairo on 24 May 1919. She was Nazli Sabri (1894–1978), daughter of Abdu'r-Rahim Pasha Sabri, sometime Minister of Agriculture and Governor of Cairo, by his wife, Tawfika Khanum Sharif. Queen Nazli also was a maternal granddaughter of Major-General Muhammad Sharif Pasha, sometime Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs, and a great-granddaughter of Suleiman Pasha, a French officer in Napoleon's army who converted to Islam and reorganized the Egyptian army. The couple had five children, the future King Farouk, and four daughters, the Princesses Fawzia (who became Queen Consort of Iran), Faiza, Faika, and Fathiya.

As with his first wife, Fuad's relation with his second wife was also stormy. The couple continually fought; Fuad even forbidding Nazli from leaving the palace. When Fuad died, it was said that the triumphant Nazli sold all of his clothes to a local used-clothes market in revenge. Fuad died at the Qubba Palace in Cairo and was buried at the Khedival Mausoleum in the ar-Rifai Mosque in Cairo.

China[edit]

The Fuad Muslim Library in China was named after him by the Chinese Muslim Ma Songting.[6]

Marriages[edit]

1. Shivakiar Khanum Effendi (1876–1947)

Children

2. Nazli Sabri (1894–1978)

Children

Titles[edit]

  • 1868 - 1917: His Highness Ahmed Fuad Pasha
  • 1917 - 1922: His Highness The Sultan of Egypt and Sudan, Sovereign of Nubia, Kordofan, and Darfur
  • 1922 - 1936: His Majesty The King of Egypt and Sudan, Sovereign of Nubia, Kordofan, and Darfur

Honours[edit]

King Fuad I in Belgium
Fuad I

See also[edit]

References[edit]

General
Specific
  1. ^ Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh, ed. (1980). "The Royal House of Egypt". Burke's Royal Families of the World. Volume II: Africa & the Middle East. London: Burke's Peerage. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-85011-029-6. OCLC 18496936. Retrieved 27 February 2010. 
  2. ^ Hassan Hassan (2000). In the House of Muhammad Ali: A Family Album, 1805-1952. American Univ in Cairo Press. pp. 9–. ISBN 978-977-424-554-1. Retrieved 5 February 2013. 
  3. ^ Reid, Donald Malcolm (2002). Cairo University and the Making of Modern Egypt. Volume 23 of Cambridge Middle East Library. Cambridge University Press. pp. 61–62. ISBN 978-0-521-89433-3. OCLC 49549849. Retrieved 27 February 2010. 
  4. ^ "The Presidents of the Society". Egyptian Geographic Society. Retrieved 27 February 2010. 
  5. ^ Abdalla, Ahmed (2008). The Student Movement and National Politics in Egypt, 1923–1973. American University in Cairo Press. pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-977-416-199-5. Retrieved 22 July 2010. 
  6. ^ Stéphane A. Dudoignon, Hisao Komatsu, Yasushi Kosugi (2006). Stéphane A. Dudoignon, Hisao Komatsu, Yasushi Kosugi, ed. Intellectuals in the Modern Islamic World: Transmission, Transformation, Communication. Taylor & Francis. p. 251. ISBN 978-0-415-36835-3. Retrieved 28 June 2010. 
Fuad I of Egypt
Born: 26 March 1868 Died: 28 April 1936
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Hussein Kamel
Sultan of Egypt
1917–1922
Sultanate becomes
independent kingdom
New title
Kingdom of Egypt established
King of Egypt
1922–1936
Succeeded by
Farouk I
Academic offices
New institution Rector of Cairo University
1908–1913
Succeeded by
Hussein Rushdi Pasha
Professional and academic associations
Preceded by
Onofrio Abbate Pasha
President of the Egyptian Geographic Society
1915–1918
Succeeded by
Isma'il Sidqi Pasha