Fubuki-class destroyer

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Fubuki
Fubuki
Class overview
Builders: Maizuru Naval Arsenal
Yokohama Shipyards
Fujinagata Shipyards
Uraga Dock Company
Sasebo Naval Arsenal
Ishikawajima Shipyards
Operators: Empire of JapanImperial Japanese Navy
Soviet UnionSoviet Navy (post-war with Hibiki)
Preceded by: Mutsuki-class destroyer
Succeeded by: Hatsuharu-class destroyer
Subclasses: Type I (Fubuki class)
Type II (Ayanami class)
Type III (Akatsuki class)
Built: 1926–1933
In commission: 1928–1945
Completed: 24
Lost: 22
Retired: 2
General characteristics
Type: Destroyer
Displacement: 1,750 long tons (1,780 t) standard
2,050 long tons (2,080 t) re-built
Length: 111.96 m (367.3 ft) pp,
115.3 m (378 ft) waterline
118.41 m (388.5 ft) overall
Beam: 10.4 m (34 ft 1 in)
Draft: 3.2 m (10 ft 6 in)
Propulsion: 2 shaft Kampon geared turbines
4 (Groups I & II) or 3 (Group III) boilers
50,000 hp (37,000 kW)
Speed: 38 knots (44 mph; 70 km/h)
Range: 5,000 nmi (9,300 km) at 14 knots (26 km/h)
Complement: 219
Armament: 6 × Type 3 127 mm 50 caliber naval guns (3 × 2)
2 × Type 93 13mm machine guns (2 × 1)
9 × 610 mm (24 in) torpedo tubes (3 × 3)
18 × 8th Year Type torpedoes (later replaced to the Type 90 torpedo)
18 × depth charges
Office of Naval Intelligence recognition drawing of Fubuki class

The Fubuki-class destroyers (吹雪型駆逐艦 Fubukigata kuchikukan?) was a class of twenty-four destroyers of the Imperial Japanese Navy.[1] The Fubuki class has been called "the world's first modern destroyer."[2] The Fubuki class not only set a new standard for Japanese vessels, but for destroyers around the world. At a time when British and American destroyers had changed little from their un-turreted, single-gun mounts and light weaponry, the Japanese destroyers were bigger, more powerfully armed, and faster than any similar class of vessel in the other fleets. They remained formidable opponents to the end of World War II, despite being much older than many of their adversaries.[3]

Background[edit]

After the end of World War I, the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff issued requirements for a destroyer with a maximum speed of 39 knots, range of 4000 nautical miles at 14 knots, and armed with large numbers of the recently developed Type 8 torpedoes. These destroyers were intended to operate with the new series of fast and powerful new cruisers also under consideration as part of a program intended to give the Imperial Japanese Navy a qualitative edge with the world's most modern ships.[4]

The resultant Fubuki class was ordered under the 1923 fiscal year budget, with ships completed between 1926 and 1931. Their performance was a great improvement over previous destroyer designs, so much so that they were designated Special Type destroyers (特型 Tokugata?). The large size, powerful engines, high speed, large radius of action, and unprecedented armament gave these destroyers the firepower similar to many light cruisers in other navies.[5]

The Fubuki-class vessels were originally intended to only have hull numbers due to the projected large number of warships the Japanese Navy expected to build through the Eight-eight fleet plan. This proved to be extremely unpopular with the crews and was a constant source of confusion in communications with the earlier Kamikaze and Mutsuki-classes, and naval policy was changed in August 1928. Hence, the Fubuki-class vessels were assigned names as they were launched.

The closest equivalents in the United States Navy were the Porter- and Somers-class destroyers, of which only thirteen vessels were constructed in the 1930s to function as destroyer squadron leaders.[6]

Design[edit]

The initial design for the Fubuki class was based on a 2000 ton displacement hull with a single 12.7 cm (5.0 in) battery, two twin 24-inch torpedo tubes (just introduced in Mutsuki), and capable of 40 knots (74 km/h). Following the abandonment of the Washington Naval Treaty from 1923, the design was modified to 1680 standard tons with more guns and more torpedo tubes. However, their increased displacement more than offset their more powerful engines, resulting in a slower top speed than originally planned.[7]

The main battery consisted of six Type 3 127 mm 50 caliber naval guns, mounted in pairs in three weather-proof, splinter-proof, gas-tight gun turrets which were far ahead of their time.[7] On the last 14 vessels of the series, these guns were dual purpose guns which could be elevated to 70 degrees, making them the world's first destroyers with this ability.[8] Ammunition was brought up on hoists from magazines located directly underneath each gun turret, which have a far greater rate of fire than other contemporary destroyers, where ammunition was typically manually loaded.[5]

Unlike the earlier Minekaze series destroyers, the Fubuki did not have a forecastle break containing the forward torpedo launchers. Instead, the forward launchers were located between the siamesed smokestacks. Originally Type 8 torpedoes were carried, arranged in three triple mountings.

To increase comfort and combat ability even in bad weather, the forecastle was raised, and the bridge enlarged and enclosed.[9] The bow was given a significant flare, to offer protection against weather in the Pacific.

Between June 1928 and March 1933, twenty-four Fubuki-class destroyers were built, in three groups. As completed, Fubuki had twin 5-inch guns in "A", "X", and "Y" positions, with triple torpedo tubes in "D", "P", and "Q",[10] making them the most powerful destroyers in the world at the time of their completion.

Development[edit]

The first group, or Fubuki class, consisted of the first ten vessels completed in 1928 and 1929, were simpler in construction than the vessels that followed. They had a rangefinder on the compass bridge, an exposed gun-fire control room, and were equipped with a “Type A” gun turret that only elevate both of its barrels at the same time and only to 40 degrees. The first group can be distinguished from later ships by their lack of ventilators atop the stacks.[11]

The second group, or Ayanami class, were built in 1930 and 1931, and had larger bridges which encompassed the rangefinder, an azimuth compass sighting device, the gun-fire control room, as well as a range finding tower. Furthermore, the boiler room's air inlet was changed from a pipe to a bowl shape. They also benefited from the deployment of “Type B” turrets, which could elevate each gun separately to 75° for AA use, making them the world's first destroyers with this capability.[11]

The third group, also known as the Akatsuki class, were built from 1931 to 1933. These vessels had larger boilers and a narrower fore funnel. Improvements included a unique splinter-proof torpedo launcher-turret, which allowed the torpedo launcher tubes to be reloaded in action (something which Western destroyers still did not have in the 1990s).[11]

However, the Fubuki class also had a number of inherent design problems. The large amount of armament combined with a smaller hull displacement than in the original design created issues with stability. After the Tomozuru Incident, in which the top-heavy design of many Japanese warships called basic design issues into question, additional ballast had to be added. In the Fourth Fleet Incident, during which a typhoon damaged virtually every ship in the Fourth Fleet, issues with the longitudinal strength of the Fubuki-class hull was discovered. As a result, all vessels were reconstructed between 1935 and 1937. This increased the displacement to 2050 tons standard tons and over 2400 tons full load. The rebuild reduced the top speed slightly.

During World War II, as surviving vessels returned to the Japanese home islands for repair and refit, the anti-aircraft armament was steadily upgraded. In 1945, the "X" turret was replaced on surviving vessels to create space and lighten the top for the addition of 14 -Type 96 25 mm AT/AA Guns, two additional 13 mm anti-aircraft machine guns, 18 more depth charges, and radar were installed.

Operational history[edit]

Of the 24 Fubuki-class vessels completed, one (Miyuki) was sunk in a collision in 1934.[12] The remaining vessels served throughout the Pacific War. In November 1942, the Ayanami damaged the battleship USS South Dakota (BB-57) with her gunfire during the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal before being attacked by USS Washington (BB-56), which crippled the battleship Kirishima as well. She was scuttled the following day by Uranami. In August 1943, John F. Kennedy's PT-109 was rammed, split asunder and sunk by the Amagiri of this class.

Eight ships of the class were sunk by submarines, and two by mines, the rest by air attacks. Only Hibiki and Ushio survived the war. Hibiki was taken by the Soviet Navy as a prize of war, and continued to be used until 1964.

List of Ships[edit]

Type I (Fubuki)[edit]

Kanji Name Builder Laid down Launched Completed Fate
吹雪 Fubuki
DD-35
Maizuru Naval Arsenal, Japan 19 June 1926 15 November 1927 10 August 1928 Sunk in surface action off Guadalcanal [09.06S, 159.38E] on 11 October 1942; struck 15 November 1942
白雪 Shirayuki
DD-36
Yokohama Dockyard, Japan 19 March 1927 20 March 1928 18 December 1928 air attack off Dampir Strait [07.15S, 148.30E] on 3 March 1943; struck 1 April 1943
初雪 Hatsuyuki
DD-37
Maizuru Naval Arsenal, Japan 12 April 1927 29 September 1928 30 March 1929 Air attack off Buin [06.50S, 155.47E] on 17 July 1943; struck 15 October 1943
深雪 Miyuki
DD-38
Uraga Dock Company, Japan 30 April 1927 29 June 1928 29 June 1929 Collision with Inazuma, S Cheju Island [33N, 125.30E] on 29 June 1934; struck 15 August 1934
叢雲 Murakumo
DD-39
Fujinagata Shipyards, Japan 25 April 1927 27 September 1928 10 May 1929 Sunk in action off Guadalcanal [08.40S, 159.20E] on 12 October 1942; struck 15 November 1942
東雲 Shinonome
DD-40
Sasebo Naval Arsenal, Japan 12 August 1926 26 November 1927 25 July 1928 Mined off Miri [04.24N, 114E] on 17 December 1941; struck 15 January 1942
薄雲 Usugumo
DD-41
Ishikawajima Shipyards, Japan 21 October 1926 26 December 1927 26 July 1928 renamed as Usugumo 1 August 1928; Torpedoed off Etorofu [47.43N, 147.55E] on 7 July 1944; struck 10 September 1944
白雲 Shirakumo
DD-42
Fujinagata Shipyards, Japan 27 October 1926 27 December 1927 28 July 1928 renamed as Shiragumo 1 August 1928; Torpedoed off Cape Erimo [42.25N, 144.55E] on 16 March 1944; struck 31 March 1944
磯波 Isonami
DD-43
Uraga Dock Company, Japan 18 October 1926 24 November 1927 30 June 1928 renamed as Isonami on 1 August 1928; Torpedoed off SW Celebes [05.26S, 123.04E] on 9 April 1943; struck 1 August 1943
浦波 Uranami
DD-44
Sasebo Naval Arsenal, Japan 28 April 1927 29 November 1928 30 June 1929 Air attack W of Panay [11.50N, 123E] on 26 October 1944; struck 10 December 1944

Type II (Ayanami)[edit]

Kanji Name Builder Laid down Launched Completed Fate
綾波 Ayanami
DD-45
Fujinagata Shipyards, Japan 20 January 1928 5 October 1929 30 April 1930 Scuttled off Guadalcanal by Uranami [09.10S, 159.52E]; 15 November 1942; struck 15 December 1942
敷波 Shikinami
DD-46
Maizuru Naval Arsenal, Japan 6 July 1928 22 June 1929 24 December 1929 Torpedoed S of Hainan [18.16N, 114.40E] 12 September 1944; struck 10 October 1944
朝霧 Asagiri
DD-47
Sasebo Naval Arsenal, Japan 12 December 1928 18 November 1929 30 June 1930 Air attack off Guadalcanal [08S, 160.10E] on 28 August 1942; struck 1 October 1942
夕霧 Yūgiri
DD-48
Maizuru Naval Arsenal, Japan 1 April 1929 12 May 1930 3 December 1930 Sunk in action, central Solomons [04.44S, 154E] on 25 November 1943; struck 15 December 1943
天霧 Amagiri
DD-49
Ishikawajima Shipyards, Japan 28 November 1928 27 February 1930 10 November 1930 Mined, S of Makassar Strait [02.10S, 116.45E] on 23 April 1944; struck 10 June 1944
狭霧 Sagiri
DD-50
Uraga Dock Company, Japan 28 March 1929 23 December 1929 30 January 1931 Torpedoed off Kuching [01.34N, 110.21E] on 24 December 1941; struck 15 January 1942
Oboro
DD-51
Sasebo Naval Arsenal, Japan 29 November 1929 8 November 1930 31 October 1931 Air attack off Kiska Island [52.17N, 178.08E] on 16 October 1942; struck 15 November 1942
Akebono
DD-52
Sasebo Naval Arsenal, Japan 25 October 1929 7 November 1930 31 July 1931 Air attack Manila Bay [14.35N, 120.50E] on 13 November 1944; struck 10 January 1945
Sazanami
DD-53
Maizuru Naval Arsenal, Japan 21 February 1930 6 June 1931 19 May 1932 Torpedoed E of Palau [05.15N, 141.15E] on 14 January 1944; struck 10 March 1944
Ushio
DD-54
Uraga Dock Company, Japan 24 December 1929 17 November 1930 14 November 1931 surrendered to Allies 15 September 1945; scrapped 1948

Type III (Akatsuki)[edit]

Kanji Name Builder Laid down Launched Completed Fate
Akatsuki Sasebo Naval Arsenal, Japan 17 February 1930 7 May 1932 30 November 1932 Sunk in action off Guadalcanal [09.17S, 159.56E] on 13 November 1942; struck 15 December 1942
Hibiki Maizuru Naval Arsenal, Japan 21 February 1930 16 June 1932 31 March 1933 surrendered 5 October 1945; prize of war to USSR on 5 July 1947; scrapped 1963
Ikazuchi Uraga Dock Company, Japan 7 March 1930 22 October 1931 15 August 1932 torpedoed W of Guam [10.13N, 143.51E] on 13 April 1944; struck 10 June 1944
Inazuma Fujinagata Shipyards, Japan 7 March 1930 25 February 1932 15 November 1932 Torpedoed W of Celebes [05.08N, 119.38E] on 14 May 1944; struck 10 June 1944

References[edit]

Books[edit]

External links[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Jentsura, Warships of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1869–1945
  2. ^ Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword: The Untold Story of the Battle of Midway. p. 336.
  3. ^ Specification from Fitzsimons, Bernard, ed. Illustrated Encyclopedia of 20th Century Weapons and Warfare (London: Phoebus, 1978), Volume 10, pp.1040–1, "Fubuki".
  4. ^ Fitzsimons, Illustrated Encyclopedia of 20th Century Weapons and Warfare p.1040
  5. ^ a b Peattie & Evans, Kaigun page 221-222.
  6. ^ Lenton, H. T. American Fleet and Escort Destroyers. (Doubleday, 1971), p.45-47.
  7. ^ a b Fitzsimons, Illustrated Encyclopedia of 20th Century Weapons and Warfare (London: Phoebus, 1977), Volume 10, p.1040.
  8. ^ Fitzsimons, Illustrated Encyclopedia of 20th Century Weapons and Warfare, Volume 10, p.1040.
  9. ^ Fitzsimons, p.1040. This would not be common on American destroyers until postwar.
  10. ^ Fitzsimons, pp.1040–1 diagram.
  11. ^ a b c Fitzsimons, Illustrated Encyclopedia of 20th Century Weapons and Warfare p.1040.
  12. ^ Nishidah, Imperial Japanese Navy