Fugu

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For other uses, see Fugu (disambiguation).
Fugu in a tank

Fugu (河豚 or ; フグ?) is the Japanese word for pufferfish and the dish prepared from it, normally species of genus Takifugu, Lagocephalus, or Sphoeroides, or porcupinefish of the genus Diodon. Fugu can be lethally poisonous due to its tetrodotoxin; therefore, it must be carefully prepared to remove toxic parts and to avoid contaminating the meat.[1]

The restaurant preparation of fugu is strictly controlled by law in Japan and several other countries, and only chefs who have qualified through rigorous training are allowed to deal with the fish.[1][2] Domestic preparation occasionally leads to accidental death.[2]

Fugu is served as sashimi and chirinabe.[2] Some consider the liver the tastiest part but it is also the most poisonous, and serving this organ in restaurants was banned in Japan in 1984.[2] Fugu has become one of the most celebrated and notorious dishes in Japanese cuisine.

Toxicity[edit]

Fugu contains lethal amounts of the poison tetrodotoxin in its organs, especially the liver, the ovaries, and the eyes whereas skin is usually non-poisonous. The poison, a sodium channel blocker, paralyzes the muscles while the victim stays fully conscious (thus making the effects similar to those of the nerve agents Sarin and VX). The victim is unable to breathe, and eventually dies from asphyxiation. Fugu poison is 1200 times stronger than cyanide[3] and there is no known antidote readily available. The standard treatment is to support the respiratory and circulatory systems until the poison is metabolized and excreted by the victim's body.

Advances in research and aquaculture have allowed some farmers to mass-produce safe fugu. Researchers surmised that fugu's tetrodotoxin came from eating other animals that held tetrodotoxin-laden bacteria and that the fish develops immunity over time. Many farmers now produce 'poison-free' fugu by keeping the fugu away from the bacteria. Usuki, a town in Ōita Prefecture, has become known for selling non-poisonous fugu.[4]

Consumption[edit]

History[edit]

Torafugu for sale to master fugu chefs at the Tsukiji fish market in Tokyo
Fugu sale in a market street in Osaka, Japan

The inhabitants of Japan have eaten fugu for centuries. Fugu bones have been found in several shell middens, called kaizuka, from the Jōmon period that date back more than 2,300 years. The Tokugawa shogunate (1603–1868) prohibited the consumption of fugu in Edo and its area of influence. It became common again as the power of the shogunate weakened. In western regions of Japan, where the government's influence was weaker and fugu was easier to get, various cooking methods were developed to safely eat them. During the Meiji Era (1867–1912), fugu was again banned in many areas. Fugu is also the only food the Emperor of Japan is forbidden to eat, for his safety.[5]

Fugu was also eaten in China, where its name was mentioned in the literature as early as circa 400BC. Fugu comes as the first in the three most delicious fish from The Yangtze river.[citation needed]

Species[edit]

The torafugu, or tiger blowfish (Takifugu rubripes), is the most prestigious edible species and the most poisonous. Other species are also eaten; for example, Higanfugu (T. pardalis), Shōsaifugu (T. vermicularis syn. snyderi), and Mafugu (T. porphyreus). The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan provides a list[6] that shows which species' body parts can be consumed. The list names safe genera including pufferfish of the Lagocephalus and Sphoeroides genera and the related porcupinefish (Harisenbon) of the genus Diodon.

Regulations[edit]

Official fugu preparation license.

Strict fishing regulations are now in place to protect fugu populations from depletion. Most fugu are now harvested in the spring during the spawning season and then farmed in floating cages in the Pacific Ocean. The largest wholesale fugu market in Japan is in Shimonoseki.

Fugu prices rise in autumn and peak in winter, the best season, because they fatten to survive the cold. Live fish arrive at a restaurant, surviving in a large tank, usually prominently displayed. Prepared fugu is also often available in grocery stores, which must display official license documents.[clarification needed] Whole fish may not be sold to the general public.

Since 1958, fugu chefs must also earn a license to prepare and sell fugu to the public. This involves a two- or three-year apprenticeship. The licensing examination process consists of a written test, a fish-identification test, and a practical test, preparing and eating the fish. Only about 35 percent of the applicants pass.[7] Small miscalculations result in failure or, in rare cases, death. Consumers believe that this training process makes it safer to eat fugu in restaurants or markets.[8] Also, commercially available fugu is sometimes grown in environments in which it grows to be less toxic.

Beginning in October 2012, restaurants in Japan can sell pre-packaged fugu which has been prepared by a licensed practitioner elsewhere.[9]

Cost[edit]

A dish of fugu can easily cost ¥5,000 (approx. US$50), but it can be found for as little as ¥2,000 (approx. US$20), and a full-course fugu meal (usually eight servings) can cost ¥10,000–20,000 (approx. US$100–200) or more.[citation needed] The expense encourages chefs to slice the fish very carefully to obtain the largest possible amount of meat. The special knife, called fugu hiki, is usually stored separately from other knives.

Preparations[edit]

Plate of fugu sashimi
  • Sashimi—The most popular dish is fugu sashimi, also called Fugu sashi or tessa. Knives with exceptionally thin blades are used for cutting fugu into translucent slices, a technique known as usudzukuri (薄造, うすづくり?).[10]
Fugu no Shirako
  • Milt—The soft roe (Shirako) of the blowfish is a highly prized food item in Japan. It is often found in department stores; and, along with cod milt, it is one of the most popular kinds of soft roe. It is often grilled and served with salt.
  • Baked—The fins of the fish are dried out completely, baked, and served in hot sake, a dish called Hire-zake.
Fugu-nabe, pufferfish hotpot
  • Stew—Vegetables and fugu can be simmered as Fugu-chiri, also called tetchiri, in which case the fish's very light taste is hard to distinguish from the vegetables and the dip.
  • Salad—If the spikes in the skin are pulled out, the skin can be eaten as part of a salad called yubiki.
  • Ovary—The ovary of the pufferfish contains greater amounts of the lethal poison tetrodotoxin than other parts of the body. However, in Hakusan, Ishikawa, the toxin has been eliminated in some local cuisine ("Blowfish Ovaries Pickled in Rice-Bran Paste" (河豚の卵巣の糠漬け, ふぐのらんそうのぬかづけ)) via preservation in salt and pickling in rice-bran paste. The toxin-free fugu is examined and shipped through the toxic inspection sector of an inspection agency after being treated for further examination. [11]

Poison[edit]

Main article: Tetrodotoxin

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin that shuts down electrical signaling in nerves by binding to the pores of sodium channel proteins in nerve cell membranes. Tetrodotoxin is not affected by cooking.[12] It does not cross the blood–brain barrier, leaving the victim fully conscious while paralyzing the muscles. In animal studies with mice, the median lethal dose was found to be 8 μg tetrodotoxin per kg body weight. The pufferfish itself is not susceptible to the poison because of a mutation in the protein sequence of its cells' sodium channel.

As previously mentioned, commercially available fugu in supermarkets or restaurants is very safe; and, while not unheard of, poisoning from these products is very rare. Most deaths from fugu occur when untrained people catch and prepare the fish, accidentally poisoning themselves. In some cases, they even eat the highly poisonous liver as a delicacy.

Recent evidence has shown that tetrodotoxin is produced by certain bacteria—such as Pseudoalteromonas tetraodonis, certain species of Pseudomonas and Vibrio, as well as others—and that these are the source of the toxin in pufferfish.[13]

Treatment[edit]

The symptoms from ingesting a lethal dose of tetrodotoxin may include dizziness, exhaustion, headache, nausea, or difficulty breathing. The victim remains conscious but cannot speak or move. Breathing stops and asphyxiation follows.

There is no known antidote, and treatment consists of emptying the stomach, feeding the victim activated charcoal to bind the toxin, and putting the victim on life support until the poison has worn off. Japanese toxicologists in several medical research centers are now working on developing an antidote for tetrodotoxin.

Incidents[edit]

Statistics from the Tokyo Bureau of Social Welfare and Public Health indicate 20 to 44 incidents of fugu poisoning per year between 1996 and 2006 in Japan (a single incident may involve multiple diners). Each year, these incidents led to between 34 and 64 victims being hospitalized and zero to six deaths, an average fatality rate of 6.8%.[14] Of the 23 incidents reported in Tokyo from 1993 through 2006, only one took place in a restaurant. All others involved fishermen eating their catch.[14] Poisonings through amateur preparation can result from confusion between types of puffer, as well as improper methods, and some may represent deliberate suicide attempts. Engelbert Kaempfer, a German physician who resided in Japan in the 1690s, reported that an unusually toxic variety of puffer was sometimes sought out by individuals who wished to take their own lives.[15]

Much higher figures have been reported for earlier years, peaking in 1958 when 176 people died.[7] According to the Fugu Research Institute 50% of the victims were poisoned by eating the liver, 43% from eating the ovaries, and 7% from eating the skin. One of the most famous victims was the Kabuki actor and "Living National Treasure" Bandō Mitsugorō VIII who in 1975 died after eating four servings of fugu kimo (fugu liver),[16] the sale of which was prohibited by local ordinances at the time.[17] Bandō claimed to be able to resist the poison,[16] but died several hours after returning to his hotel.[17]

On August 23, 2007, a doctor in Thailand reported that unscrupulous fish sellers sold puffer meat disguised as salmon, which resulted in the deaths of fifteen people over three years. About 115 people were brought to different hospitals. Fugu was banned in Thailand five years prior to the deaths.[18]

In March 2008, a fisherman in the Philippines died and members of his family became ill from pufferfish. The previous year, four people in the same town died and five others fell ill after eating the same variety of pufferfish.[19]

In February 2009, a Malaysian fisherman died and four others were hospitalised after they consumed a meal of puffer fish when they ran out of food while at sea.[20]

In November 2011, a two-Michelin star chef was suspended from his post at "Fugu Fukuji" restaurant in Tokyo. The chef served fugu liver to a customer who (despite being warned of the risks) specifically asked that it be provided. The 35-year-old customer subsequently required hospital treatment for mild symptoms of tetrodotoxin paralysis, but made a full recovery.[21]

Aquaculture[edit]

Scientists at Nagasaki University have reportedly succeeded in creating a non-toxic variety of torafugu by restricting the fish's diet.[22] After raising over 4,800 non-toxic fish, they are fairly certain that the fish's diet and digestive process actually produce the toxins. The non-toxic version is said to taste the same. Some skeptics say that the species being offered as non-toxic may be of a different species and that the toxicity has nothing to do with the diet of the pufferfish.[23]

Availability[edit]

Most Japanese cities enjoy one or more fugu restaurants. They may cluster, because of earlier restrictions, as proximity made it easier to ensure freshness. A famous restaurant specializing in fugu is Takefuku, in the Ginza district in Tokyo. Zuboraya is another popular chain in Osaka.

In South Korea, fugu is known as bok-eo (복어). It is very popular in port cities such as Busan and Incheon. It is prepared in a number of dishes such as soups or salads and commands a high price.

As of 2003, only seventeen restaurants in the United States were licensed to serve fugu; twelve of those were in New York.[24] Since that year, some other American restaurants offer fugu.[25]

The fugu is cleaned of the most toxic parts in Japan and freeze-flown to the USA under license in customized, clear, plastic containers. Fugu chefs for U.S. restaurants are trained under the same rigorous specifications as in Japan. Pufferfish native to US waters, particularly the genus Spheroides, have also been consumed for food, sometimes resulting in poisonings.[26]

Sale of fish belonging to this genus is forbidden altogether in the European Union.[27]

Social aspects[edit]

Fugu (right) and Japanese amberjack by Hiroshige (1832)

In the Kansai region, the slang word teppō, (鉄砲) meaning rifle or gun, is used for the fish. This is a play of words on the verb ataru (当たる), which can mean to be poisoned or shot. In Shimonoseki region, the ancient pronunciation fuku is more common instead of the modern fugu.[28] The former is also a homonym good fortune whereas the latter is one for disabled. The Tsukiji fish market fugu association holds a service each year at the height of the fugu season, releasing hundreds of caught fugu into the Sumida River. A similar ceremony is also held at another large market in Shimonoseki.

A rakugo, or humorous short story, tells of three men who prepared a fugu stew but were unsure whether it was safe to eat. To test the stew, they gave some to a beggar. When it did not seem to do him any harm, they ate the stew. Later, they met the beggar again and were delighted to see that he was still in good health. After that encounter, the beggar, who had hidden the stew instead of eating it, knew that it was safe and he could eat it. The three men had been fooled by the wise beggar.

Lanterns can be made from the bodies of preserved fugu. These are occasionally seen outside of fugu restaurants, as children's toys, as folk art, or as souvenirs. Fugu skin is also made into everyday objects like wallets or waterproof boxes.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Davidson, Alan (2006). The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford University Press. p. 324. ISBN 0-19-280681-5. 
  2. ^ a b c d Hosking, Richard (1997). A Dictionary of Japanese Food: Ingredients & Culture. Tuttle Publishing. pp. 41–42. ISBN 0-8048-2042-2. 
  3. ^ http://www.princeton.edu/~orggroup/supergroup_pdf/SuperGroupMeetingJune2nd.pdf
  4. ^ Onishi, Norimitsu (2008-05-04). "If the Fish Liver Can't Kill, Is It Really a Delicacy?". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-05-03. 
  5. ^ Farnham, Alan. "Killer Foods". Forbes. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 
  6. ^ "魚類:フグ毒 [Fugu poison]" (in Japanese). Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare Japan. 
  7. ^ a b "One Man's Fugu Is Another's Poison". The New York Times. 1981-11-29. Retrieved 2010-05-03. 
  8. ^ Matsutani, Minoru, "Tokyo to drop fugu license ordinance amid decline in fatal diner poisonings", Japan Times, 5 March 2012, p. 2.
  9. ^ Ito, Shingo (Jiji Press), "Fugu's risk will always be part of its charm", Japan Times, 5 July 2012, p. 3
  10. ^ Morimoto, Masaharu (2007). Morimoto: The New Art of Japanese Cooking. DK Publishing. p. 151. ISBN 0-7566-3123-8. 
  11. ^ The Miracle of Poison Removal Digital Archives of Ishikawa Japan (Isikawa Prefecture official)
  12. ^ Tsang, Yi Yuen; Tsang, Anna S. P. (January 30, 2008). "Tetrodotoxin Poisoning". Food Safety Focus. Centre for Food Safety. Retrieved April 4, 2009. 
  13. ^ Carroll, Sean B. (December 21, 2009). "Whatever Doesn’t Kill Some Animals Can Make Them Deadly". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-12-24. "In 1975, the Kabuki actor Bando Mitsugoro VIII ordered four fugu kimo in a restaurant in Kyoto, claiming he could resist the poison. He was wrong." 
  14. ^ a b 危険がいっぱい ふぐの素人料理 東京都福祉保健局
  15. ^ Ricciuti, Edward R. (2003). Killers of the Seas: the Dangerous Creatures that Threaten Man in an Alien Environment (Rev. Lyons Press ed. ed.). Guilford, Conn.: Lyons Press. p. 141. ISBN 1585748692. 
  16. ^ a b Carroll, Sean B. (December 21, 2009). "Whatever Doesn’t Kill Some Animals Can Make Them Deadly". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-12-24. "In 1975, the Kabuki actor Bando Mitsugoro VIII ordered four fugu kimo in a restaurant in Kyoto, claiming he could resist the poison. He was wrong." 
  17. ^ a b Roderick, John (20 January 1975). "Japanese Actor Poisoned". The Leader-Post. p. 10. Retrieved 19 August 2013. 
  18. ^ "Poisonous Puffer Fish Sold as Salmon Kills 15 in Thailand". Foxnews.com. Retrieved 2013-09-11. 
  19. ^ "Father dies after eating puffer fish". INQUIRER.net, Philippine News for Filipinos. Retrieved 2013-09-11. 
  20. ^ "Malaysian fisherman dies after eating puffer fish | TopNews". Topnews.in. 2009-02-16. Retrieved 2012-06-28. 
  21. ^ Gilani, Nadia (2011-12-06). "Two-Michelin star Japanese star chef suspended after customer nearly dies from eating puffer fish". Daily Mail (London). 
  22. ^ Scientists breed non-poisonous blowfish at WebCite (archived 27 February 2011)
  23. ^ Newman, Cathy (May 2005). "Pick Your Poison—12 Toxic Tales". National Geographic. 
  24. ^ "NPR - Restaurants That Serve Fugu - Ketzel Levine's Talking Plants". 2003. Retrieved 2007-07-13. 
  25. ^ "Welcome to Origami Restaurant. The best sushi in Minneapolis". Origamirestaurant.com. Retrieved 2012-06-28. 
  26. ^ "Saxitoxin Puffer Fish Poisoning in the United States, with the First Report of Pyrodinium bahamense as the Putative Toxin Source". Landsberg et al, Environ Health Perspect. 2006 October; 114(10): 1502–1507.
  27. ^ Regulation (EC) 853/2004 App. III Sec. VIII
  28. ^ "虎河豚(とらふぐ)" (in Japanese). Maruha Shinko. Retrieved 1 October 2011. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]