Fuji (apple)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Malus domestica 'Fuji'
Rosaceae Malus pumila Malus pumila Var domestica Apples Fuji.jpg
"Fuji" on a tree
Genus Malus
Species M. pumila
Hybrid parentage 'Red Delicious' × 'Ralls Genet'
Cultivar 'Fuji'
Origin Fujisaki, Aomori, Japan, 1930s

The Fuji apple is an apple hybrid developed by growers at the Tohoku Research Station (農林省園芸試験場東北支場) in Fujisaki, Aomori, Japan, in the late 1930s,[1] and brought to market in 1962. It originated as a cross between two American apple varieties—the Red Delicious and old Virginia Ralls Genet (sometimes cited as "Rawls Jennet") apples.

Contrary to popular opinion, it is named for Fujisaki town (the location of Tohoku Research Station), not for Mount Fuji.

Overview[edit]

Fuji apples
Fuji Kiku on a tree
Fuji apples on a display in a supermarket

Fuji apples are typically round and range from large to very large, averaging 75 mm in diameter. They contain between 9–11% sugars by weight and have a dense flesh that is sweeter and crisper than many other apple cultivars, making them popular with consumers around the world. Fuji apples also have a very long shelf life compared to other apples, even without refrigeration. With refrigeration, Fuji apples can remain fresh for up to a year.[2]

In Japan, Fuji apples continue to be an unrivaled best-seller. Japanese consumers prefer the crispy texture and sweetness of Fuji apples (which is somewhat reminiscent of the coveted Nashi pear) almost to the exclusion of other varieties and Japan's apple imports remain low. Aomori Prefecture, home to the Fuji apple, is the best known apple growing region of Japan. Of the roughly 900,000 tons of Japanese apples produced annually, 500,000 tons come from Aomori.

Outside of Japan the popularity of Fuji apples continues to grow. Fuji apples now account for 80% of China's 20 million tons grown annually.[citation needed] Since their introduction into the U.S. market in the 1980s, Fuji apples have gained popularity with American consumers—as of 2003, Fuji apples ranked number 4 on the US Apple Association's list of most popular apples, only trailing Red Delicious, Golden Delicious, and Gala. Fuji apples are grown in traditional apple-growing states such as Washington, Michigan, New York, and California. Washington State, where more than half of America's apple crop is grown, produces about 135,000 tons of Fuji apples each year, third in volume behind Red Delicious and Golden Delicious varieties.

Mutant cultivars[edit]

Many sports (mutant cultivars) of the Fuji apple have been recognized and propagated. In addition to those that have remained unpatented, twenty had received US plant patents by August, 2008:

Date "Inventor" Marketed as Mutated From Assignee Habit Pattern Earlier Color Plant Patent Number
Aug 29, 1989 Hiraragi Yataka Fuji Makoto Okada standard stripe 1 Month

US plant patent 7001

Oct 6, 1992 Yahagi Heisei Fuji, Beni Shogun9645 Yataka7001 Nakajima Tenkoen standard solid no dark red

US plant patent 7997

Nov 17, 1992 Cooper T.A.C.#114 Redsport Type 2 T.A.C. spur stripe 10–14 days more brilliant red, 80—90%

US plant patent 8032

Sep 26, 1995 Fukuda Tensei Fuji Fukushima Tenkoen standard, larger stripe no same

US plant patent 9298

Apr 16, 1996 Lynd Fuji-Spike Fuji Lynd spur stripe 0–5 days same

US plant patent 9508

Sep 24, 1996 Van Leuven Myra unknown red strain C & O standard blush w/ subtle stripe 1 week bright pink

US plant patent 9645

Dec 9, 1997 Auvil Fuji 216 T.A.C.#1148032 Auvil standard blush 5–21 days brighter red, 90—100%

US plant patent 10141

Mar 24, 1998 Coopr & Perkins Fuji Compact T.A.C. #114 T.A.C.#1148032 T.A.C. spur same same same

US plant patent 10291

Jan 25, 2000 Van Leuven Fiero Yataka7001 C & O standard indistinct stripe 7–10 days more intense blush

US plant patent 11193

Sep 18, 2001 Snyder Snyder BC 2 Snyder semi-spur heavy stripe same same

US plant patent 12098

Nov 27, 2001 Torres Triple E BC 2 standard 85—100% blush 10–14 days solid red

US plant patent 12219

Apr 16, 2002 Rankin Rankin Red Yakata7001 Twin Springs Fruit Farm standard 70—90% blush 5 days more intense

US plant patent 12551

Nov. 11, 2003 Teague Irene BC 2 standard solid 60 days yellow

US plant patent 14299

Oct 26, 2004 Braun Brak Fuji Kiku standard striped earlier ruby red

US plant patent 15261

Feb 21, 2006 Clevenger Fugachee Fuji standard 70—90% blush 14 days before Fiero

US plant patent 16270

Jun 6, 2006 Banning Banning Red Desert Rose Fuji Banning standard stripe redder

US plant patent 16624

Aug 14, 2007 Lee, Edwards, Delugar CABp Nagafu 6 CABp 4 standard stripe "superior"

US plant patent 17914

Sep 11, 2007 Eppich Eppich 2 T.A.C. #1148032 standard blush with light stripe unclear yellow and red

US plant patent 18004

Apr 29, 2008 Braun Fuji Fubrax Fuji Kiku SRL standard dark ruby red stripes and blush late green-yellow

US plant patent 18761

Jul 29, 2008 Leis, Mazzola Fujiko Nagafu 12 Consorzio Italiano Vivaisti standard diffused more intense red

US plant patent 19054

Unpatented Fuji mutants include:

  • BC 2
  • Desert Rose Fuji
  • Nagafu 2
  • Nagafu 6
  • Nagafu 12
  • Redsport Type 1
  • Redsport Type 2

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Research Station moved to Morioka later; now National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, National Institute of Fruit Tree Science 果樹試験場リンゴ研究部 http://www.naro.affrc.go.jp/fruit/kin/apple/017785.html
  2. ^ Yepsen, Roger (1994). Apples. New York: W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-03690-1. 

External links[edit]