Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster (Unit 1 Reactor)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster (Unit 1 Reactor)
Fukushima I by Digital Globe.jpg
Satellite image on 16 March 2011 of the four damaged reactor buildings
Date 11 March 2011 (2011-03-11)
Location Ōkuma, Fukushima, Japan
Coordinates 37°25′17″N 141°1′57″E / 37.42139°N 141.03250°E / 37.42139; 141.03250
Outcome INES Level 7 (ratings by Japanese authorities as of 11 April)[1][2]
Injuries 37 with physical injuries,[3]
2 workers taken to hospital with radiation burns[4]
External video
24 hours live camera for Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster on YouTube, certified by Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc.

The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster (福島第一原子力発電所事故 Fukushima Dai-ichi (About this sound pronunciation) genshiryoku hatsudensho jiko?) was a series of equipment failures, nuclear meltdowns, and releases of radioactive materials at the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant, following the Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011.[5][6] It is the largest nuclear disaster since the Chernobyl disaster of 1986.[7]

The plant comprises six separate boiling water reactors originally designed by General Electric (GE), and maintained by the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). At the time of the quake, Reactor 4 had been de-fueled while 5 and 6 were in cold shutdown for planned maintenance.[8] Immediately after the earthquake, the remaining reactors 1-3 shut down automatically, and emergency generators came online to control electronics and coolant systems. However, the tsunami following the earthquake quickly flooded the low-lying rooms in which the emergency generators were housed. The flooded generators failed, cutting power to the critical pumps that must continuously circulate coolant water through a nuclear reactor for several days in order to keep it from melting down after being shut down. As the pumps stopped, the reactors overheated due to the normal high radioactive decay heat produced in the first few days after nuclear reactor shutdown (smaller amounts of this heat normally continue to be released for years, but are not enough to cause fuel melting).

At this point, only prompt flooding of the reactors with seawater could have cooled the reactors quickly enough to prevent meltdown. Salt water flooding was delayed because it would ruin the costly reactors permanently. Flooding with seawater was finally commenced only after the government ordered that seawater be used, and at this point it was already too late to prevent meltdown.[9]

As the water boiled away in the reactors and the water levels in the fuel rod pools dropped, the reactor fuel rods began to overheat severely, and to melt down. In the hours and days that followed, Reactors 1, 2 and 3 experienced full meltdown.[10][11]

In the intense heat and pressure of the melting reactors, a reaction between the nuclear fuel metal cladding and the remaining water surrounding them produced explosive hydrogen gas. As workers struggled to cool and shut down the reactors, several hydrogen-air chemical explosions occurred.[12][13]

Concerns about the repeated small explosions, the atmospheric venting of radioactive gasses, and the possibility of larger explosions led to a 20 km (12 mi)-radius evacuation around the plant. During the early days of the accident workers were temporarily evacuated at various times for radiation safety reasons. At the same time, sea water that had been exposed to the melting rods was returned to the sea heated and radioactive in large volumes for several months until recirculating units could be put in place to repeatedly cool and re-use a limited quantity of water for cooling. The earthquake damage and flooding in the wake of the tsunami hindered external assistance. Electrical power was slowly restored for some of the reactors, allowing for automated cooling.[14]

Japanese officials initially assessed the accident as Level 4 on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) despite the views of other international agencies that it should be higher. The level was later raised to 5 and eventually to 7, the maximum scale value.[15][16] The Japanese government and TEPCO have been criticized in the foreign press for poor communication with the public and improvised cleanup efforts.[17][18][19] On 20 March, the Chief Cabinet Secretary Yukio Edano announced that the plant would be decommissioned once the crisis was over.

The Japanese government estimates the total amount of radioactivity released into the atmosphere was approximately one-tenth as much as was released during the Chernobyl disaster.[20] Significant amounts of radioactive material have also been released into ground and ocean waters. Measurements taken by the Japanese government 30–50 km from the plant showed caesium-137 levels high enough to cause concern,[21] leading the government to ban the sale of food grown in the area. Tokyo officials temporarily recommended that tap water should not be used to prepare food for infants.[22][23] In May 2012, TEPCO reported that at least 900 PBq had been released "into the atmosphere in March last year [2011] alone" although it has been said staff may have been told to lie, and give false readings to try and cover up true levels of radiation.[24][25]

A few of the plant's workers were severely injured or killed by the disaster conditions resulting from the earthquake. There were no immediate deaths due to direct radiation exposures, but at least six workers have exceeded lifetime legal limits for radiation and more than 300 have received significant radiation doses. Predicted future cancer deaths due to accumulated radiation exposures in the population living near Fukushima have ranged from none[26] to 100[27] to a non-peer-reviewed "guesstimate"[28] of 1,000.[20] On 16 December 2011, Japanese authorities declared the plant to be stable, although it would take decades to decontaminate the surrounding areas and to decommission the plant altogether.[29] On 5 July 2012, the parliament appointed The Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission (NAIIC) submitted its inquiry report to the Japanese parliament,[30] while the government appointed Investigation Committee on the Accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company submitted its final report to the Japanese government on 23 July 2012.[31] Tepco admitted for the first time on 12 October 2012 that it had failed to take stronger measures to prevent disasters for fear of inviting lawsuits or protests against its nuclear plants.[32][33][34][35]

Unit 1 Reactor[edit]

Details of the core[edit]

F. Tanabe has estimated that the core contained the following materials:[36]

Cooling problems and first radioactivity release[edit]

Unit 1 before the explosion. The joint can be seen between the lower concrete building and upper lighter cladding which was blown away in the explosion.
Unit 1 water levels and reactor pressures from 11 to 14 March

On 11 March at 14:46 JST, Unit 1 scrammed (shut off power-producing nuclear fission chain reactions) successfully in response to the earthquake[37] though evacuated workers reported violent shaking and burst pipes within the reactor building.[38] At 15:37, all generated electrical power was lost following the tsunami leaving only emergency batteries, able to run some of the monitoring and control systems. It was later learned that Unit 1's batteries were damaged and unavailable following the tsunami. At 15:42, TEPCO declared a "Nuclear Emergency Situation" for Units 1 and 2 because "reactor water coolant injection could not be confirmed for the emergency core cooling systems."[37] The alert was temporarily cleared when water level monitoring was restored for Unit 1 but it was reinstated at 17:07 JST.[37] Potentially radioactive steam was released from the primary circuit into the secondary containment area to reduce mounting pressure.[39]

After the loss of site power and reactor shutdown, Unit 1 was initially cooled using the isolation condenser system. About 10 minutes after the earthquake, TEPCO operators removed both of Unit 1's isolation condensers from service, and instead chose to activate the HPCI (High Pressure Coolant Injection) systems to cool the reactor and the core spray system was activated at 15:07 to cool the suppression pool. The core spray system was disabled with AC power loss at 15:37 (The tsunami) and the HPCI system failed following DC (i.e., battery back up) power loss.[citation needed]

Operators were unable to restart the isolation condensers for an extended period of time after the tsunami (greater than 30 minutes). After that, the isolation condensers were operated intermittently, for unknown reasons. The isolation condensers were designed to successfully cool Unit 1 for at least 8 hours, and it is unknown how effective they were. After that, refill would have been required to the isolation condenser tanks which are under atmospheric pressure (low pumping head requirements). By design, isolation condensers would have removed the heat from the reactor transferring it out of the primary containment and into the atmosphere, but with limited and non-existent operation, core and containment cooling was not successful.

For whatever reason, the isolation condensor apparently did not work. On 27 February 2012 NISA ordered TEPCO to reveal – before 12 March 2012 – why the layout of the isolation condensor was changed. In the papers of the original application (dated from July 1966) for reactor 1 the tubes were separated from each other. But in the blueprints submitted in October 1967, the two tubes were connected with each other outside the reactor vessel. TEPCO apparently changed the design without notifying NISA, in violation of legal procedure.[40]

By midnight, water levels in the reactor were falling and TEPCO gave warnings of the possibility of radioactive releases.[41] In the early hours of 12 March, TEPCO reported that radiation levels were rising in the turbine building for Unit 1[42] and that it was considering venting some of the mounting pressure into the atmosphere, which could result in the release of some radioactivity.[43] Chief Cabinet Secretary Yukio Edano stated later in the morning the amount of potential radiation would be small and that the prevailing winds were blowing out to sea.[44] At 02:00 JST, the pressure inside the reactor containment was reported to be 600 kPa (6 bar or 87 psi), 200 kPa higher than under normal conditions.[45] At 05:30 JST, the pressure inside Reactor 1 was reported to be 2.1 times normal levels, 820 kPa.[46] Isolation cooling ceased to operate between midnight and 11:00 JST 12 March, at which point TEPCO started relieving pressure and injecting water.[47] One employee working inside Unit 1 at this time received a radiation dose of 106 mSv and was later sent to a hospital to have his condition assessed.[48]

Rising heat within the containment area led to increasing pressure. Electricity was needed for both the cooling water pumps and ventilation fans used to drive gases through heat exchangers within the containment.[49] Releasing gases from the reactor is necessary if pressure becomes too high and has the benefit of cooling the reactor as water boils off, but this also means cooling water is being lost, and must be replaced if the water level is not to fall too low.[50] If there is no damage to the fuel elements, water and water vapor from inside the reactor should be only slightly radioactive.

In a press release on 12 March at 07:00 JST, TEPCO stated, "Measurement of radioactive material (iodine-131, etc.) by monitoring car indicates increasing value compared to normal level. One of the monitoring posts is also indicating higher than normal level."[51] Dose rates recorded on the main gate rose from 69 nGy/h (for gamma radiation, equivalent to 69 nSv/h) at 04:00 JST, 12 March, to 866 nGy/h 40 minutes later, before hitting a peak of 0.3855 mSv/h at 10:30 JST.[51][52][53][54] At 13:30 JST, workers detected radioactive caesium-137 and iodine-131 near Reactor 1,[3] which indicated some of the core's fuel had been damaged.[55] Cooling water levels had fallen so much that parts of the nuclear fuel rods were exposed and partial melting might have occurred.[56][57] Radiation levels at the site boundary exceeded the regulatory limits.[58]

On 14 March, radiation levels had continued to increase on the premises, measuring at 02:20 an intensity of 0.751 mSv/h on one location and at 02:40 an intensity of 0.650 mSv/h at another location on the premises.[59] On 16 March, the maximum readings peaked at 10.850 mSv/h.[60]

Hydrogen explosion[edit]

At 07:00 JST on 12 March, Prime Minister Naoto Kan asked Daiichi director Masao Yoshida why his workers were not opening the valves to release rising steam pressure within the reactor. Yoshida answered that they could not open the electrical valves because of the power failure and the radiation was too high to send workers to manually open the valves. Nevertheless, with the pressure and temperatures continuing to rise, at 09:15, TEPCO sent workers to begin manually opening the valves. The high radiation slowed the work and the valves were not opened until 14:30.[61]

At 15:36 JST on 12 March, there was an explosion in the reactor building at Unit 1. The side walls of the upper level were blown away, leaving in place only the vertical steel framed gridworks. The roof collapsed, covering the floor and some machinery on the south side. The walls were relatively intact compared to later explosions at Units 3 and 4.[62][63] Video of the explosion shows that it was primarily directed sideways.[64]

The roof of the building was designed to provide ordinary weather protection for the areas inside, not to withstand the high pressure of an explosion. In the Fukushima I reactors the primary containment consists of "drywell" and "wetwell" concrete structures below the top level, immediately surrounding the reactor pressure vessel. The secondary containment includes the top floor with water-filled pools for storing fresh or irradiated fuel and for storage of irradiated tools and structures.[46][65]

Experts soon agreed that the cause was a hydrogen explosion.[66][67][68] Almost certainly the hydrogen was formed inside the reactor vessel[66] because of falling water levels exposing zircaloy structures/fuel assembly cladding, which then reacted with steam and produced hydrogen,[69] with the hydrogen subsequently vented into the containment building.[66] When the hydrogen reached ignition concentration in the air of the secondary containment building, an ignition source such as a spark triggered a hydrogen-oxygen explosion, blowing out the walls of this building from the inside.

Officials indicated that reactor primary containment (the reactor pressure vessel) had remained intact and that there had been no large leaks of radioactive material,[46][66] although an increase in radiation levels was confirmed following the explosion.[70][71] The report[72] of the fact-finding commission states that "There is a possibility that the bottom of the RPV [reactor pressure vessel] was damaged and some of the fuel might have dropped and accumulated on the D/W [dry well] floor (lower pedestal)." The Fukushima prefectural government reported radiation dose rates at the plant reaching 1.015 mSv/h.[73] The IAEA stated on 13 March that four workers had been injured by the explosion at the Unit 1 reactor, and that three injuries were reported in other incidents at the site. They also reported one worker was exposed to higher-than-normal radiation levels but the level fell below their guidance for emergency situations.[74]

Seawater used for cooling[edit]

At 20:05 JST on 12 March, the Japanese government ordered seawater to be injected into Unit 1 in a new effort to cool the reactor core.[75] The treatment had been held as a last resort since it ruins the reactor.[76] TEPCO started seawater cooling at 20:20, adding boric acid as a neutron absorber to prevent a criticality accident.[77][78] The water would take five to ten hours to fill the reactor core, after which the reactor would cool down in around ten days.[66] The injection of seawater into the reactor pressure vessel was done by fire department trucks.[79][80][81] At 01:10 JST on 14 March, injection of seawater was halted for two hours because all available water in the plant pools had run out (similarly, feed to Unit 3 was halted).[79] NISA news reports stated 70% of the fuel rods had been damaged when uncovered.[82]

On 12 March, a new electrical distribution panel was installed in an office adjacent to Unit 1 to supply power via Unit 2 when it was reconnected to the transmission grid two days later.[80] On 21 March, injection of seawater continued, as did repairs to the control instrumentation.[3] On 23 March, it became possible to inject water into the reactor using the feed water system rather than the fire trucks, raising the flow rate from 2 to 18 m3/h (later reduced to 11m3/h,[83][84] and even further to reduce the build up of contaminated water); on 24 March, electricity was restored to the central operating room.[85]

As of 24 March, the spent fuel pool was "thought to be fully or partially exposed", according to CNN.[86] Pressure in the reactor had increased owing to the seawater injection, resulting in steam being vented, later alleviated by reducing the water flow. Temperature increases were also reportedly temporary. TEPCO condensed some of the steam to water in the spent fuel pool.

It was estimated[87] that as much as 26 tonnes of sea salt may have accumulated in reactor Unit 1 and twice that amount in Units 2 and 3. As salt clogs cooling pipes and erodes zirconium oxide layer of the fuel rods, switching to the use of freshwater for cooling was a high priority.

The use of seawater has the potential to make uranium chemistry more complex; in pure water the hydrogen peroxide formed by the radiolysis of water can react with uranium dioxide to form a solid peroxide mineral known as studtite. According to Navrotsky et al. this mineral has been found in the fuel storage pond at the plutonium production site at Hanford. Navrotsky et al. report that when alkali metal ions are present, uranium can form nanoparticles (U60 clusters) which may be more mobile than the solid studtite.[88] A review of the research done at the University of Notre Dame on the subject of nanoscale actinyl clusters was published in 2010.[89]

Reactor stabilization[edit]

Because of saltwater corrosion problems and pipes clogging by salt, fresh cooling water is transported by barge to Fukushima.

By 24 March, electrical power (initially from temporary sources, but off-site power used from 3 April) was being restored to parts of the unit, with the Main Control Room lighting being restored.[90]

On 25 March, fresh water became available again to be added to the reactor instead of salt water,[91] while work continued to repair the unit's cooling systems.[92] A volume of 1890 m3 (500,000 USgal) of fresh water was brought to the plant by a barge provided by the US Navy.[93] On 29 March, the fire trucks which had been used to inject water into the reactor were replaced by electrical pumps.[85]

On 28 March, pumping began to remove water contaminated with radioactive 137Cs and 131I from basement areas, storing it in the condenser system.[85] By 29 March, pumping was halted because condensate reservoirs were almost full and plans were being considered to transfer water to the suppression pool surge tanks.[94]

On 7 April, TEPCO began injecting nitrogen into the containment vessel, which was expected to reduce the likelihood of further hydrogen explosions.[95] The injection has been ongoing since then and has been repeated on the other units at Fukushima.[96] On 7 April, before a large aftershock, temperatures in the reactor core unexpectedly "surged in temperature to 260 °C"; the cause was unknown, but the temperature dropped to 246 °C by 8 April.[97] On 27 April, TEPCO revised its estimate of damaged fuel in Unit 1 from 55% to 70%.[98]

On 17 April, remote control robot was used to enter the Reactor Building and performed a series of inspections, which confirmed on 29 April that there was no significant water leakage coming from the containment vessel.[90]

On 23 and 26 April, concerns that Unit 1 fuel rods may be exposed to air caused TEPCO to consider filling the "containment vessel with water to cool the reactor" despite concerns for building integrity.[99][100] Efforts were slowed by Unit 1 radiation measurements "as high as 1,120 mSv/hr".[101] On 13 May, TEPCO announced it would proceed with a plan to fill the containment vessel despite the possibility of holes caused by melting fuel elements in the pressure vessel.[101][102] TEPCO had expected to increase the amount of water pumped to Unit 1 to compensate for any leakage from the holes[103] but decided on 15 May to abandon the plan after finding the Unit 1 basement was already half flooded.[104]

On 5 May, ventilation systems were installed in the Reactor Building, to clean the highly radioactive air encapsulated in it.[90]

On 12 May, the water level gauge for the reactor was calibrated, and it was subsequently identified that the water level was lower than previously thought (as the water level went off the lower side of the gauge).[90]

On 13 May, preparatory work started on the installation of the Reactor Building covers. Construction work started on 28 June.[105]

On 20 May, staff entered the Reactor Building, confirming reactor water level and radioactivity.[105]

Since 2 July, the reactor has been cooled using fresh water from the on-site water treatment plant.[105]

On 21 August, TEPCO reported that all of the temperature sensors of Unit 1 were recording temperatures less than 100 degrees Celsius on Friday 19 August. Once other goals are met, Unit 1 will have achieved cold shutdown state.[106]

On 28 October, TEPCO reported the completion of cover construction at reactor building of Unit 1 of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station.[107]

On 19 January 2012, the interior of the primary containment vessel of reactor 2 was inspected by TEPCO for the first time after the accident, with an industrial endoscope. With this device photos were taken and the temperature was measured at this spot and from the cooling-water inside, in an attempt to calibrate the existing temperature-measurements that could have an error margin of 20 °C (36 °F). The procedure lasted 70 minutes.[108] The photos showed parts of the walls and pipes inside the containment vessel, but they were unclear and blurred, most likely due to water vapors and the radiation inside. According to TEPCO the photos showed no serious damage. The temperature measured inside was 44.7 °C (112.5 °F) and did not differ much from the 42.6 °C (108.7 °F) measured outside the vessel.[109]

Possibility of criticality[edit]

Reports of 13 observations of neutron beams 1.5 km "southwest of the plant's No. 1 and 2 reactors" from 13 to 16 March raised the possibility that nuclear chain reactions could have occurred after the initial SCRAMing of the reactors at Fukushima Daiichi.[110] 16 March reports that fuel rods in the spent fuel pool at Unit 4 could have been exposed to air appeared to indicate that uncontrolled fission may have occurred in that fuel pool.[111] Later reports of exceptionally high iodine-134 levels appeared to confirm this theory because very high levels of iodine-134 would be indicative of criticality.[112] The same report also showed high measurements of chlorine-38,[113] which some nuclear experts used to calculate that self-propagating fission must be occurring in Unit 1.[114][115] Despite TEPCO suggesting the iodine-134 report was inaccurate, the IAEA appeared to accept the chlorine-based analysis as a valid theory suggesting criticality when it stated at a press conference that "melted fuel in the No. 1 reactor building may be causing isolated, uncontrolled nuclear chain reactions".[116] TEPCO confirmed its concern about the accuracy of the high iodine and chlorine report by formally retracting the report on 21 April,[117] which eliminated both the exceptionally high iodine-134 and chlorine-38 levels as proof of criticality. TEPCO did not appear to comment on the criticality concern when withdrawing its report,[118][119] but the IAEA has not withdrawn its comments, and some off-site experts find the currently measured iodine-134 levels higher than expected.[120][121]


On 12 May, TEPCO engineers confirmed that a meltdown occurred, with molten fuel having fallen to the bottom of the reactor's pressure vessel, or RPV.[122] The utility said that fuel rods of the No. 1 reactor are fully exposed, with the water level 1 meter (3.3 feet) below the base of the fuel assembly. According to a Japanese press report, there are holes in the base of the pressure vessel – these holes were meant for the control-rods. After the fuel had melted, it produced holes in the bottom of the RPV, and then escaped into the containment vessel. In November 2011 TEPCO did not know the shape or porosity of the fuel mass, which is at the bottom of the containment vessel.[123] As a result it is impossible to know exactly how far the fuel mass would have eroded the concrete floor, but TEPCO estimate that no more than 70 cm of a 7.6 meter concrete slab was eroded away by the hot fuel. The production of heat and steam in unit 1 has decreased, as suggested by both radioactive decay calculations and photographic evidence (same source from TEPCO).

TEPCO estimates the nuclear fuel was exposed to the air less than five hours after the earthquake struck. Fuel rods melted away rapidly as the temperature inside the core reached 2,800 °C within six hours. In less than 16 hours, the reactor core melted[124] and dropped to the bottom of the pressure vessel, burning a hole through the vessel. By that time, water was pumped into the reactor in an effort to prevent the worst-case scenario – overheating fuel melting its way through the containment and discharging large amounts of radionuclides in the environment.[125] In June the Japanese government confirmed that Unit 1 reactor vessel containment was breached, and pumped cooling water continues to leak months after the disaster.[126]

On 11 October 2012, TEPCO released results of the first direct inspections (by remotely operated camera) of conditions in the interior of the Reactor 1 PCV.[127] These suggest that the initial assumptions concerning the behaviour of the fuel mass during the accident may have been incorrect. In particular, the distribution of radiation levels within the PCV, with peak levels being around the bottom head of the RPV, suggest that the majority of the fuel has in fact been retained within the RPV. Radiation levels are also notably lower around the lower parts of the "Drywell", suggesting that fuel had not reached the bottom of the containment vessel, or damaged the concrete floor slab. There is a further issue in that radiation levels within the water inside the containment are markedly higher than those in the reactor basements, suggesting that either there is limited flow from the PCV to the basement, or that substantial dilution is taking place - raising the issue of what is the flow path for the water.

Spent fuel pool of reactor 1[edit]

From 31 March, additional sea water was added to the spent fuel pool, initially by using a concrete pump. Fresh water was used from 14 May. By 29 May water was able to be injected using a temporary pump and the Spent Fuel Pool Cooling (FPC) line.[90][105]

On 10 August, the spent fuel pool was switched from the water-injection system – that functioned some 5 months – to a circulatory cooling system. For the first time since the 11 March disaster, all four damaged reactors at the plant were using circulatory cooling systems with heat-exchangers.[128]

See also[edit]



  1. ^ Negishi, Mayumi (12 April 2011). "Japan raises nuclear crisis severity to highest level". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2013-11-12. 
  2. ^ "Fukushima accident upgraded to severity level 7". IEEE Spectrum. 12 April 2011. Archived from the original on 2014-03-11. 
  3. ^ a b c "IAEA Update on Japan Earthquake". Archived from the original on 2011-03-12. Retrieved 16 March 2011. As reported earlier, a 400 millisieverts (mSv) per hour radiation dose observed at Fukushima Daiichi occurred between 1s 3 and 4. This is a high dose-level value, but it is a local value at a single location and at a certain point in time. The IAEA continues to confirm the evolution and value of this dose rate. It should be noted that because of this detected value, non-indispensable staff was evacuated from the plant, in line with the Emergency Response Plan, and that the population around the plant is already evacuated. 
  4. ^ "Radiation-exposed workers to be treated at Chiba hospital". Kyodo News. 25 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2013-02-17. Retrieved 17 April 2011. 
  5. ^ "Japan's unfolding disaster 'bigger than Chernobyl'". New Zealand Herald. 2 April 2011. 
  6. ^ "Explainer: What went wrong in Japan's nuclear reactors". IEEE Spectrum. 4 April 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-07-04. 
  7. ^ "Analysis: A month on, Japan nuclear crisis still scarring" International Business Times (Australia). 9 April 2011, retrieved 12 April 2011; excerpt, According to James Acton, Associate of the Nuclear Policy Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, "Fukushima is not the worst nuclear accident ever but it is the most complicated and the most dramatic...This was a crisis that played out in real time on TV. Chernobyl did not." Archived 18 April 2011 at WebCite
  8. ^ Black, Richard (15 March 2011). "Reactor breach worsens prospects". BBC Online. Archived from the original on 2011-03-16. Retrieved 23 March 2011. 
  9. ^ F. Tanabe, Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 2011, volume 48, issue 8, pages 1135 to 1139
  10. ^ "3 nuclear reactors melted down after quake, Japan confirms". CNN. 7 June 2011. Archived from the original on 2014-04-14. Retrieved 13 July 2011. 
  11. ^ "'Melt-through' at Fukushima? / Govt report to IAEA suggests situation worse than meltdown". Yomiuri. 8 June 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-06-15. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  12. ^ "Fukushima nuclear accident update log, updates of 15 March 2011". IAEA. 15 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-04-09. Retrieved 8 May 2011. 
  13. ^ Hydrogen explosions Fukushima nuclear plant: what happened? Archived December 2, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ Stricken reactors may get power Sunday, The Wall Street Journal, 19 March 2011 Archived May 10, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ Justin McCurry. Japan raises nuclear alert level to seven. The Guardian. 12 April 2011 Archived March 11, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ 'Now radiation in Japan is as bad as radiation level is raised to 7 for only the second time in history' Daily Mail 12 April 2011.
  17. ^ Wagner, Wieland (15 March 2011). "Problematic public relations: Japanese leaders leave people in the dark". Der Spiegel. Archived from the original on 2011-04-15. Retrieved 19 March 2011. 
  18. ^ "China urges Japan's openness amid panic buying of salt". Channel NewsAsia. Agence France-Presse. 17 March 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011. 
  19. ^ Veronika Hackenbroch, Cordula Meyer and Thilo Thielke (5 April 2011). "A hapless Fukushima clean-up effort". Der Spiegel. Archived from the original on 2011-04-06. 
  20. ^ a b Frank N. von Hippel (September/October 2011 vol. 67 no. 5). "The radiological and psychological consequences of the Fukushima Daiichi accident". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. pp. 27–36. Archived from the original on 2011-12-20.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  21. ^ "Caesium fallout from Fukushima rivals Chernobyl". New Scientist. Archived from the original on 30 March 2011. Retrieved 30 March 2011. 
  22. ^ Japan mulls Fukushima food ban: IAEA, Reuters, 19 March 2011 Archived 19 March 2011 at WebCite
  23. ^ Justin McCurry in Osaka (23 March 2010). "Tokyo water unsafe for infants after high radiation levels detected". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 2011-04-08. Retrieved 23 March 2011. 
  24. ^ "TEPCO puts radiation release early in Fukushima crisis at 900 PBq". Kyodo News. 24 May 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-05-24. Retrieved 24 May 2012. 
  25. ^ Kevin Krolicki (24 May 2012). "Fukushima radiation higher than first estimated". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2013-10-15. Retrieved 24 May 2012. 
  26. ^ "Trauma, Not Radiation, Is Key Concern In Japan". NPR. 9 March 2012. Archived from the original on 2014-03-09. Retrieved 15 April 2012. 
  27. ^ Caracappa, Peter F. (28 June 2011), "Fukushima Accident: Radioactive Releases and Potential Dose Consequences", ANS Annual Meeting, retrieved 13 September 2011 
  28. ^ "The Cost of Fear: The Framing of a Fukushima Report". 15 March 2012. Archived from the original on 2014-05-05. Retrieved 15 April 2012. 
  29. ^ "Japan PM says Fukushima nuclear site finally stabilised". BBC Online. 16 December 2011. Archived from the original on 2014-02-20. Retrieved 7 January 2012. 
  30. ^ National Diet of Japan Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission. "国会事故調 | 東京電力福島原子力発電所事故調査委員会のホームページ". National Diet of Japan Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission. Archived from the original on 2013-01-19. Retrieved 9 July 2012. 
  31. ^ "UPDATE: Government panel blasts lack of 'safety culture' in nuclear accident". The Asahi Shimbun. 23 July 2012. Archived from the original on 2014-04-13. Retrieved 29 July 2012. 
  32. ^ Fackler, Martin (12 October 2012). "Japan Power Company Admits Failings on Plant Precautions". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 October 2012. [dead link]
  33. ^ Sheldrick, Aaron (12 October 2012). "Fukushima operator must learn from mistakes, new adviser says". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2014-03-09. Retrieved 13 October 2012. 
  34. ^ Yamaguchi, Mari (12 October 2012). "Japan utility agrees nuclear crisis was avoidable". Boston.com. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2013-10-05. Retrieved 13 October 2012. 
  35. ^ "Japanese nuclear plant operator admits playing down risk". CNN Wire Staff. CNN. 12 October 2012. Archived from the original on 2014-03-09. Retrieved 13 October 2012. 
  36. ^ F. Tanabe, Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 2011, vol 48, issue 8, pages 1135 to 1139
  37. ^ a b c "TEPCO press release 3". Tepco (Press release). 11 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-04-25. 
  38. ^ "Terror at N-plant during quake". Yomiuri Shimbun. Japan. 17 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-05-14. Retrieved 24 April 2011. 
  39. ^ Radiation 1K times normal at one Japan nuke plant. USA Today (3 January 2011). Retrieved 12 March 2011. Archived March 30, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  40. ^ The Mainichi Shimbun (28 28 February 2012)TEPCO ordered to report on change in piping layout at Fukushima plant[dead link]
  41. ^ "Press Release | Plant Status of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (as of 0 am 12 March)". TEPCO (Press release). 12 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-05-10. Retrieved 23 March 2011. 
  42. ^ Radiation level rising in Fukushima Nuclear Plant turbine building. Nikkei.com. 12 March 2011 JST. Retrieved 18:30 GMT 11 March 2011.
  43. ^ "(朝日新聞社):福島原発炉内蒸気、外に逃す作業検f討 放射能漏れの恐れ – 社会". Asahi Shimbun (in Japanese). Japan. Archived from the original on 2012-01-03. Retrieved 13 March 2011. 
  44. ^ International Business Times. Japan warns of small radiation leak from quake-hit plant Retrieved 11 March 2011, 21:48 (GMT)
  45. ^ "Massive earthquake hits Japan". World Nuclear News. 11 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-04-11. Retrieved 13 March 2011. ; "Japan earthquake update (2030 CET)". International Atomic Energy Agency. IAEA Alert Log. 11 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-04-11. Retrieved 12 March 2011. 
  46. ^ a b c World Nuclear News (12 March 2011). "Battle to stabilise earthquake reactors". World Nuclear News. Archived from the original on 2011-03-12. Retrieved 12 March 2011. 
  47. ^ "Press Release | Plant status of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (as of 11 am March 12th )". TEPCO (Press release). 12 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-05-10. Retrieved 23 March 2011. 
  48. ^ "Press Release | Plant Status of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (as of 1 pm 12 March)". TEPCO (Press release). 12 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2014-03-28. Retrieved 23 March 2011. 
  49. ^ Containment at Fukushima. All Things Nuclear. Retrieved 12 March 2011. Archived May 15, 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  50. ^ David Sanger and Matthew Wald, Radioactive releases in Japan could last months, experts say. The New York Times 13 March 2011[dead link]
  51. ^ a b "Impact to TEPCO's Facilities due to Miyagiken-Oki Earthquake (as of 7 am)". TEPCO News website (Press release). 12 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2013-11-12. Retrieved 12 March 2011. 
  52. ^ Nikkei, Radiation could already have leaked at nuke plant.. 12 March 2011, 7:20 JST.
  53. ^ 福島第一原子力発電所モニタリングカーによる計測状況. TEPCO (Press release) (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2011-07-22. Retrieved 13 March 2011. 69 nGy/h ... 866 nGy/h ... 385.5 μSv/h 
  54. ^ 福島第一原子力発電所の現状について【午後4時40分時点】 [Condition of Fukushima I (16:40)]. TEPCO (Press release) (in Japanese). 12 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2013-10-14. Retrieved 12 March 2011. 
  55. ^ "Possible Meltdown at TEPCO Reactor". Nikkei.com. 12 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-06-15. 
  56. ^ Yoshie Furuhashi (12 March 2011). "NHK, "Fukushima 1: Fuel Rods Exposed"". Mrzine.monthlyreview.org. Archived from the original on 2012-09-05. Retrieved 13 March 2011. As of 11:20, a part of the "fuel assembly" of fuel rods is now exposed above water. 
  57. ^ McCurry, Justin (13 March 2011). "Japan nuclear plant faces new threat". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 2013-06-01. Retrieved 13 March 2011. 
  58. ^ Tepco (12 March 2011). "TEPCO press release 4". TEPCO News website (Press release). Archived from the original on 2011-04-23. Retrieved 12 March 2011. 
  59. ^ Kyodo (14 March 2011). "Radiation level again tops legal limit at Fukushima No. 1 nuke plant". Kyodo News. Archived from the original on 2011-05-13. Retrieved 14 March 2011. 
  60. ^ Tepco (12 March 2011). "TEPCO press release 4". TEPCO News website (Press release). Archived from the original on 2011-04-23. Retrieved 17 March 2011. 
  61. ^ Yoshida, Reiji, "Probe poised to take Tepco to task", Japan Times, 7 June 2011, p. 1. Archived August 11, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  62. ^ 福島第1原発で爆発と白煙 4人ケガ. Nippon Television Network Corporation (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2013-07-14. Retrieved 12 March 2011. 
  63. ^ "TEPCO press release 34". Tepco (Press release). 12 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2013-03-17. 
  64. ^ Fukushima (Japan) Nuclear Power Plant Explosion 12 March 2011 - YouTube Archived March 21, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  65. ^ "Drawing of the reactor and explanation of the containments". allthingsnuclear.org. Archived from the original on 2011-03-13. Retrieved 13 March 2011. 
  66. ^ a b c d e Kihara, Leika (12 March 2011). "Japan to fill leaking nuke reactor with sea water". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2014-02-13. 
  67. ^ Fredrik Dahl, Louise Ireland (12 March 2011). "Hydrogen may have caused Japan atom blast-industry". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2012-10-21. Retrieved 12 March 2011. 
  68. ^ "2011/03/13 01:04 – Meltdown caused nuke plant explosion: Safety body". E.nikkei.com. Archived from the original on 2011-07-20. Retrieved 13 March 2011. 
  69. ^ Nuclear fuel behaviour in loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. Nuclear Energy Agency, OECD. 2009. p. 140. ISBN 978-92-64-99091-3. 
  70. ^ "The Financial – Radiation levels increase at Fukushima No.1 after blast reports". Finchannel.com. Archived from the original on 2012-08-07. Retrieved 12 March 2011. 
  71. ^ Meyers, Chris (9 February 2009). "Radiation leaking from Japan's quake-hit nuclear". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2011-03-12. Retrieved 12 March 2011. 
  72. ^ "Report of Japanese Government to the IAEA Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Safety". June 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-06-14. Retrieved 9 June 2011. 
  73. ^ "Explosion at quake-hit nuclear plant". ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). 12 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-07-07. Retrieved 12 March 2011. 
  74. ^ "IAEA update on Japan earthquake". iaea.org. 0235 CET, 13 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-03-12. Retrieved 13 March 2011. At Fukushima Daichi, four workers were injured by the explosion at the Unit 1 reactor, and there are three other reported injuries in other incidents. In addition, one worker was exposed to higher-than-normal radiation levels that fall below the IAEA guidance for emergency situations.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  75. ^ "Seismic Damage Information(the 19th Release)". Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency. 13 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2013-01-28. Retrieved 12 April 2011. 
  76. ^ SkyNewsHD. Radiation Leaks After Third Japanese Blast Archived April 27, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  77. ^ "mpact to TEPCO's Facilities due to Miyagiken-Oki Earthquake (as of 9PM)". TEPCO (Press release). 12 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2014-04-10. Retrieved 12 March 2011. 
  78. ^ 東北地方太平洋沖地震における当社設備への影響について【午後9時現在】. TEPCO (Press release) (in Japanese). 12 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-03-13. Retrieved 12 March 2011. 
  79. ^ a b "Seismic Damage Information (the 29th Release)". Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency. 18 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-05-08. Retrieved 12 April 2011. 
  80. ^ a b "Seismic Damage Information (the 38th Release)". Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency. 21 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-04-12. Retrieved 12 April 2011. 
  81. ^ "Specials: Japan earthquake and nuclear crisis", Nature, retrieved 17 April 2011  Archived 19 March 2011 at WebCite
  82. ^ Hall, Kenji; Williams, Carol J. (27 February 2011). "Japan earthquake: Fire erupts again at Fukushima Daiichi reactor; nuclears rods damaged at other reactors". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 2011-03-16. Retrieved 18 March 2011. 
  83. ^ "Press Release | Plant Status of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (as of 11:00 pm 22 Mar)". TEPCO (Press release). Archived from the original on 2014-02-15. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  84. ^ "Seismic Damage Information (the 46th Release)". Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency. 23 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-04-12. Retrieved 12 April 2011. 
  85. ^ a b c "Seismic Damage Information (the 61st Release)". Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency. 29 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-04-11. Retrieved 12 April 2011. 
  86. ^ "Status report: Reactor-by-reactor at the Fukushima Daiichi plant". CNN. 24 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2014-04-14. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  87. ^ "Fear Of Fukushima's Reactors Cooling Systems Clogging Up With Salt". Forandagainst.com. 24 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-03-15. Retrieved 24 April 2011. 
  88. ^ Armstrong, C.R.; Nyman, M.; Shvareva, T.; Sigmon, G.E.; Burns, P.C.; Navrotsky, A. (2012). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109: 1874–1877. doi:10.1073/pnas.1119758109.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  89. ^ Burns, Peter C. (2010). Comptes Rendus Chimie 13 (6–7): 737–746. doi:10.1016/j.crci.2010.01.014.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  90. ^ a b c d e "Information on Status of Nuclear Power Plants in Fukushima". JAIF. Retrieved 22 August 2011. 
  91. ^ "Press Release | Plant status of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (as of 10:30 pm 25 Mar)". TEPCO (Press release). Archived from the original on 2012-07-23. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  92. ^ "Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident Update (25 March, 05:15 UTC): IAEA Alert Log: Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident". Iaea.org (Press release). Archived from the original on 2011-04-29. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  93. ^ "U.S. Navy to provide 500,000 gallons of fresh water to Fukushima power plant". NAVY.mil. 25 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-06-06. 
  94. ^ "Press Release | Status of TEPCO's Facilities and its services after the Tohoku-Taiheiyou-Oki Earthquake(as of 10:00 pm)". TEPCO (Press release). 30 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2014-04-01. Retrieved 7 April 2011. 
  95. ^ Dr. Johanna Daams, Nuclear reactor containment design[dead link], Chapter 2: Hydrogen, radionuclides and severe accidents module A: Hydrogen, 2A-4
  96. ^ "Tepco pumps nitrogen into Reactor 1". Japan Times. 7 April 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-04-08. Retrieved 24 April 2011. 
  97. ^ "Latest jolt tests other nuclear plants, but no leaks". Japan Times. 9 April 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-10-11. Retrieved 24 April 2011. 
  98. ^ TEPCO revises nuclear fuel damage ratios, NHK, 27 April 2011
  99. ^ TEPCO to fill No.1 reactor with water, NHK, 26 April 2011.
  100. ^ Reactor 1 water level concerns, NHK, 23 April 2011.
  101. ^ a b Radiation Readings in Fukushima Reactor Rise to Highest Since Crisis Began, Bloomberg, 27 April 2011 Archived 27 April 2011 at WebCite
  102. ^ Fukushima reactor has a hole, leading to leakage, Reuters, 12 May 2011 Archived 12 May 2011 at WebCite
  103. ^ No.1 reactor is in a "meltdown" state, NHK, 13 May 2011.
  104. ^ Japan nuclear: Tepco halts Fukushima cooling plan, BBC, 15 May 2011. Archived June 1, 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  105. ^ a b c d "Records from March 11, 2011 to 31 July 2011". TEPCO (Press release). Retrieved 22 August 2011. 
  106. ^ "Earthquake Report number 180". JAIF. Retrieved 22 August 2011. 
  107. ^ "Completion of Cover Construction at Reactor Building of Unit 1 of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station". TEPCO (Press release). Archived from the original on 2014-02-13. Retrieved 7 November 2011. 
  108. ^ Nikkei (19 January 2012)TEPCO uses endoscope to look inside crippled Fukushima reactor Archived April 1, 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  109. ^ NHK-world (19 January 2012) TEPCO fails to clearly see inside damaged reactor. Archived January 19, 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  110. ^ "Neutron beam observed 13 times at crippled Fukushima nuke plant". Kyodo News. Archived from the original on 2011-05-21. Retrieved 7 April 2011. 
  111. ^ Black, Richard (16 March 2011). "Surprise 'critical' warning raises nuclear fears". BBC Online. Archived from the original on 2011-03-16. Retrieved 7 April 2011. 
  112. ^ Tabuchi, Hiroko; Bradsher, Keith (28 March 2011). "Elevated radiation levels force plant evacuation". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 2013-11-01. Retrieved 12 April 2011. 
  113. ^ "NISA News Release" (PDF). Archived from the original on 2011-04-18. Retrieved 7 April 2011. 
  114. ^ Harrell, Eben (30 March 2011). "Has Fukushima's Reactor No. 1 Gone Critical?". Time. Archived from the original on 2011-03-31. Retrieved 7 April 2011. 
  115. ^ "What was the cause of the high Cl-38 radioactivity in the Fukushima Daiichi Reactor #11" (PDF). Retrieved 7 April 2011. 
  116. ^ Tirone, Jonathan (31 March 2011). "Japan weighs entombing nuclear plant in bid to halt radiation". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 2011-03-31. Retrieved 7 April 2011. 
  117. ^ Inajima, Tsuyoshi (20 April 2011). "Tepco Retracts Chlorine, Arsenic Findings at Fukushima Station". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 2014-04-07. Retrieved 24 April 2011. 
  118. ^ "Press Release (April 20, 2011) Improvement plan for the exact nuclide analysis at the site of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station under instruction of NISA". Tepco.co.jp (Press release). Archived from the original on 2011-04-21. Retrieved 24 April 2011. 
  119. ^ "TEPCO Report" (PDF) (Press release). Retrieved 24 April 2011. 
  120. ^ After 5 Halflives, I-131 Higher than Cs-134/137 Suggests Ongoing Criticalities – GLG News. Glgroup.com (19 April 2011). Retrieved 30 April 2011.
  121. ^ "The result of nuclide analysis in the stagnant water on the basement floor of the turbine building of each unit." (PDF). Archived from the original on 2011-04-04. Retrieved 7 April 2011. 
  122. ^ Julian Ryall (12 May 2011). "Nuclear meltdown at Fukushima plant". The Daily Telegraph (London). Archived from the original on 2011-05-12. 
  123. ^ TEPCO (30-11-2012)Handout 30 November 2011
  124. ^ Sample, Ian (29 March 2011). "Japan may have lost race to save nuclear reactor". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 2011-03-29. Retrieved 30 March 2011. 
  125. ^ Mitsuru Obe (16 May 2011). "Cores damaged at three reactors". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2011-05-17. 
  126. ^ "Japan: 3 nuclear reactors melted down – News Story – KTVZ Bend". Ktvz.com. 6 June 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-06-27. Retrieved 13 July 2011. 
  127. ^ Ashai Shimbun (11/10/2012) Archived March 9, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  128. ^ Jaif (11 August 2011)Circulatory cooling begins at No.1 reactor pool

External links[edit]