Fulton Street Line (elevated)

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Downtown terminals in 1936

The Fulton Street Line, also called the Fulton Street Elevated or Kings County Line, was an elevated rail line mostly in Brooklyn, New York City, United States. It ran above Fulton Street from Fulton Ferry, Brooklyn in Downtown Brooklyn east to East New York, and then south on Van Sinderen Avenue (southbound) and Snediker Avenue (northbound), east on Pitkin Avenue, north on Euclid Avenue, and east on Liberty Avenue to Ozone Park, Queens. The portion in Brooklyn has been torn down, but most of the line in Queens has been connected to the New York City Subway and is now part of the IND Fulton Street Line, an underground line that replaced the elevated line in Brooklyn. The structure was the main line of the Kings County Elevated Railway, first opened in 1888.

History[edit]

The Kings County Elevated Railway opened the line, from dual western terminals at Fulton Ferry and Brooklyn Bridge (Sands Street)[1] east to Nostrand Avenue, on April 24, 1888.[2] It was extended east to Albany Avenue on May 30, 1888; Albany Avenue was an eastbound-only station, and the westbound station just beyond at Sumner Avenue had yet to be completed, so it temporarily served both directions.[3] The line was further extended to Ralph Avenue on September 20, 1888[4] and completed to BMT Fulton Street Line at the west end of East New York in early November.[citation needed]

The Fulton Elevated Railroad was incorporated on July 6, 1888 to build a disconnected line from Greenpoint south through Williamsburg to Kent and Myrtle Avenues, and to extend the Kings County Elevated east beyond Rockaway Avenue to the city line.[5][6] The former was not built, but construction soon began on the latter. The first piece, over Fulton Street and Williams Place, opened on July 4, 1889, connecting with the Long Island Rail Road's Manhattan Crossing station at the new terminal at Atlantic Avenue.[7] It was extended further, over Snediker Avenue and Pitkin Avenue, to Van Siclen Avenue on November 18, 1889; due to a shortage of wood for a storage yard, a temporary shuttle was operated between Pennsylvania Avenue and Van Siclen Avenue until mid-December.[8][9][10][11] Construction above Pitkin Avenue progressed to Linwood Street on February 22, 1892[12] and Montauk Avenue on March 21, 1892.[13] The line was completed to Grant Avenue at City Line on July 16, 1894, with the opening of a structure above Pitkin Avenue, Euclid Avenue, and Liberty Avenue.[14]

The Kings County Elevated leased the Brooklyn and Brighton Beach Railroad on February 5, 1896.[15] A two-block elevated connection between Franklin Avenue station and the Brighton Beach Line's Bedford station, including a new station at Dean Street, opened on August 15, 1896, and the Kings County Elevated began operating trains between the Brooklyn Bridge (Sands Street) and Brighton Beach.[16][17]

The final extension, from Grant Avenue east to Lefferts Avenue, was built under the Dual Contracts and opened on September 25, 1915.[18] The Dual Contracts also triple-tracked the line. Trains last ran on the line west of Rockaway Avenue on May 31, 1940;[19] a free transfer was provided to the IND Fulton Street Line at Rockaway Avenue and a new "Fulton–Lexington Avenue" service via the Lexington Avenue Elevated west of East New York was introduced.[citation needed] The line west of Hudson Street was closed on April 26, 1956, and IND Fulton Street Line (A) trains began using the line east of Hudson Street on April 29.[citation needed]

Service patterns[edit]

The primary service pattern was a simple one-end-to-the-other operation, until May 31, 1940, when the 13 was cut back to Rockaway Avenue, and the BMT 12 took over operations from downtown Brooklyn to Lefferts Boulevard.

Station listing[edit]

Most Fulton Street trains left the line at Sands Street and ended at Park Row rather than Fulton Ferry.

Miles from Fulton Ferry Name Location Opened Closed Notes
0.00 Fulton Ferry Fulton Ferry April 24, 1888[1] May 31, 1940[19]
N/A Sands Street Fulton Street and Sands Street April 24, 1888[1] May 31, 1940[19]
0.52/0.68[1] Clark Street (eastbound)
Tillary Street (westbound)
Clark–Tillary Streets
Fulton Street, Clark Street, and Tillary Street April 24, 1888[1]
0.74[1] Court Street (eastbound)
Myrtle Avenue (westbound)
Court Street – Myrtle Avenue
Fulton Street, Court Street, and Myrtle Avenue April 24, 1888[1] May 31, 1940[19]
0.91[1] Boerum Place Fulton Street and Boerum Place April 24, 1888[1] May 31, 1940[19]
1.18[1] Elm Place – Duffield Street Fulton Street, Elm Place, and Duffield Street April 24, 1888[1] May 31, 1940[19]
1.37[1] Flatbush Avenue Fulton Street and Flatbush Avenue April 24, 1888[1] May 31, 1940[19]
1.63[1] Lafayette Avenue Fulton Street and Lafayette Avenue April 24, 1888[1] May 31, 1940[19]
1.88[1] Cumberland Avenue Fulton Street and Cumberland Street April 24, 1888[1] May 31, 1940[19] connection to Greene and Gates Avenues Line streetcars
2.14[1] Vanderbilt Avenue Fulton Street and Vanderbilt Avenue April 24, 1888[1] May 31, 1940[19] connection to Vanderbilt Avenue Line streetcars
2.48[1] Grand Avenue Fulton Street and Grand Avenue April 24, 1888[1] May 31, 1940[19] connection to Putnam Avenue Line streetcars
2.81[1] Franklin Avenue Fulton Street and Franklin Avenue April 24, 1888[1] May 31, 1940[19] connection to Brighton Beach Line trains and Franklin Avenue Line streetcars
3.15[1] Nostrand Avenue Fulton Street and Nostrand Avenue April 24, 1888[1] May 31, 1940[19] connection to Nostrand Avenue Line, Lorimer Street Line, Marcy Avenue Line, and Ocean Avenue Line streetcars
3.44/3.47[1] Brooklyn Avenue (eastbound)
Tompkins Avenue (westbound)
Brooklyn–Tompkins Avenues
Fulton Street, Tompkins Avenue, and Brooklyn Avenue May 30, 1888[3] May 31, 1940[19] connection to Tompkins Avenue Line streetcars
3.78[1] Albany Avenue (eastbound)
Sumner Avenue (westbound)
Albany–Sumner Avenues
Fulton Street, Albany Avenue, and Sumner Avenue May 30, 1888[3] connection to Sumner Avenue Line streetcars
Troy Avenue Fulton Street and Troy Avenue mid-1888[citation needed] May 31, 1940[19]
4.15[1] Reid Avenue Fulton Street, Reid Avenue, and Utica Avenue mid-1888[citation needed] May 31, 1940[19] connection to Reid Avenue Line streetcars
4.60[1] Ralph Avenue Fulton Street and Ralph Avenue September 20, 1888[4] May 31, 1940[19] connection to Ralph Avenue Line streetcars
Saratoga Avenue Fulton Street and Saratoga Avenue December 3, 1888[20] May 31, 1940[19]
5.18[1] Rockaway Avenue Fulton Street and Rockaway Avenue early November 1888[citation needed] April 26, 1956[citation needed] connection to Wilson Avenue Line streetcars
Manhattan Junction Fulton Street and Sackman Street by 1892[citation needed] remainder of complex still exists as Broadway Junction serving the A all times C all except late nights J all times L all times Z rush hours, peak direction trains
Atlantic Avenue Williams Place, Snediker Avenue, and Atlantic Avenue July 4, 1889[7] present still serves the L all times train
connection to Long Island Rail Road at East New York station
Eastern Parkway Snediker Avenue and Eastern Parkway (Pitkin Avenue) November 18, 1889[10] between 1912 and 1924[citation needed]
Hinsdale Street Pitkin Avenue and Hinsdale Street between 1912 and 1924[citation needed] April 26, 1956[citation needed] connection to Bergen Street Line streetcars
Pennsylvania Avenue Pitkin Avenue and Pennsylvania Avenue November 18, 1889[10] April 26, 1956[citation needed]
Van Siclen Avenue Pitkin Avenue and Van Siclen Avenue November 18, 1889[10] April 26, 1956[citation needed]
Linwood Street Pitkin Avenue and Linwood Street February 22, 1892[12] April 26, 1956[citation needed]
Montauk Avenue Pitkin Avenue and Montauk Avenue March 21, 1892[13] April 26, 1956[citation needed]
Chestnut Street Pitkin Avenue and Chestnut Street July 16, 1894[14] April 26, 1956[citation needed]
Crescent Street Liberty Avenue and Crescent Street July 16, 1894[14] April 26, 1956[citation needed]
Grant Avenue Liberty Avenue and Grant Avenue July 16, 1894[14] April 26, 1956[citation needed]
Hudson Street – 80th Street Liberty Avenue and 80th Street September 25, 1915[18] present still serves the A all times train
Boyd Avenue – 88th Street Liberty Avenue and 88th Street September 25, 1915[18] present still serves the A all times train
Rockaway Boulevard Liberty Avenue and Rockaway Boulevard September 25, 1915[18] present still serves the A all times train
service to the Rockaways splits from here
Oxford Avenue – 104th Street Liberty Avenue and 104th Street September 25, 1915[18] present still serves the A all times train
Greenwood Avenue – 111th Street Liberty Avenue and 111th Street September 25, 1915[18] present still serves the A all times train
Lefferts Avenue – 119th Street Liberty Avenue and Lefferts Boulevard September 25, 1915[18] present still serves the A all times train

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad "Trains to Run". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, NY). April 21, 1888. p. 6. 
  2. ^ "Heavy Travel". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, NY). April 24, 1888. p. 6. 
  3. ^ a b c "For Decoration Day Travel". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, NY). May 29, 1888. p. 6. 
  4. ^ a b "untitled". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, NY). September 9, 1888. p. 8. 
  5. ^ "Fulton Elevated Incorporated". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, NY). July 7, 1888. p. 2. 
  6. ^ "Fulton Elevated Railroad". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, NY). July 9, 1888. p. 2. 
  7. ^ a b "The Fulton Street Elevated". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, NY). June 28, 1889. p. 6. 
  8. ^ "Will be Opened Monday". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, NY). November 12, 1889. p. 6. 
  9. ^ "Adding a Mile". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, NY). November 16, 1889. p. 3. 
  10. ^ a b c d "Hats Tossed Up". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, NY). November 18, 1889. p. 6. 
  11. ^ "Kings County Road's Shuttle Train". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, NY). December 10, 1889. p. 6. 
  12. ^ a b "Another L Station Opened". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, NY). February 22, 1892. p. 4. 
  13. ^ a b "Another L Station Opened". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, NY). March 21, 1892. p. 6. 
  14. ^ a b c d "Extending the Fulton Street Elevated". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, NY). July 13, 1894. p. 10. 
  15. ^ "Brighton Beach Road Leased". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, NY). February 5, 1896. p. 14. 
  16. ^ "New Route to Coney Island". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, NY). August 14, 1896. p. 12. 
  17. ^ "First Trains to Brighton". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, NY). August 14, 1896. p. 7. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g New York Times, New Elevated Line Opened for Queens, September 26, 1915, page 7
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r New York Times, Last Train is Run on Fulton St. 'El', June 1, 1940
  20. ^ "untitled". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, NY). November 27, 1888. p. 6.