Fumage, gouache, and color pencil work, by Antonio Muñiz
, 22" x 30"
Fumage is a surrealist technique popularized by Wolfgang Paalen in which impressions are made by the smoke of a candle or kerosene lamp on a piece of paper or canvas. Salvador Dalí later utilized the technique in his paintings, calling the technique "sfumato". The technique has been utilized by several artists such as Yves Klein, Burhan Doğançay, Jiri Georg Dokoupil, Otto Piene, Antonio Muñiz, Bimal Banerjee and Hugh Parker Guiler. Guiler's usage of the fumage technique is depicted briefly in the 1987 film Henry and June and his fumage pictures were often used as the covers for his wife Anaïs Nin's books.
Scholar Mary Flanagan compared the technique to the reading of tea leaves and to the Rorschach test.