Cover of the hardback edition
|Cover artist||Alison Bechdel|
|Genre||Graphic novel, Memoir|
|Published||June 8, 2006 (Houghton Mifflin, hardcover);
June 5, 2007 (Mariner Books, paperback)
|Media type||Print (hardcover, paperback)|
|ISBN||ISBN 0-618-47794-2 (hardcover);
ISBN 0-618-87171-3 (paperback)
|LC Class||PN6727.B3757 Z46 2006|
|Followed by||Are You My Mother?|
Fun Home (subtitled A Family Tragicomic) is a 2006 graphic memoir by American writer Alison Bechdel, author of the comic strip Dykes to Watch Out For. It chronicles the author's childhood and youth in rural Pennsylvania, United States, focusing on her complex relationship with her father. The book addresses themes of sexual orientation, gender roles, suicide, dysfunctional family life, and the role of literature in understanding oneself and one's family. Writing and illustrating Fun Home took seven years, in part because of Bechdel's laborious artistic process, which includes photographing herself in poses for each human figure.
Fun Home has been both a popular and critical success, and spent two weeks on the New York Times Best Seller list. In The New York Times Sunday Book Review, Sean Wilsey called it "a pioneering work, pushing two genres (comics and memoir) in multiple new directions." Several publications named Fun Home as one of the best books of 2006; it was also included in several lists of the best books of the 2000s. It was nominated for several awards, including the National Book Critics Circle Award and three Eisner Awards (one of which it won). A French translation of Fun Home was serialized in the newspaper Libération; the book was an official selection of the Angoulême International Comics Festival and has been the subject of an academic conference in France. Fun Home has been the subject of numerous academic publications in areas such as biography studies and cultural studies, as part of a larger turn towards serious academic investment in the study of comics/sequential art.
Fun Home also generated controversy: a public library in Missouri removed Fun Home from its shelves for five months after local residents objected to its contents, and the book's use in universities in Utah and South Carolina has been challenged.
The sequel to Fun Home, titled Are You My Mother?: A Comic Drama, traces Bechdel's relationship with her mother.
A musical play adapted from the book, entitled Fun Home, ran at The Public Theater from September 30, 2013 to January 12, 2014, its run having been extended multiple times. The book and lyrics were written by Obie Award-winning playwright Lisa Kron, and the score was composed by Tony Award-nominated Jeanine Tesori. The production was directed by Sam Gold. It was called "the first mainstream musical about a young lesbian." The musical was a finalist for the 2014 Pulitzer Prize for Drama; it also won the Lucille Lortel Award for Outstanding Musical, the New York Drama Critics' Circle Award for Best Musical, and the Obie Award for Musical Theater.
Plot and thematic summary
The narrative of Fun Home is non-linear and recursive. Incidents are told and re-told in the light of new information or themes. Bechdel describes the structure of Fun Home as a labyrinth, "going over the same material, but starting from the outside and spiraling in to the center of the story." In an essay on memoirs and truth in the academic journal PMLA, Nancy K. Miller explains that as Bechdel revisits scenes and themes "she re-creates memories in which the force of attachment generates the structure of the memoir itself." Additionally, the memoir derives its structure from allusions to various works of literature, Greek myth and visual arts; the events of Bechdel's family life during her childhood and adolescence are presented through this allusive lens. Miller notes that the narratives of the referenced literary texts "provide clues, both true and false, to the mysteries of family relations."
The memoir focuses on Bechdel's family, and is centered on her relationship with her father, Bruce. Bruce Bechdel was a funeral director and high school English teacher in Beech Creek, where Alison and her siblings grew up. The book's title comes from the family nickname for the funeral home, the family business in which Bruce Bechdel grew up and later worked; the phrase also refers ironically to Bruce Bechdel's tyrannical domestic rule. Bruce Bechdel's two occupations are reflected in Fun Home's focus on death and literature.
In the beginning of the book, the memoir exhibits Bruce Bechdel's obsession with restoring the family's Victorian home. His obsessive need to restore the house is connected to his emotional distance from his family, which he expressed in coldness and occasional bouts of abusive rage. This emotional distance, in turn, is connected with his being a closeted homosexual. Bruce Bechdel had homosexual relationships in the military and with his high school students; some of those students were also family friends and babysitters. At the age of 44, two weeks after his wife requested a divorce, he stepped into the path of an oncoming Sunbeam Bread truck and was killed. Although the evidence is equivocal, Alison Bechdel concludes that her father committed suicide.
The story also deals with Alison Bechdel's own struggle with her sexual identity, reaching a catharsis in the realization that she is a lesbian and her coming out to her parents. The memoir frankly examines her sexual development, including transcripts from her childhood diary, anecdotes about masturbation, and tales of her first sexual experiences with her girlfriend, Joan. In addition to their common homosexuality, Alison and Bruce Bechdel share obsessive-compulsive tendencies and artistic leanings, albeit with opposing aesthetic senses: "I was Spartan to my father's Athenian. Modern to his Victorian. Butch to his nelly. Utilitarian to his aesthete." This opposition was a source of tension in their relationship, as both tried to express their dissatisfaction with their given gender roles: "Not only were we inverts, we were inversions of each other. While I was trying to compensate for something unmanly in him, he was attempting to express something feminine through me. It was a war of cross-purposes, and so doomed to perpetual escalation." However, shortly before Bruce Bechdel's death, he and his daughter have a conversation in which Bruce confesses some of his sexual history; this is presented as a partial resolution to the conflict between father and daughter.
At several points in the book, Bechdel questions whether her decision to come out as a lesbian was one of the triggers for her father's suicide. This question is never answered definitively, but Bechdel closely examines the connection between her father's closeted sexuality and her own open lesbianism, revealing her debt to her father in both positive and negative lights.
Fun Home has several themes recurring throughout the book. The biggest theme, arguably, is sexual orientation. Bechdel tells the readers of her journey of discovering her own sexuality through books. "My realization at nineteen that I was a lesbian came about in a manner consistent with my bookish upbringing." Her exposure (from reading literal definitions in dictionaries, reading interviews of others like her, etc.) helped her come to terms with her sexuality, but in truth, the hints of it plagued her childhood: her desire "for the right to exchange [her] tank suit for a pair of shorts" in Cannes" or her desire for her brothers to call her Albert instead of Alison on one camping trip. However, Bechdel also reveals that she wasn't alone in her choice of partners; her father also exhibited some homosexual behaviors, but in a different way than Alison. "I'd been upstaged, demoted from protagonist in my own drama to comic relief in my parents' tragedy" quoted on page 58 when her mother reveals Bechdel's father's secret. Though both, father and daughter, had similar situations (Bechdel was a lesbian while her father was gay or bisexual), the two handled their issues differently. Bechdel chose to accept the fact and not hide from the issue, taking a female partner and going to "gay union" meetings. Bechdel was open about her sexuality before she'd even been in a same-sex relationship (of any sort). Her father, on the other hand, had had countless affairs with men but wasn't open about it ". This may be due to homophobia (his and/or others'), or because he was married with a family. In any case, it is clear that he is afraid of coming out, as illustrated by "the fear in his eyes" when the conversation topic is dangerously close to homosexuality.
In addition to sexual orientation, the memoir touches on the theme of gender identity. Bechdel had viewed her father as "a big sissy"" while her father constantly tried to change his daughter into a more feminine person throughout her childhood.
The third, underlying theme of death is also portrayed. Unlike most young people, the Bechdel children have a tangible relationship with death because of the family mortuary business. Alison ponders whether Bechdel's father's death was an accident or suicide, and finds it more likely that he killed himself purposefully. Whether this was because of his own sexuality, Alison's sexuality, or some other cause remains unclear.
The allusive references used in Fun Home are not merely structural or stylistic: Bechdel writes, "I employ these allusions ... not only as descriptive devices, but because my parents are most real to me in fictional terms. And perhaps my cool aesthetic distance itself does more to convey the Arctic climate of our family than any particular literary comparison." Bechdel, as the narrator, considers her relationship to her father through the myth of Daedalus and Icarus. As a child, she confused her family and their Gothic Revival home with the Addams Family seen in the cartoons of Charles Addams. Bruce Bechdel's suicide is discussed with reference to Albert Camus' novel A Happy Death and essay The Myth of Sisyphus. His careful construction of an aesthetic and intellectual world is compared to The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, and the narrator suggests that Bruce Bechdel modeled elements of his life after Fitzgerald's, as portrayed in the biography The Far Side of Paradise. His wife Helen is compared with the protagonists of the Henry James novels Washington Square and The Portrait of a Lady. Helen Bechdel was an amateur actress, and plays in which she acted are also used to illuminate aspects of her marriage. She met Bruce Bechdel when the two were appearing in a college production of The Taming of the Shrew, and Alison Bechdel intimates that this was "a harbinger of my parents' later marriage". Helen Bechdel's role as Lady Bracknell in a local production of The Importance of Being Earnest is shown in some detail; Bruce Bechdel is compared with Oscar Wilde. His homosexuality is also examined with allusion to Marcel Proust's In Search of Lost Time. The father and daughter's artistic and obsessive-compulsive tendencies are discussed with reference to E. H. Shepard's illustrations for The Wind in the Willows. Bruce and Alison Bechdel exchange hints about their sexualities by exchanging memoirs: the father gives the daughter Earthly Paradise, an autobiographical collection of the writings of Colette; shortly afterwards, in what Alison Bechdel describes as "an eloquent unconscious gesture", she leaves a library copy of Kate Millett's memoir Flying for him. Finally, returning to the Daedalus myth, Alison Bechdel casts herself as Stephen Dedalus and her father as Leopold Bloom in James Joyce's Ulysses, with parallel references to the myth of Telemachus and Odysseus.
The chapter headings, too, are all literary allusions. The first chapter, "Old Father, Old Artificer," refers to line in Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, and the second, "A Happy Death," invokes the Camus novel. "That Old Catastrophe" is a line from Wallace Stevens's "Sunday Morning," and "In the Shadow of the Young Girls in Flower" is the literal translation of the title of one of the volumes of Marcel Proust's In Search of Lost Time, which is usually given in English as Within a Budding Grove.
In addition to the literary allusions which are explicitly acknowledged in the text, Bechdel incorporates visual allusions to television programs and other items of pop culture into her artwork, often as images on a television in the background of a panel. These visual references include the film It's a Wonderful Life, Bert and Ernie of Sesame Street, the Smiley Face, Yogi Bear, Batman, the Road Runner and Wile E. Coyote, the resignation of Richard Nixon and The Flying Nun.
Fun Home is drawn in black line art with a gray-green ink wash. Sean Wilsey wrote that Fun Home's panels "combine the detail and technical proficiency of R. Crumb with a seriousness, emotional complexity and innovation completely its own." Writing in the Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide, Diane Ellen Hamer contrasted "Bechdel's habit of drawing her characters very simply and yet distinctly" with "the attention to detail that she devotes to the background, those TV shows and posters on the wall, not to mention the intricacies of the funeral home as a recurring backdrop." Bechdel told an interviewer for The Comics Journal that the richness of each panel of Fun Home was very deliberate:
It's very important for me that people be able to read the images in the same kind of gradually unfolding way as they're reading the text. I don't like pictures that don't have information in them. I want pictures that you have to read, that you have to decode, that take time, that you can get lost in. Otherwise what's the point?
Bechdel wrote and illustrated Fun Home over a seven-year period. Her meticulous artistic process made the task of illustration slow. She began each page by creating a framework in Adobe Illustrator, on which she placed the text and drew rough figures. She used extensive photo reference and, for many panels, posed for each human figure herself, using a digital camera to record her poses. Bechdel also used photo reference for background elements. For example, to illustrate a panel depicting fireworks seen from a Greenwich Village rooftop on July 4, 1976, she used Google Images to find a photograph of the New York skyline taken from that particular building in that period. She also painstakingly copied by hand many family photographs, letters, local maps and excerpts from her own childhood journal, incorporating these images into her narrative. After using the reference material to draw a tight framework for the page, Bechdel copied the line art illustration onto plate finish Bristol board for the final inked page, which she then scanned into her computer. The gray-green ink wash for each page was drawn on a separate page of watercolor paper, and combined with the inked image using Photoshop. Bechdel chose the greenish wash color for its flexibility, and because it had "a bleak, elegiac quality" which suited the subject matter. Bechdel attributes this detailed creative process to her "barely controlled obsessive-compulsive disorder".
Publication and reception
Fun Home was first printed in hardcover by Houghton Mifflin (Boston, New York) on June 8, 2006. This edition appeared on the New York Times' Hardcover Nonfiction bestseller list for two weeks, covering the period from June 18 to July 1, 2006. It continued to sell well, and by February 2007 there were 55,000 copies in print. A trade paperback edition was published in the United Kingdom by Random House under the Jonathan Cape imprint on September 14, 2006; Houghton Mifflin published a paperback edition under the Mariner Books imprint on June 5, 2007.
In the summer of 2006, a French translation of Fun Home was serialized in the Paris newspaper Libération (which had previously serialized Persepolis by Marjane Satrapi). This translation, by Corinne Julve and Lili Sztajn, was subsequently published by Éditions Denoël on October 26, 2006. In January 2007, Fun Home was an official selection of the Angoulême International Comics Festival. In the same month, the Anglophone Studies department of the Université François Rabelais, Tours sponsored an academic conference on Bechdel's work, with presentations in Paris and Tours. At this conference, papers were presented examining Fun Home from several perspectives: as containing "trajectories" filled with paradoxical tension; as a text interacting with images as a paratext; and as a search for meaning using drag as a metaphor. These papers and others on Bechdel and her work were later published in the peer-reviewed journal GRAAT (Groupe de Recherches Anglo-Américaines de Tours, or Tours Anglo-American Research Group).
An Italian translation was published by Rizzoli in January 2007. In Brazil, Conrad Editora published a Portuguese translation in 2007. A German translation was published by Kiepenheuer & Witsch in January 2008. The book has also been translated into Hungarian, Korean, and Polish, and a Chinese translation has been scheduled for publication.
In Spring 2012, Bechdel and Professor Hillary Chute co-taught a course at the University of Chicago titled "Lines of Transmission: Comics and Autobiography".
Reviews and awards
Fun Home was positively reviewed in many publications. The Times of London described Fun Home as "a profound and important book;" Salon.com called it "a beautiful, assured piece of work;" and The New York Times ran two separate reviews and a feature on the memoir. In one New York Times review, Sean Wilsey called Fun Home "a pioneering work, pushing two genres (comics and memoir) in multiple new directions" and "a comic book for lovers of words". Jill Soloway, writing in the Los Angeles Times, praised the work overall but commented that Bechdel's reference-heavy prose is at times "a little opaque". Similarly, a reviewer in The Tyee felt that "the narrator's insistence on linking her story to those of various Greek myths, American novels and classic plays" was "forced" and "heavy-handed". By contrast, the Seattle Times' reviewer wrote positively of the book's use of literary reference, calling it "staggeringly literate". The Village Voice said that Fun Home "shows how powerfully—and economically—the medium can portray autobiographical narrative. With two-part visual and verbal narration that isn't simply synchronous, comics presents a distinctive narrative idiom in which a wealth of information may be expressed in a highly condensed fashion."
Several publications listed Fun Home as one of the best books of 2006, including The New York Times, Amazon.com, The Times of London, New York magazine and Publishers Weekly, which ranked it as the best comic book of 2006. Salon.com named Fun Home the best nonfiction debut of 2006, admitting that they were fudging the definition of "debut" and saying, "Fun Home shimmers with regret, compassion, annoyance, frustration, pity and love—usually all at the same time and never without a pervasive, deeply literary irony about the near-impossible task of staying true to yourself, and to the people who made you who you are." Entertainment Weekly called it the best nonfiction book of the year, and Time named Fun Home the best book of 2006, describing it as "the unlikeliest literary success of 2006" and "a masterpiece about two people who live in the same house but different worlds, and their mysterious debts to each other."
Fun Home was a finalist for the 2006 National Book Critics Circle Award, in the memoir/autobiography category. In 2007, Fun Home won the GLAAD Media Award for Outstanding Comic Book, the Stonewall Book Award for non-fiction, the Publishing Triangle-Judy Grahn Nonfiction Award, and the Lambda Literary Award in the "Lesbian Memoir and Biography" category. Fun Home was nominated for the 2007 Eisner Awards in two categories, Best Reality-Based Work and Best Graphic Album, and Bechdel was nominated as Best Writer/Artist. Fun Home won the Eisner for Best Reality-Based Work. In 2008, Entertainment Weekly placed Fun Home at #68 in its list of "New Classics" (defined as "the 100 best books from 1983 to 2008"). The Guardian included Fun Home in its series "1000 novels everyone must read", noting its "beautifully rendered" details.
In 2009, Fun Home was listed as one of the best books of the previous decade by The Times of London, Entertainment Weekly and Salon.com, and as one of the best comic books of the decade by The Onion's A.V. Club.
Challenges and attempted banning
In October 2006, a resident of Marshall, Missouri attempted to have Fun Home and Craig Thompson's Blankets, both graphic novels, removed from the city's public library. Supporters of the books' removal characterized them as "pornography" and expressed concern that they would be read by children. Marshall Public Library Director Amy Crump defended the books as having been well-reviewed in "reputable, professional book review journals," and characterized the removal attempt as a step towards "the slippery slope of censorship". On October 11, 2006, the library's board appointed a committee to create a materials selection policy, and removed Fun Home and Blankets from circulation until the new policy was approved. The committee "decided not to assign a prejudicial label or segregate [the books] by a prejudicial system", and presented a materials selection policy to the board. On March 14, 2007, the Marshall Public Library Board of Trustees voted to return both Fun Home and Blankets to the library's shelves. Bechdel described the attempted banning as "a great honor", and described the incident as "part of the whole evolution of the graphic-novel form."
In 2008, an instructor at the University of Utah placed Fun Home on the syllabus of a mid-level English course, "Critical Introduction to English Literary Forms". One student objected to the assignment, and was given an alternate reading in accordance with the university's religious accommodation policy. The student subsequently contacted a local organization called "No More Pornography", which started an online petition calling for the book to be removed from the syllabus. Vincent Pecora, the chair of the university's English department, defended Fun Home and the instructor. The university said that it had no plans to remove the book.
In 2013, Palmetto Family, a conservative South Carolina group affiliated with Focus on the Family and the Family Research Council, challenged the inclusion of Fun Home as a reading selection for incoming freshmen at the College of Charleston. Palmetto Family president Oran Smith called the book "pornographic". Bechdel disputed this, saying that pornography is designed to cause sexual arousal, which is not the purpose of her book. College provost George Hynd and associate provost Lynne Ford defended the choice of Fun Home, pointing out that its themes of identity are especially appropriate for college freshmen. However, seven months later, the Republican-led South Carolina House of Representatives Ways and Means Committee cut the college's funding by $52,000, the cost of the summer reading program, to punish the college for selecting Fun Home. Rep. Garry Smith, who proposed the cuts, said that in choosing Fun Home the university was "promoting the gay and lesbian lifestyle". Rep. Stephen Goldfinch, another supporter of the cuts, said, "This book trampled on freedom of conservatives. ... Teaching with this book, and the pictures, goes too far." Bechdel called the funding cut "sad and absurd" and pointed out that Fun Home "is after all about the toll that this sort of small-mindedness takes on people's lives." The full state House of Representatives subsequently voted to retain the cuts. College of Charleston students and faculty reacted with dismay and protests to the proposed cuts, and the college's Student Government Association unanimously passed a resolution urging that the funding be restored. A coalition of ten free-speech organizations wrote a letter to the South Carolina Senate Finance Committee, urging them to restore the funds and warning them that "[p]enalising state educational institutions financially simply because members of the legislature disapprove of specific elements of the educational program is educationally unsound and constitutionally suspect". The letter was co-signed by the National Coalition Against Censorship, the ACLU of South Carolina, the American Association of University Professors, the Modern Language Association, the Association of College and Research Libraries, the American Booksellers Foundation for Free Expression, the Comic Book Legal Defense Fund, the Association of American Publishers, the National Council of Teachers of English and the American Library Association. After a nearly week-long debate in which Fun Home and Bechdel were compared to slavery, Charles Manson and Adolf Hitler, the state Senate voted to restore the funding, but redirect the funds towards study of the United States Constitution and the Federalist Papers; the university was also required to provide alternate books to students who object to an assignment due to a "religious, moral or cultural belief". Governor Nikki Haley approved the budget measure penalizing the university.
Fun Home has been adapted into a stage musical, with book by Lisa Kron and music by Jeanine Tesori. The play was first developed in a 2009 workshop at the Ojai Playwrights Conference, and subsequently workshopped in 2012 at the Sundance Theatre Lab and The Public Theater's Public Lab.
The musical debuted Off-Broadway at The Public Theater on September 30, 2013. The production was directed by Sam Gold, and starred Michael Cerveris as Bruce Bechdel and Judy Kuhn as Helen Bechdel. The role of Alison was played by three actors: Beth Malone played the adult Alison, reviewing and narrating her life, Alexandra Socha played "Medium Alison" (Alison as a student at Oberlin, discovering her sexuality), and Sydney Lucas played Small Alison (Alison as a child). Originally scheduled to run through November 3, 2013, the Public Theater run was extended multiple times and closed on January 12, 2014. It received largely positive reviews. The musical was a finalist for the 2014 Pulitzer Prize for Drama; it also won the Lucille Lortel Award for Outstanding Musical, the New York Drama Critics' Circle Award for Best Musical, and the Obie Award for Musical Theater. Alison Bechdel drew a one-page comic about the musical adaptation for the newspaper Seven Days.
- Emmert, Lynn (April 2007). "Life Drawing". The Comics Journal (Seattle, Washington: Fantagraphics Books) (282): 36. Retrieved August 6, 2007.
- Emmert, Lynn (April 2007). "Life Drawing". The Comics Journal (Seattle, Washington: Fantagraphics Books) (282): 44–48. Print edition only.
- Harrison, Margot (May 31, 2006). "Life Drawing". Seven Days. Retrieved August 7, 2007.
- Bechdel, Alison (April 18, 2006). "OCD" (video). YouTube. Retrieved August 8, 2007.
- "Hardcover Nonfiction" (free registration required). The New York Times. July 9, 2006. Retrieved December 18, 2006.
- "Hardcover Nonfiction" (free registration required). The New York Times. July 16, 2006. Retrieved December 18, 2006.
- Wilsey, Sean (June 18, 2006). "The Things They Buried" (free registration required). Sunday Book Review (The New York Times). Retrieved August 7, 2006.
- Bechdel, Alison. "News and Reviews". dykestowatchoutfor.com. Retrieved December 14, 2009.
- "The 2007 Eisner Awards: Winners List". San Diego Comic-Con website. Retrieved July 31, 2007.
- Bechdel, Alison (July 26, 2006). "Tour de France". Blog. Retrieved August 8, 2007.
- "Official 2007 Selection". Angoulême International Comics Festival. Archived from the original on July 15, 2007. Retrieved August 8, 2007.
- Cherbuliez, Juliette (January 25, 2007). "There's No Place like (Fun) Home". Transatlantica. Retrieved August 8, 2007.
- e.g. Tolmie, Jane (2009). "Modernism, Memory and Desire: Queer Cultural Production in Alison Bechdel's Fun Home." Topia: Canadian Journal of Cultural Studies. 22: 77-96;
Watson, Julia (2008). "Autographic Disclosures and Genealogies of Desire in Alison Bechdel's Fun Home." Biography. 31.1: 27-58.
- Twiddy, David (November 14, 2006). "As more graphic novels appear in libraries, so do challenges". International Herald Tribune. Associated Press. Retrieved August 14, 2007.
- Harper, Rachel (March 15, 2007). "Library board approves new policy/Material selection policy created, controversial books returned to shelves". The Marshall Democrat-News. Retrieved March 15, 2007.
- Dallof, Sarah (March 27, 2008). "Students protesting book used in English class". KSL-TV. Retrieved April 16, 2008.
- Knich, Diane (July 25, 2013). "Palmetto Family conservative group concerned about College of Charleston's freshman book selection". The Post and Courier. Retrieved July 28, 2013.
- Gioia, Michael. "Michael Cerveris, Judy Kuhn, Alexandra Socha Among Cast of Fun Home; Other Public Theater Casting Announced, Too". Playbill. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
- Gioia, Michael; Hetrick, Adam (December 4, 2013). "Jeanine Tesori-Lisa Kron Musical 'Fun Home' Given Fourth Extension". Playbill. Retrieved December 6, 2013.
- Thomas, June. "Fun Home: Is America Ready for a Musical About a Butch Lesbian?". Slate. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
- "Drama". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. April 14, 2014. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- "2014 Nominations". The Lucille Lortel Awards. May 4, 2014. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- Healy, Patrick (May 5, 2014). "Critics’ Circle Names ‘Fun Home’ Best Musical". New York Times. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- Lucchesi, Nick (May 19, 2014). "Village Voice Announces Winners of 59th Annual Obie Awards, Names Tom Sellar Lead Theater Critic". The Village Voice (New York). Retrieved May 21, 2014.
- Chute, Hillary (July 11, 2006). "Gothic Revival". The Village Voice. Retrieved August 7, 2006.
- Deppey, Dirk (January 17, 2007). "12 Days". The Comics Journal (Web Extras ed.). Retrieved August 16, 2007.
- Bechdel, Alison (Interviewee), Seidel, Dena (Editor) (2008). Alison Bechdel's Graphic Narrative (Flash video) (Web video). New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Writers House. Event occurs at 04:57. Retrieved April 16, 2008.[dead link]
- Miller, Nancy K. (March 2007). "The Entangled Self: Genre Bondage in the Age of the Memoir" (subscription required for online access). PMLA 122 (2): 543–544. doi:10.1632/pmla.2007.122.2.537. ISSN 0030-8129. Retrieved August 16, 2007.
- Bechdel, Alison (2006). Fun Home: A Family Tragicomic. New York: Houghton Mifflin. p. 36. ISBN 0-618-47794-2.
- Gustines, George Gene (June 26, 2006). "'Fun Home': A Bittersweet Tale of Father and Daughter" (free registration required). The New York Times. Retrieved August 7, 2006.
- Bechdel, Fun Home, pp. 11, 18, 21, 68–69, 71.
- Hamer, Diane Ellen (May 2006). "My Father, My Self". Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide 13 (3): 37. ISSN 1532-1118. Retrieved August 16, 2007.
- Bechdel, Fun Home, pp. 58–59, 61, 71, 79, 94–95, 120.
- Bechdel, Fun Home, pp. 27–30, 59, 85.
- Bechdel, Fun Home, pp. 23, 27–29, 89, 116–117, 125, 232.
- Bechdel, Alison. Alison Bechdel: Comic Con 2007 (Flash Video). Interview with Michelle Paradise. Velvetpark website video. Retrieved August 24, 2007.[dead link]
- Bechdel, Fun Home, pp. 58, 74–81,
- Bechdel, Fun Home, pp. 76, 80–81, 140–143, 148–149, 153, 157–159, 162, 168–174, 180–181, 183–186, 207, 214–215, 224.
- Bechdel, Fun Home, p. 15.
- Bechdel, Fun Home, p. 98.
- Bechdel, Fun Home, pp. 220–221.
- Bechdel, Fun Home, pp. 57–59, 86, 117, 230–232.
- Bechdel, Fun Home, p. 74
- Bechdel, Fun Home, p. 73
- Bechdel, Fun Home, p. 113
- Bechdel, Fun Home, p. 76-81
- Bechdel, Fun Home, p. 219
- Bechdel, Fun Home, p. 97
- Bechdel, Fun Home, p. 27-29
- Bechdel, Fun Home, p. 67
- Bechdel, Fun Home, pp. 3–4, 231–232.
- Bechdel, Fun Home, pp. 34–35.
- Bechdel, Fun Home, pp. 27–28, 47–49.
- Bechdel, Fun Home, pp. 61–66, 84–86.
- Bechdel, Fun Home, pp. 66–67, 70–71.
- Bechdel, Fun Home, pp. 69–70.
- Bechdel, Fun Home, pp. 154–155, 157–158, 163–168, 175, 180, 186.
- Bechdel, Fun Home, pp. 92–97, 102, 105, 108–109, 113, 119–120.
- Bechdel, Fun Home, pp. 130–131, 146–147, 150.
- Bechdel, Fun Home, pp. 205, 207–208, 217–220, 224, 229.
- Bechdel, Fun Home, pp. 201–216, 221–223, 226, 228–231.
- Chute, Hillary L. (2010). Graphic Women: Life Narrative and Contemporary Comics. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231150637.
- Bechdel, Fun Home, pp. 10–11 (It's a Wonderful Life), 14 (Sesame Street), 15 (Smiley Face), 92 (Yogi Bear), 130 (Batman), 174–175 (Road Runner and Wile E. Coyote), 181 (Nixon), 131, 193 (The Flying Nun).
- Emmert, p. 46. Print edition only.
- Swartz, Shauna (May 8, 2006). "Alison Bechdel's Life in the Fun Home". AfterEllen.com. Retrieved August 7, 2007.
- Brooks, Carellin (August 23, 2006). "A Dyke to Watch Out For". The Tyee. Retrieved August 7, 2007.
- Emmert, pp. 47–48. Print edition only.
- Emmert, p. 45. Print edition only.
- "Fun Home; ISBN 0-618-47794-2". Houghton Mifflin website. Retrieved August 14, 2007.
- "Comics Bestsellers: February 2007". Publishers Weekly. February 6, 2007. Archived from the original on January 7, 2008. Retrieved August 14, 2007.
- "Book Details for Fun Home". Random House UK website. Retrieved August 14, 2007.
- "Fun Home; ISBN 0-618-87171-3". Houghton Mifflin website. Retrieved August 14, 2007.
- "Fun Home". Éditions Denoël website (in French). Retrieved August 8, 2007.
- Chabani, Karim (March 2007). "Double Trajectories: Crossing Lines in Fun Home" (PDF). GRAAT (Tours: Université François Rabelais). on-line edition (1). Retrieved August 8, 2007.
- Muller, Agnés (March 2007). "Image as Paratext in Alison Bechdel's Fun Home" (PDF). GRAAT (Tours: Université François Rabelais). on-line edition (1). Retrieved August 8, 2007.
- Tison, Hélène (March 2007). "Drag as metaphor and the quest for meaning in Alison Bechdel's Fun Home: A Family Tragicomic" (PDF). GRAAT (Tours: Université François Rabelais). on-line edition (1). Retrieved August 8, 2007.
- Tison, Hélène, ed. (March 2007). "Reading Alison Bechdel". GRAAT (Tours: Université François Rabelais). on-line edition (1). Retrieved October 14, 2008.
- "Groupe de Recherches Anglo-Américaines de Tours". Université François Rabelais, Tours (in French). Retrieved August 21, 2007.
- "Fun Home". Rizzoli (in Italian). RCS MediaGroup. Retrieved August 14, 2009.
- "Libro Fun Home". Libraria Rizzoli (in Italian). RCS MediaGroup. Retrieved August 14, 2009.
- Magnani, Deborah (March 20, 2010). "Fun Home: Uma Tragicomédia Em Família". cubo3 (in Portuguese). Retrieved May 21, 2010.
- "Fun Home" (in German). Kiepenheuer & Witsch. January 2008. Retrieved April 16, 2008.
- Abiekt.pl (October 9, 2008). "Fun Home. Tragikomiks rodzinny". abiekt.pl (in Polish). Retrieved October 9, 2008.
- Bechdel, Alison (August 14, 2008). "china, translated". dykestowatchoutfor.com. Retrieved August 14, 2008.
- "Lines of Transmission: Comics and Autobiography". Gray Center for Arts and Inquiry. University of Chicago. 2012. Retrieved July 28, 2013.
- Wolk, Douglas (June 5, 2006). "Fun Home". Salon.com. Retrieved August 12, 2006.
- Reynolds, Margaret (September 16, 2006). "Images of the fragile self". The Times (London). Retrieved August 7, 2007.
- Bellafante, Ginia (August 3, 2006). "Twenty Years Later, the Walls Still Talk" (paid archive). The New York Times. Retrieved August 7, 2006.
- Soloway, Jill (June 4, 2006). "Skeletons in the closet" (paid archive). Los Angeles Times. p. R. 12. Retrieved August 1, 2007.
- Pachter, Richard (June 16, 2006). ""Fun Home": Sketches of a family circus". Seattle Times. Retrieved August 9, 2007.
- "100 Notable Books of the Year" (free registration required). Sunday Book Review (The New York Times). December 3, 2006. Retrieved December 12, 2006.
- "Best Books of 2006: Editors' Top 50". amazon.com. Retrieved December 18, 2006.
- "Best of 2006 Top 10 Editors' Picks: Memoirs". amazon.com. Retrieved December 18, 2006.
- Gatti, Tom (December 16, 2006). "The 10 best books of 2006: number 10 — Fun Home". The Times (London). Retrieved December 18, 2006.
- Bonanos, Christopher; Logan Hill, Jim Holt et al. (December 18, 2006). "The Year in Books". New York. Retrieved December 12, 2006.
- "The First Annual PW Comics Week Critic's Poll". Publishers Weekly Online (Publishers Weekly). December 19, 2006. Archived from the original on 2010-01-17. Retrieved December 19, 2006.
- Miller, Laura; Hillary Frey (December 12, 2006). "Best debuts of 2006". salon.com. Retrieved December 12, 2006.
- Reese, Jennifer (December 29, 2006). "Literature of the Year". Entertainment Weekly (913–914). Retrieved August 6, 2007.
- Grossman, Lev; Richard Lacayo (December 17, 2006). "10 Best Books". Time. Retrieved December 18, 2006.
- Getlin, Josh (January 21, 2007). "Book Critics Circle nominees declared" (free abstract of paid archive). Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 22, 2007.
- "NBCC Awards Finalists". National Book Critics Circle website. Archived from the original on October 2, 2006. Retrieved January 22, 2007.
- "18th Annual GLAAD Media Awards in San Francisco". Retrieved April 15, 2009.[dead link]
- "Holleran, Bechdel win 2007 Stonewall Book Awards". American Library Association. January 22, 2007. Retrieved January 24, 2007.
- "Alison Bechdel Among Triangle Award Winners". The Book Standard. May 8, 2007. p. 1. Archived from the original on 2007-05-12. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
- "Lambda Literary Awards Announce Winners". Lambda Literary Foundation. Archived from the original on June 10, 2007. Retrieved June 5, 2007.
- "The 2007 Eisner Awards: 2007 Master Nominations List". San Diego Comic-Con website. Retrieved July 31, 2007.
- "The New Classics: Books". Entertainment Weekly (999–1000). June 27, 2008. Retrieved June 22, 2008.
- Taylor, Craig (January 20, 2009). "1000 novels everyone must read: The best graphic novels". The Guardian (London: Guardian Media Group). Retrieved January 20, 2009.
- McIntosh, Lindsay (November 14, 2009). "The 100 Best Books of the Decade". The Times (London). Retrieved December 14, 2009. Listed as #42 of 100.
"Books: The 10 Best of the Decade". Entertainment Weekly. December 3, 2009. Retrieved December 14, 2009. Listed as #7 of 10.
Miller, Laura (December 9, 2009). "The best books of the decade". Salon.com. Retrieved December 14, 2009. Listed chronologically in a list of 10 non-fiction works.
Handlen, Zack; Jason Heller; Noel Murray; et al. (November 24, 2009). "The best comics of the '00s". The A.V. Club. The Onion. Retrieved December 14, 2009. Listed alphabetically in a list of 25.
- Kellog, Carolyn; Nick, Owchar; Ulin, David L. (August 4, 2010). "20 classic works of gay literature". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 5, 2010.
- Sims, Zach (October 3, 2006). "Library trustees to hold hearing on novels". The Marshall Democrat-News. Retrieved October 8, 2006.
- Sims, Zach (October 5, 2006). "Library board hears complaints about books/Decision scheduled for Oct. 11 meeting". The Marshall Democrat-News. Retrieved October 8, 2006.
- Brady, Matt (October 12, 2006). "Marshall Libaray Board Votes to Adopt Materials Selection Policy". Newsarama. Retrieved October 12, 2006.[dead link]
- Sims, Zach (October 12, 2006). "Library board votes to remove 2 books while policy for acquisitions developed". The Marshall Democrat-News. Retrieved October 12, 2006.
- Harper, Rachel (January 25, 2007). "Library board ready to approve new materials selection policy". The Marshall Democrat-News. Retrieved January 26, 2007.
- Harper, Rachel (February 8, 2007). "Library policy has first reading". The Marshall Democrat-News. Retrieved March 5, 2007.
- Emmert, p. 39. Retrieved on August 6, 2007.
- Vanderhooft, JoSelle (April 7, 2008). "Anti-Porn Group Challenges Gay Graphic Novel". QSaltLake. Retrieved July 28, 2013.
- "College of Charleston freshman book questioned". WCIV. Associated Press. July 26, 2013. Retrieved July 28, 2013.
- Bowers, Paul (July 26, 2013). "CofC freshman book ruffles conservative group's feathers". Charleston City Paper. Retrieved July 28, 2013.
- Adcox, Seanna (February 19, 2014). "SC lawmakers vote to punish colleges' book choices". San Francisco Chronicle. Associated Press. Retrieved February 21, 2014.
- Borden, Jeremy (February 20, 2014). "Palmetto Sunrise: College of Charleston dollars cut for ‘promotion of lesbians’". The Post and Courier (Charleston, SC). Retrieved February 21, 2014.
- Driscoll, Molly (February 28, 2014). "Alison Bechdel's memoir 'Fun Home' runs into trouble with the South Carolina House of Representatives". The Christian Science Monitor (Boston). Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- Shain, Andrew (March 15, 2014). "Lawmakers to S.C. colleges: Choose freedom or funding". The State (Columbia, SC: McClatchy). Retrieved March 25, 2014.
- Deahl, Rachel (February 26, 2014). "Bechdel Reacts to 'Fun Home' Controversy in So. Carolina". Publishers Weekly. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- Adcox, Seanna (March 10, 2014). "SC House refuses to restore college cuts for books". San Francisco Chronicle. Associated Press. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- Catalano, Trevor (March 24, 2014). "Students and Faculty React to Budget Cuts Due to Unsupported Material". CisternYard Media (Charleston, SC). Retrieved March 25, 2014.
- Langley, Cuthbert (March 18, 2014). "ACLU enters "College Reads!" debate as State Rep. apologizes for harsh email". WCBD-TV (Charleston, SC: Media General). Retrieved March 25, 2014.
- Elmore, Christina (March 29, 2014). "Protesters rally against proposed book-linked budget cuts at the College of Charleston". The Post and Courier (Charleston, SC: Evening Post Industries). Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- Armitage, Hugh (March 24, 2014). "South Carolina warned over "unconstitutional" Fun Home uni cuts". Digital Spy (London: Hearst Magazines UK). Retrieved March 25, 2014.
- Kingkade, Tyler (March 18, 2014). "These College Budget Cuts Risk Violating The First Amendment, State Lawmakers Are Warned". Huffington Post (New York). Retrieved March 25, 2014.
- O'Connor, Acacia (March 18, 2014). "Letter Urges S.C. Legislature to Restore Funding to Universities with LGBT Curricula". National Coalition Against Censorship. Retrieved March 25, 2014.
- Borden, Jeremy (May 7, 2014). "Sen. Brad Hutto filibuster delays decision on College of Charleston 'Fun Home' budget cuts; GOP calls book pornography". The Post and Courier (Charleston, SC: Evening Post Industries). Retrieved May 15, 2014.
- Borden, Jeremy (May 13, 2014). "S.C. Senate votes to fund teaching U.S. Constitution as compromise on book cuts at College of Charleston". The Post and Courier (Charleston, SC: Evening Post Industries). Retrieved May 15, 2014.
- McLeod, Harriet (May 13, 2014). "South Carolina Senate won't cut college budgets over gay-themed books". Business Insider. Reuters. Retrieved May 15, 2014.
- Thomason, Andy (June 16, 2014). "S.C. Governor Upholds Penalties for Gay-Themed Books in State Budget". The Chronicle of Higher Education (Washington, DC). Retrieved July 2, 2014.
- Hetrick, Adam (August 4, 2009). "Ojai Playwrights Conference Begins in CA; Kron and Tesori Pen New Musical". Playbill. Retrieved November 3, 2013.
- Boehm, Mike (July 10, 2012). "Cherry Jones, Raul Esparza give Sundance Theatre Lab star power". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 3, 2013.
- Hetrick, Adam (September 11, 2012). "Jeanine Tesori-Lisa Kron Musical Fun Home Will Debut at the Public; Judy Kuhn to Star". Playbill. Retrieved November 4, 2013.
- Brantley, Ben (October we, 2013). "Family as a Hall of Mirrors". The New York Times. Retrieved October 23, 2013.
- Dziemianowicz, Joe (October 22, 2013). ""Fun Home," theater review. Public Theater musical about a small-town family is dark but magnificent". New York Daily News. Retrieved October 23, 2013.
- McNulty, Charles (October 23, 2013). "Awkwardness adds to 'Fun Home' charm Muddled beginning, smudgy staging and distracting songs in this musical ultimately add up to a tender honesty.". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 23, 2013.
- Bechdel, Alison (July 2, 2014). "Fun Home! The Musical!". Seven Days (Burlington, Vermont: Da Capo Publishing). Retrieved July 23, 2014.
- Houghton Mifflin's Fun Home press release, with excerpts from the book and video of Bechdel's artistic process
- dykestowatchoutfor.com, author Alison Bechdel's blog and official website
- What the Little Old Ladies Feel: How I told my mother about my memoir. Slate article by Bechdel