|Molar mass||98.10 g/mol|
|Appearance||colorless to amber liquid|
|Melting point||−29 °C (−20 °F; 244 K)|
|Boiling point||170 °C (338 °F; 443 K)|
|Flash point||65 °C; 149 °F; 338 K |
|Explosive limits||1.8% - 16.3%|
|US health exposure limits (NIOSH):|
|TWA 50 ppm (200 mg/m3)|
|TWA 10 ppm (40 mg/m3) ST 15 ppm (60 mg/m3) [skin]|
IDLH (Immediate danger)
Except where noted otherwise, data is given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
|what is: / ?)(|
Furfuryl alcohol, also called 2-furylmethanol or 2-furancarbinol, is an organic compound containing a furan substituted with a hydroxymethyl group. It is a clear colorless liquid when pure, but becomes amber colored upon prolonged standing. It possesses a faint burning odor and a bitter taste. It is miscible with but unstable in water. It is soluble in common organic solvents. Upon treatment with acids, heat and/or catalysts, furfuryl alcohol can be made to polymerize into a resin, poly(furfuryl alcohol).
Furfuryl alcohol is manufactured industrially by the catalytic reduction of furfural which is obtained from corncob and sugar cane bagasse. It finds use as a solvent, but is primarily used as an ingredient in the manufacture of various chemical products such as foundry resins, adhesives, and wetting agents.
Furfuryl alcohol has been used in rocketry as a fuel which ignites hypergolically (immediately and energetically in contact) with white fuming nitric acid or red fuming nitric acid oxidizer. The use of hypergolics avoids the need for an igniter. In fall of 2012, Spectra, a concept liquid rocket engine using white fuming nitric acid as the oxidizer to furfuryl alcohol fuel was static tested by Copenhagen Suborbitals.
Because of its low molecular weight, furfuryl alcohol can impregnate the cells of wood, where it can be polymerized and bonded with the wood by heat, radiation, and/or catalysts or additional reactants. The treated wood has improved moisture-dimensional stability, hardness, and decay and insect resistance; catalysts can include zinc chloride, citric or formic acid, or borates.
The major use of furfuryl alcohol is in the production of resins for bonding foundry sands for production of cores and molds. The binder system contains furfuryl alcohol in monomer or polymer form.
- Merck Index, 11th Edition, 4215.
- "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0298". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
- Ignition Catalysts for Furfuryl Alcohol—Red Fuming Nitric Acid Bipropellant AIAA Journal Vol 8, No. 5 Pg 988.
- Madsen, Peter. "Spectra-testen". Retrieved September 10, 2012.
- http://copenhagensuborbitals.com/public/spectra.pdf The Spectra engine test report pdf
- Stamm, Alfred (June 1, 1977). "Dimensional Stabilization of Wood with Furfuryl Alcohol Resin". Wood Technology: Chemical Aspects. AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY. pp. 141–149.
- Ergun Baysal et al (21 Aug 2004). "Dimensional stabilization of wood treated with furfuryl alcohol catalysed by borates". Wood Science & Technology 38 (6).