Fusellovirus is a genus of dsDNA virus that infects the species of the clade Archaea. The Fuselloviridae are ubiquitous in high-temperature (≥70°C), acidic (pH ≤4) hot springs around the world. They are one of the few viruses to possess a lipid membrane and a protective inner capsid in the form of a core.
The viron is enveloped, lemon shaped and has a short tail at one pole. In diameter it is ~60 nanometers (nm) and ~100 nm in length. The envelope is highly hydrophobic.
The genome is circular, between 14.8 to 17.3 kilobases in length and encodes 31 to 37 genes.
The family of viruses appear to be lysogenic rather than lytic. After injection of the viral DNA into the host, the genome integrates into a specific tRNA gene of the host. From this location, transcription and replication of the viral genome occurs, which in turn leads to the assembly of new viruses. These are released from the host by budding.
Type species: Sulfolobus virus 1
Synonym(s): Sulfolobus shibatae bacteriophage SSV1
ICTV approved acronym: SSV-1
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