(Flügge 1886) Moore and Holdeman 1969
Fusobacterium necrophorum is the species of that is responsible for Lemierre's syndrome, and appears to be responsible for 10% of all acute sore throats, 21% of all recurring sore throats, and 23% of peritonsillar abscesses with the remainder being caused by Group A streptococci or viruses.
Other complications from F. necrophorum include meningitis, complicated by thrombosis of the internal jugular vein, thrombosis of the cerebral veins, and infection of the urogenital and the gastrointestinal tracts.
F. necrophorum infection usually responds to treatment with penicillin or metronidazole, but penicillin treatment for persistent pharyngitis appears anecdotally to have a higher relapse rate, although the reasons for that are unclear. This bacterium is also considered the cause of the foot disease thrush in horses.
Although this infection is rare, researchers agree that this diagnosis should be considered in a septicaemic patient with thrombosis in an unusual site, and underlying malignancy should be excluded in cases of confirmed F. necrophorum occurring at sites caudal to the head.
F. necrophorum is also a cause for lameness in sheep. Its infection is commonly called scald. It can last for several years on land used by either sheep or cattle and is found on most land of this type throughout the world. Due to its survival length in these areas it is unrealistic to try to remove it. Sheep most often get scald due to breakage or weakness of the skin surrounding the hoof. This can occur due to strong footbaths, sandy soils, mild frostbite or prolongened waterlogging of a field, and results in denaturing of the skin between the cleats.
Thrush is a common bacterial infection that occurs on the hoof of a horse, specifically in the region of the frog. The bacteria involved is 'F. necrophorum, and occurs naturally in the animal's environment — especially in wet, muddy, or unsanitary conditions, such as an unclean stall — and grows best with low oxygen. Horses with deep clefts, or narrow or contracted heels are more at-risk to develop thrush.
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