The present town is centered in the eponymous valley of Gósol, which is enclosed by the Serra del Cadí and Pedraforca, in the Pyrenees. The ruins of the former town and castle, dating from the 11th century, overlook the Gósol from an adjacent hill.
The municipal limits of Gósol includes, most notably, the village of Sorribes. Other settlements include Bonner, la Collada, Molí d'en Güell, Moripol, Castell de Termes, Font Terrers, and Torrent Senta.
Gosol's emblematic cultural institution is the Picasso Museum, which owes its existence to the visit of Pablo Picasso to the village from the spring of 1906 to mid-August of that same year. The artist installed himself at the only inn then in existence, Cal Tampanada. While in Gósol, Picasso underwent a transformation of palette, sketching style, and rhythm of composition. Picasso found his subjects in local livestock and people of Gósol, as well as Fernande Olivier, his partner.