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Gábor Péter (born as Benjámin Eisenberger in Újfehértó, 14 May 1906 – Budapest, 23 January 1993) was a Hungarian Communist politician, of Jewish origin. Between 1945 and 1952 he was the absolute leader of the State Protection Authority (Államvédelmi Hatóság) which responsible for much cruelty, brutality and many political purges.
In January 1945 he was appointed as leader of the Budapest Police Main Command Political Department (PRO). Péter's career rose quickly then: he became leader of the Hungarian State Police State Protection Department (ÁVO) then the State Protection Authority (ÁVH). Under his leadership the organization committed serious illegitimacies and crimes against the humanity. Gábor Péter had big role in the organizing of the show trials.
In 1952 he was discharged from his position. Later he was arrested in Mátyás Rákosi's villa. According to historian Tibor Zinner, Gábor Péter was present on an official visit. Unexpectedly a handcuff clicked on his hand put back. After that Mihály Farkas stepped forward from behind the curtain and said: "the game is over". Gábor Péter's wife, Jolán Simon who served as Rákosi's secretary was also arrested.
He was accused of being a Zionist spy who cooperated with Laszlo Rajk, Rudolf Slansky and other "agents of international Zionism". In 1954 a court martial sentenced him to life imprisonment. In 1957 his term of imprisonment was significantly reduced and in 1959 he was released. After that he worked as a librarian.