|• Mayor||Ercan Çimen (AKP)|
|• District||1,788.83 km2 (690.67 sq mi)|
|• District density||25/km2 (65/sq mi)|
Gümüşhane (pronounced [ɡyˈmyʃaːˌne] ( listen)) is a city and the capital district of Gümüşhane Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. The city lies along the Harşit River, at an elevation of 5,000 feet (1,500 m), about 40 miles (65 km) southwest of Trabzon. According to the 2010 census, population of Gümüşhane urban center is 28,620. The district covers an area of 1,789 km2 (691 sq mi), and the town lies at an elevation of 1,227 m (4,026 ft). Coordinates on world : 40°27′35″N 39°28′40″E
The city was established around 700 BC as the settlement of Thyra (Grk: Θύρα) by Ionian Greeks who first discovered silver in the region. Its common Greek name, Argyropolis (Αργυρόπολις), stems from two Greek words (Argyro = silver, and Polis = city). Other names used to describe the town were Γκιμισχανά, and Κιουμουσχανά. The Turkish name, Gümüşhane, also means silver (gümüş) home or place (hane).
Around 840 AD, Argyropolis (also spelled, Argyroupolis) was included in the new Roman (Byzantine) province of Chaldia (Χαλδία). During Ottoman years, the sanjak of Argyroupolis fell under the administration of the vilayet of Trapezunta, and was divided into 4 kazas: namely Argyroupolis, Torul (capital city Ardassa), Cheriana, and Keltik.
Gümüşhane is surrounded by high mountains, Zigana-Trabzon Mountains to the north, Çimen Mountains to the south, Giresun Mountains to the west and Pulur, Soğanlı Mountains to the east. Trekking is popular sport is at these mountains. Mount Zigana has a ski center on it and it is a well known tourist destination for winter sports. Abdal Musa Peak (3331 m.) is the highest peak within it. The main trees in the forests are Scotch pine and fir, and there are many animals and birds in the area. There are many lakes such as Karanlık Göl, Beş Göller, Artebel Gölü, Kara Göller which are at the peak of Gavurdağı Mountain, and are preserved as natural parks. All these mountains compose 56% of the area of Gümüşhane province.
Gümüşhane has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dsb on the border Dfb) with cold and snowy winters and warm summers. In the height of summer; July and August, temperatures at midday usually surpass 28 °C, summer nights tend to become very cool due to the high elevation of Gümüşhane, and in winter temperatures usually plummet to -10 °C and even go as low as -20 °C occasionally.
|Climate data for Gümüşhane (1960-2012)|
|Record high °C (°F)||14.8
|Average high °C (°F)||2.58
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−1.8
|Average low °C (°F)||−5.8
|Record low °C (°F)||−23.6
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||35.0
|Avg. precipitation days||11.2||10.9||12.5||14.1||15.5||10.3||4.3||3.6||5.2||9.4||10.3||11.6||118.9|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||43.4||103.6||158.1||183||235.6||276||313.1||306.9||243||173.6||66||24.8||2,127.1|
|Source: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü |
Gümüşhane has a rich historical background so there are many historical places, mosques, churches, castles. Ancient city of Satala in the modern village of Sadak was the most important military camp of the ancient Roman Empire in the east. This place was ruled by the Hittites, Assyrians, Urartu, Persians, Pontic Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. Today, rests of the Sadak village is protected by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. In addition, Süleymaniye Mosque is in the previous Gümüşhane settlement and it was commissioned by the Ottoman sultan Süleyman the Magnificent. Küçük Mosque and Çit Village Mosque are some of other popular mosques in the city. Besides, there are numerous churches within Gümüşhane. Santa Çakallı, Santa Terzili, Kalur Rock, Samamoni, and Theodor Churches are some examples of historical churches in Gümüşhane.
There are numerous large and small caves due to the geological structure of Gümüşhane. Karaca Cave is the most popular in Gümüşhane due to its some specific characteristics. The total length of the cave is 150 meters. It is a fossil cave and is located between Torul and Gümüşhane. The waters leaking from the crack system cutting each other. Formation of interesting stalactites, stalagmites, columns, and travertine pools are some features of Karaca Cave. Gümüşhane is also popular with plateaus hidden between the forests. Zigana, Taşköprü, Artabel, Şiran and Kalis plateaus are some of them and summer festivals are organized every year.
Many native tourists join these festivals to entertain and also to shop some regional items or food. Pestil and köme are renowned desserts of Gümüşhane, they are made from mulberry, honey, nut, walnut and milk. In addition to köme and pestil, rosehips, apples, and walnuts are some common natural food and by means of them many different desserts are made in Gümüşhane. It has a rich food culture; mantı, lemis, erişte, borani, kuymak, evelek dolması and siron are some of well known food in Gümüşhane.
||This article lends undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, or controversies. (March 2015)|
Pontic Greek influence
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (April 2011)|
It is suggested that the ancient Thia (a settlement of Roman and Late Roman period) was located 4 miles west of modern Gümüşhane, in modern Beşkilise. In Byzantine period, there was a town named Tzanicha or Tzantzakon, possibly located 2 miles to the west of Gümüşhane.
During Ottoman years, the sanjak of Gümüşhane fell under the administration successively Rum Province, Erzurum Province and Trabzon (Trapezunta in Greek) Province, and was divided into four kazas: Gümüşhane, Torul (capital city Ardassa), Şiran (Cheriana), and Kelkit (Keltik).
The sanjak in which Gümüşhane was situated at some stage comprised 37 mines of argentiferous lead and six copper mines. There is no evidence that these mines were in use during Byzantine times.
The first residents of Gümüşhane settled in the region just after the fall of Trebizond (1461) and the town soon became a home for miners. Sultan Murad ΙΙΙ (1574–1595) appears to have granted extra privileges to the chief miners and the town prospered and soon became a centre of Hellenism. At the time, it had 60,000 residents. Its trade was increasing and the whole province of Chaldia was on the rise. Another example of its development was that they minted coins with the name Kioumous-hane on them. Another example was the settlement of chief mining families there such as the Sarasites, the Karatsades, the Stavracoglous, the Kalimachidises, the Grigorantons and others. There were also more jewellery shops opening, as well as more hagiography and other arts in the region.
As for the name of the city during the Ottoman period, Greek-speaking population was also using the name Gümüşhane (Γκιμισχανά and Κιουμουσχανά) but, in the first decades of 19th century, the hellenized form "Argyropolis" (Αργυρόπολις, argyro = silver and polis = city)) was established.
The rise in wealth and abundance soon brought positive changes to the communities. From the beginning of the 18th century new schools were opening, and from 1723 the Frontistirion (Greek Tuition Centre) of Argyroupolis was in full operation. The tuition centre became an educational institution and spiritual centre of the region. In 1650 the diocese was elevated to archdiocese status, and hundreds of churches and temples were built. New mines rich in minerals were discovered in Ak-dag Maden and Argoni, which resulted in a large exodus of miners from Argyroupolis to the new mines. The further dramatic fall in population followed the Russo-Turkish War of 1829–30, when many Pontic Greeks of the area collaborated with or welcomed the Russian army that occupied the area. So as to escape likely Turkish reprisals, the majority of the Pontic Greek population followed the Russian army as it withdrew back into Georgia and Southern Russia, many settling there and joining preexisting communities of Caucasus Greeks that had moved eastwards between the fall of the Empire of Trebzond in 1461 and the 1801 Russian annexation of Georgia, including another community of Pontic Greek minors who had settled in Georgia and Armenia in 1778. Some of the Pontic Greek mining families of Gumushane also settled in Nicomedea, Mesopotamia and other mining regions, from Tiflis to as far as Ak-Dag and the Taurus. During those years tension between the Christian Greek and Muslim population was also growing due to the Greek Revolution and the public reversion to Greek Orthodoxy of many of the Stavriotes, Pontic Greeks who had superficially adopted Turkish Islam in the early Ottoman period but who had remained crypto-Christian in private.
During those confusing and troubling times many people became benefactors of Argyroupolis, such as the Sarasite family and the influential teacher Georgios Kyriakidis. Kyriakidis identified the need to extract large sums of money from the churches of Saint George, Saint Theodore, Τίμιου Σταυρού and Παναγίας for the educational needs of the town. Sale of church property as well as donations and consecrations resulted in the erection of a new school at the Frontistirion of Argyroupolis, a school which was to operate until the Exchange (1923). The Frontistirion comprised a three-grade high school, a seven-grade primary school including scholarship classes, and a six-grade girl's school, as well as a carpet-making technical school.
Another public building was the library, the Educational Society Kyriakidis, as well as the Metropolis of Chaldia. The Argyroupolitans therefore are very much regarded as having some of the best resources in education, due mainly to their economic rise as a result of mining.
After the turmoil and ethnic strife (1914–1923), a few ethnic Pontic Greeks managed to flee to Greece. Those that did settled in the Macedonia region of Northern Greece. A small group which settled in Naousa brought precious items with them from their churches in town, as well as items from the library of the Frontistirion, including rare manuscripts and books. This collection is still in use today and is considered[by whom?] a prized asset of Naousa.
The town was occupied by the Russian army on July 20, 1916, but the Russians withdrew on February 15, 1918, after the fall of the czar. After the exchange (1923) no Orthodox remained in the region.
- Mahmut Oltan Sungurlu, Turkey's former Justice Minister and Minister of Defense
- Coşkun Bayrak, academician and philanthropist
- Derya Ertürk, famous local celebrity
- Turgay Erdener, composer and teacher
- Nurettin Özdemir, Poet, Former Member of Parliament
- Basri Erdoğan, Entrepreneur and Businessmen
- Aydın Doğan, Entrepreneur and Businessmen
- "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
- "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- Statistical Institute
- Statoids. "Statistical information on districts of Turkey". Retrieved 2008-12-01.
- Gümüşhane (en)
- Gümüşhane historical places (tr)
- Traditional food
- Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World: Map by Map directory, p.1237.
- Procopius of Caesarea, Περί Κτισμάτων, book C, 7.
- Terezakis Yorgos, Diocese of Chaldia (Ottoman Period), Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic world, Asia Minor.
- Who were the crypto-Christians?, Crypto-Christians of the Trabzon Region of Pontos
- Özhan Öztürk, Pontus: Antik Çağ’dan Günümüze Karadeniz’in Etnik ve Siyasi Tarihi Genesis Publishing. Ankara, 2011 pp. 695-701
- Prothero, W.G. (1920). Armenia and Kurdistan. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 64.
- The Encyclopedia of Pontian Hellenism. Malliaris Pedia.
- The Byzantine Monuments and Topography of the Pontos . Anthony Bryer, David Winfield. Dumbarton Oaks p. 3
- The Ecumenical Patriarchate: A History of its Metropolitans. By Demetrius Kiminas p. 105
- Falling Rain Genomics, Inc. "Geographical information on Gümüşhane, Turkey". Retrieved 2008-12-01.
- Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism. "Mosques, Mausoleums and Churches in Gümüşhane". Retrieved 2009-03-05.[dead link]
Media related to Gümüşhane Province at Wikimedia Commons
- Governor's official website (Turkish)
- Municipality's official website (Turkish)
- Argyroupoolis (Gümüşhane)