Günther von Kluge
|Günther "Hans" von Kluge|
Generalfeldmarshall Günther von Kluge
|Nickname||der kluge Hans|
30 October 1882|
Posen, Province of Posen, German Empire (today in Poland)
|Died||17 August 1944
|Allegiance|| German Empire (to 1918)
Weimar Republic (to 1933)
|Years of service||1901–1944|
|Commands held||German Fourth Army
Army Group Centre
|Awards||House Order of Hohenzollern
Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords
|Relations||Wolfgang von Kluge (brother)
Karl Ernst Rahtgens (nephew)
Günther Adolf Ferdinand “Hans” von Kluge (30 October 1882 – 17 August 1944) was a German military leader. He was born in Posen (now Poznań, Poland) into a Prussian military family. Kluge rose to the rank of Field Marshal in the Wehrmacht. He was also a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords (German: Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub und Schwerten). The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross and its higher grade Oak Leaves and Swords was awarded to recognise extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership.
Early career 
World War II 
Invasion of Poland and France 
As commander of the Sixth Army Group, which became the German Fourth Army, Kluge led the Sixth into battle in Poland in 1939. Though he opposed the initial German plan to attack westwards into France, he led the Fourth Army in its attack through the Ardennes that culminated in the fall of France. Kluge was promoted to field marshal in July 1940.
Soviet Union 
Kluge commanded the Fourth Army at the opening of Operation Barbarossa, where he developed a strained relationship with Heinz Guderian over tactical issues in the advance, accusing Guderian of frequent disobedience of his orders. On June 29 von Kluge ordered that, ‘Women in uniform are to be shot.’ 
After Fedor von Bock was relieved of his command of Army Group Center in late 1941, Kluge was promoted and led that army group until he was injured in October 1943. Kluge frequently rode in an airplane to inspect the divisions under his command and sometimes relieved his boredom during the flights by hunting foxes from the air—a decidedly non-traditional method. On October 30, 1942, Kluge was the beneficiary of an enormous bribe from Hitler who mailed a letter of good wishes together with a huge cheque made out to him from the German treasury and a promise that whatever improving his estate might cost could be billed out to the German treasury. Kluge took the money, but after receiving severe criticism from his Chief of Staff, Henning von Tresckow who upbraided him for his corruption, he agreed to meet Carl Friedrich Goerdeler in November 1942. Kluge promised Goerdeler that he would arrest Hitler the next time he came to the Eastern Front, but then receiving another "gift" from Hitler, changed his mind and decided to stay loyal. Hitler, who seems to have heard that Kluge was dissatisfied with his leadership regarded his "gifts" as entitling him to Kluge's total loyalty. On October 27, 1943, Kluge was badly injured when his car overturned on the Minsk–Smolensk road. He was unable to return to duty until July 1944. After his recovery he became commander of the German forces in the West (Oberbefehlshaber West) as Gerd von Rundstedt’s replacement.
France and the Western Front 
Between June and July 1944, during the invasion of Normandy by Allied forces, Rommel commanded Army Group B under Field Marshal von Rundstedt. Rommel was charged with planning German counterattacks intended to drive the Allied forces back to the beaches. On July 5, Kluge replaced Rundstedt, because Rundstedt was advocating negotiation with the Allies. Two weeks later, Rommel was wounded and Kluge took over as commander of Army Group B as well, where Von Kluge's forces around the town of Falaise were encircled by combined U.S., Canadian, British, and Polish armies.
Opposition to Hitler 
A leading figure of the German military resistance, Henning von Tresckow, served as his Chief of Staff of Army Group Centre. Kluge was somewhat involved in the military resistance. He knew about Tresckow’s plan to shoot Hitler during a visit to Army Group Centre, having been informed by his former subordinate, Georg von Boeselager, who was now serving under Tresckow. At the last moment, Kluge aborted Tresckow's plan. Boeselager later speculated that because Heinrich Himmler had decided not to accompany Hitler, Kluge feared that without eliminating Himmler too, it could lead to a civil war between the SS and the Wehrmacht.
When Stauffenberg attempted to assassinate Hitler on July 20, Kluge was Oberbefehlshaber West ("Supreme Field Commander West") with his headquarters in La Roche-Guyon. The commander of the occupation troops of France, General Karl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel, and his colleague Colonel Cäsar von Hofacker – a cousin of Stauffenberg – came to visit Kluge. Stülpnagel had just ordered the arrest of the SS units in Paris. Kluge had already learned that Hitler had survived the assassination attempt and refused to provide any support. "Ja – wenn das Schwein tot wäre!" ("Yes – if the pig were dead!)" he said. On August 17, he was replaced by Walter Model and recalled to Berlin for a meeting with Hitler after the coup failed; thinking that Hitler would punish him as a conspirator, he committed suicide by taking cyanide near Metz that same day. He left Hitler a letter in which he advised Hitler to make peace and “put an end to a hopeless struggle when necessary...” Hitler reportedly handed the letter to Alfred Jodl and commented that “There are strong reasons to suspect that had not Kluge committed suicide he would have been arrested anyway.”
Günther von Kluge’s nickname among the troops and his fellow officers was der kluge Hans (“Clever Hans”). Hans was not part of his given name, but a nickname acquired early in his career in admiration of his cleverness (klug is German for "clever"). It is a reference to "Clever Hans", a horse which became famous for its apparent ability to do arithmetic.
Dates of rank 
- Leutnant – 22 March 1901
- Oberleutnant – 16 June 1910
- Hauptmann – 2 August 1914
- Major – 1 April 1923
- Oberstleutnant – 1 July 1927
- Oberst – 1 February 1930
- Generalmajor – 1 February 1933
- Generalleutnant – 1 April 1934
- General der Artillerie – 1 August 1936
- Generaloberst – 1 October 1939
- Generalfeldmarschall – 19 July 1940
- Iron Cross (1914) 2nd and 1st class
- House Order of Hohenzollern Knight's Cross with Swords
- Bavarian Military Merit Order, 4th class with Swords
- Mecklenburg-Schwerin Military Merit Cross 2nd class
- Verdienstmedaille für Rettung aus Gefahr
- Order of the Iron Crown, 3rd class with War Decoration
- Austrian Military Merit Cross, 3rd class with War Decoration
- Mecklenburg Military Merit Cross, Second Class
- Oldenburg Medal for rescue from danger
- Wound Badge (1918) in Black
- Cross of Honor
- Anschluss Medal
- Sudetenland Medal
- Clasp to the Iron Cross (1939)
- Eastern Front Medal
- Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords
- Knight's Cross on 30 September 1939 as General der Artillerie and commander in chief of the 4. Armee
- 181st Oak Leaves on 18 January 1943 as Generalfeldmarschall and commander in chief of the Heeresgruppe Mitte
- 40th Swords on 29 October 1943 as Generalfeldmarschall and commander in chief of the Heeresgruppe Mitte
- Mentioned four times in the Wehrmachtbericht (7 August 1941, 18 October 1941, 19 October 1941, 3 September 1943)
Wehrmachtbericht references 
|Date||Original German Wehrmachtbericht wording||Direct English translation|
|Thursday, 7 August 1941||Am Verlauf dieser gewaltigen Schlacht waren die Armeen des Generalfeldmarschalls von Kluge und der Generalobersten Strauß und Freiherr von Weichs, die Panzergruppen der Generalobersten Guderian und Hoth sowie die Luftwaffenverbände der Generale der Flieger Loerzer und Freiherr von Richthofen ruhmreich beteiligt.||During the course of this great battle, the armies of Field Marshal von Kluge and the Colonel General Strauß and Freiherr von Weichs, the Panzer groups of Colonel-General Guderian and Hoth, and the Luftwaffe detachments of the generals of the Air Loerzer and Freiherr von Richthofen were involved gloriously.|
- Nor, Johnathan, Soviet Prisoners of War: Forgotten Nazi Victims of World War II, http://www.historynet.com/wars_conflicts/world_war_2/3037296.html
- Hoffmann, Peter The History of the German Resistance, 1939–1945, p. 276
- Wheeler-Bennett, John The Nemesis of Power, Macmillan: London, 1967 page 529
- Wheeler-Bennett, John The Nemesis of Power, Macmillan: London, 1967 pages 529–530
- Wheeler-Bennett, John The Nemesis of Power, Macmillan: London, 1967 page 530
- Die Wehrmacht: Eine Bilanz, p. 226.
- Die Wehrmacht: Eine Bilanz, p. 251.
- Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, pp. 1076–77
- Thomas 1997, p. 378.
- Scherzer 2007, p. 451.
- Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 1, p. 639.
- Berger, Florian (2000). Mit Eichenlaub und Schwertern. Die höchstdekorierten Soldaten des Zweiten Weltkrieges. Selbstverlag Florian Berger. ISBN 3-9501307-0-5.
- Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000). Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945. Friedburg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 3-7909-0284-5.
- Hoffman, Peter, (tr. Richard Barry) (1977). The History of the German Resistance, 1939–1945. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 0-7735-1531-3.
- Knopp, Guido (2007). Die Wehrmacht: Eine Bilanz. C. Bertelsmann Verlag. München. ISBN 978-3-570-00975-8.
- Schaulen, Fritjof (2004). Eichenlaubträger 1940–1945 Zeitgeschichte in Farbe II Ihlefeld – Primozic (in German). Selent, Germany: Pour le Mérite. ISBN 3-932381-21-1.
- Scherzer, Veit (2007). Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Miltaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2.
- Shirer, William L. (1990). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-671-72868-7.
- Thomas, Franz (1997). Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 1: A–K (in German). Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag. ISBN 3-7648-2299-6.
- Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 1, 1. September 1939 bis 31. Dezember 1941 (in German). Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH & Co. KG, 1985. ISBN 3-423-05944-3.
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- Günther von Kluge @ Geocities
- Hans Günther von Kluge
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- Günther von Kluge – Generalfeldmarschall and Gutsherr von Böhne
|Commander of 4. Armee
1 December 1938 – 19 December 1941
General der Gebirgstruppe Ludwig Kübler
Generalfeldmarschall Fedor von Bock
|Commander of Heeresgruppe Mitte
19 December 1941 – 12 October 1943
Generalfeldmarschall Ernst Busch
Generalfeldmarschall Gerd von Rundstedt
|Commander of Heeresgruppe D
2 July 1944 – 15 August 1944
Generalfeldmarschall Gerd von Rundstedt
Generalfeldmarschall Gerd von Rundstedt
2 July 1944 – 16 August 1944
Generalfeldmarschall Walter Model
Generalfeldmarschall Erwin Rommel
|Commander of Heeresgruppe B
19 July 1944 – 17 August 1944
Generalfeldmarschall Walter Model