Drawing of the female internal sexual anatomy. The G-spot (4) is reportedly located one to three inches into the vagina, at the side of the urethra (6) and the urinary bladder (2).
The G-spot, also called the Gräfenberg spot (for German gynecologist Ernst Gräfenberg), is characterized as an erogenous area of the vagina that, when stimulated, may lead to strong sexual arousal, powerful orgasms and potential female ejaculation. It is typically reported to be located 1–3 inches (2.5–7.6 cm) up the front (anterior) vaginal wall between the vaginal opening and the urethra and is a sensitive area that may be part of the female prostate.
Neither the G-spot nor the existence of female ejaculation has been proven. Although the G-spot has been studied since the 1940s, disagreement persists over its existence as a distinct structure, definition and location. A 2009 British study concluded that its existence is unproven and subjective, based on questionnaires and personal experience. Other studies, using ultrasound, have found physiological evidence of the G-spot in women who report having orgasms during vaginal intercourse. It is also hypothesized that the G-spot is an extension of the clitoris and that this is the cause of orgasms experienced vaginally.
Sexologists and other researchers are concerned that women may consider themselves to be dysfunctional if they do not experience the G-spot, and emphasize that it is normal not to experience it.
The release of fluids had been seen by medical practitioners as beneficial to health. Within this context, various methods were used over the centuries to release "female seed" (via vaginal lubrication or female ejaculation) as a treatment for suffocation ex semine retento (suffocation of the womb), female hysteria or green sickness. Methods included a midwife rubbing the walls of the vagina or insertion of the penis or penis-shaped objects into the vagina.
The 17th-century Dutch physician Regnier de Graaf described female ejaculation and referred to an erogenous zone in the vagina that he linked with the male prostate; this zone was later reported by the German gynecologist Ernst Gräfenberg. Coinage of the term G-spot has been credited to Addiego et al. in 1981, named after Gräfenberg, and to Alice Kahn Ladas and Beverly Whipple et al. in 1982. Gräfenberg's 1940s research, however, was dedicated to urethral stimulation; Gräfenberg stated, "An erotic zone always could be demonstrated on the anterior wall of the vagina along the course of the urethra". The concept of the G-spot entered popular culture with the 1982 publication of The G Spot and Other Recent Discoveries About Human Sexuality by Ladas, Whipple and Perry, but it was criticized immediately by gynecologists: some of them denied its existence as the absence of arousal made it less likely to observe, and autopsy studies did not report it.
Theorized location and function
Two primary methods have been used to define and locate the G-spot as a sensitive area in the vagina: self-reported levels of arousal during stimulation, and stimulation of the G-spot leading to female ejaculation. Ultrasound technology has also been used to identify physiological differences between women and changes to the G-spot region during sexual activity.
The location of the G-spot is typically reported as being about 50 to 80 mm (2 to 3 in) inside the vagina, on the front wall. For some women, stimulating this area creates a more intense orgasm than clitoral stimulation. The G-spot area has been described as needing direct stimulation, such as two fingers pressed deeply into it. Attempting to stimulate the area through sexual penetration, especially in the missionary position, is difficult because of the particular angle of penetration required. Women usually need direct clitoral stimulation to orgasm, and G-spot stimulation may be best achieved by using both manual stimulation and vaginal penetration.
Sex toys are available that apply this theory. One common sex toy used for G-spot stimulation is the specially-designed G-spot vibrator. This is a phallus-like vibrator that has a curved tip which attempts to make G-spot stimulation easy. G-spot vibrators are made from the same materials as regular vibrators, ranging from hard plastic, rubber, silicone, jelly, or any combination of them. The level of vaginal penetration when using a G-spot vibrator depends on the woman, because women's physiology is not always the same. The effects of G-spot stimulation when using the penis or a G-spot vibrator may be enhanced by additionally stimulating other erogenous zones on a woman's body, such as the clitoris or vulva as a whole. When using a G-spot vibrator, this may be done by manually stimulating the clitoris, using the vibrator as a clitoral vibrator in addition to a G-spot vibrator, or, if the vibrator is designed for it, by applying it so that it stimulates the head of the clitoris, the rest of the vulva and the vagina simultaneously.
Vagina and clitoris
A 1981 case study reported that stimulation of the anterior vaginal wall made the area grow by fifty percent and that self-reported levels of arousal/orgasm were "deeper" when the G-spot was stimulated. Another study, in 1983, examined eleven women by palpating the entire vagina in a clockwise fashion, and reported a specific response to stimulation of the anterior vaginal wall in four of the women, concluding that the area is the G-spot. In a 1990 study, an anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 2,350 professional women in the United States and Canada with a subsequent 55% return rate. Of these respondents, 40% reported having a fluid release (ejaculation) at the moment of orgasm, and 82% of the women who reported the sensitive area (Gräfenberg spot) also reported ejaculation with their orgasms. Several variables were associated with this perceived existence of female ejaculation.
Researchers at the University of L'Aquila have found, using ultrasonography, that women who experience vaginal orgasms are statistically more likely to have thicker tissue in the anterior vaginal wall. The researchers believe these findings make it possible for women to have a rapid test to confirm whether or not they have a G-spot.
Though the hypothesis has been challenged (see below), some research suggests that G-spot and clitoral orgasms are of the same origin. Masters and Johnson were the first to determine that the clitoral structures surround and extend along and within the labia. Upon studying women's sexual response cycle to different stimulation, they observed that both clitoral and vaginal orgasms had the same stages of physical response, and found that the majority of their subjects could only achieve clitoral orgasms, while a minority achieved vaginal orgasms. On this basis, Masters and Johnson argued that clitoral stimulation is the source of both kinds of orgasms, reasoning that the clitoris is stimulated during penetration by friction against its hood. Professor of genetic epidemiology, Tim Spector, who co-authored research questioning the existence of the G-spot, finalized in 2009, hypothesizes thicker tissue in the G-spot area may be part of the clitoris and is not a separate erogenous zone.
Supporting Spector's conclusion is a study published in 2005 which investigates the size of the clitoris – it suggests that clitoral tissue extends into the anterior wall of the vagina. The main researcher of the studies, Australian urologist Helen O'Connell, asserts that this interconnected relationship is the physiological explanation for the conjectured G-spot and experience of vaginal orgasms, taking into account the stimulation of the internal parts of the clitoris during vaginal penetration. While using MRI technology, O'Connell noted a direct relationship between the legs or roots of the clitoris and the erectile tissue of the "clitoral bulbs" and corpora, and the distal urethra and vagina. "The vaginal wall is, in fact, the clitoris," said O'Connell. "If you lift the skin off the vagina on the side walls, you get the bulbs of the clitoris – triangular, crescental masses of erectile tissue." O'Connell et al., who performed dissections on the female genitals of cadavers and used photography to map the structure of nerves in the clitoris, were already aware that the clitoris is more than just its glans and asserted in 1998 that there is more erectile tissue associated with the clitoris than is generally described in anatomical textbooks. They concluded that some females have more extensive clitoral tissues and nerves than others, especially having observed this in young cadavers as compared to elderly ones, and therefore whereas the majority of females can only achieve orgasm by direct stimulation of the external parts of the clitoris, the stimulation of the more generalized tissues of the clitoris via intercourse may be sufficient for others.
French researchers Odile Buisson and Pierre Foldès reported similar findings to that of O'Connell's. In 2008, they published the first complete 3D sonography of the stimulated clitoris, and republished it in 2009 with new research, demonstrating the ways in which erectile tissue of the clitoris engorges and surrounds the vagina. On the basis of this research, they argued that women may be able to achieve vaginal orgasm via stimulation of the G-spot because the highly innervated clitoris is pulled closely to the anterior wall of the vagina when the woman is sexually aroused and during vaginal penetration. They assert that since the front wall of the vagina is inextricably linked with the internal parts of the clitoris, stimulating the vagina without activating the clitoris may be next to impossible. In their 2009 published study, the "coronal planes during perineal contraction and finger penetration demonstrated a close relationship between the root of the clitoris and the anterior vaginal wall". Buisson and Foldès suggested "that the special sensitivity of the lower anterior vaginal wall could be explained by pressure and movement of clitoris's root during a vaginal penetration and subsequent perineal contraction".
In 2011, researcher Adam Ostrzenski claimed to have found the first evidence of G-spot anatomical structures by dissecting a cadaver in Poland. Between the fifth and sixth layer of the vaginal wall, there were grape-like clusters Ostrzenski believes are erectile tissue that would function as a G-spot. The research was published in The Journal of Sexual Medicine in 2012. Critics of Ostrzenski's claim note that he provided no evidence that his sample consists of nerve endings, that the structures play a role in arousal, or that they would be in one specific area. Ostrzenski said that part of the reason he did not detail a precise type of tissue and how it works is because the Polish regulations that govern dissection of fresh cadavers prevented him from taking samples for histological testing. He said that he is not suggesting that the G-spot he reports to have found will be in the same place, or have the same effect, for every woman.
In 2001, the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology accepted female prostate as an accurate term for the Skene's gland, which is believed to be found in the G-spot area along the walls of the urethra. The male prostate is biologically homologous to the Skene's gland; it has been unofficially called the male G-spot because it can also be used as an erogenous zone. It is located where the rectum joins the colon, about 50 mm (2 in) from the anus, and when aroused it is a walnut-shaped swelling.
Regnier de Graaf, in 1672, observed that the secretions (female ejaculation) by the erogenous zone in the vagina lubricate "in agreeable fashion during coitus". Modern scientific hypotheses linking G-spot sensitivity with female ejaculation led to the idea that non-urine female ejaculate may originate from the Skene's gland. Tissue examination showed 15 prostate-specific antigens in the gland, with the Skene's gland and male prostate acting similarly in terms of prostate-specific antigen and prostate-specific acid phosphatase studies, which led to a trend of calling the Skene's glands the female prostate. Additionally, the enzyme PDE5 (involved with erectile dysfunction) has additionally been associated with the G-spot area. Because of these factors, it has been argued that the G-spot is a system of glands and ducts located within the anterior (front) wall of the vagina. A similar approach has linked the G-spot with the urethral sponge.
G-spot proponents are criticized for giving too much credence to anecdotal evidence, and for questionable investigative methods; for instance, the studies which have yielded positive evidence for a precisely located G-spot involve small participant samples. While generally reported in sources describing vaginal anatomy that a greater concentration of nerve endings are at the lower third (near the entrance) of the vagina, some scientific examinations of vaginal wall innervation have shown no single area with a greater density of nerve endings. A 2006 study of 110 biopsy specimens drawn from 21 women concluded with the absence of a vaginal area with greater nerve density. Several researchers also consider the connection between the Skene's gland and the G-spot to be weak. They contend that the Skene's gland does not appear to have receptors for touch stimulation, and that there is no direct evidence for its involvement.
While neither the area of the anterior vaginal wall where the G-spot is said to be located nor the Skene's gland appear to possess great nerve density, the urethral sponge, which is thought by some to be homologous to the G-spot, contains sensitive nerve endings and erectile tissue. Additionally, sensitivity is not determined by neuron density alone: other factors include the branching patterns of neuron terminals and cross or collateral innervation of neurons. While G-spot opponents argue that because there are very few tactile nerve endings in the vagina and that therefore the G-spot cannot exist, G-spot proponents argue that vaginal orgasms rely on pressure-sensitive nerves.
General skepticism and additional research
In addition to general skepticism among gynecologists, doctors and researchers that the G-spot exists, a team at King's College London in late 2009 suggested that its existence is subjective. They acquired the largest sample size of women to date – 1,800 – who are pairs of twins, and found that the twins did not report a similar G-spot in their questionnaires. The research, headed by Tim Spector, documents a 15-year study of the twins, identical and non-identical. Identical twins share genes, while non-identical pairs share 50% of theirs. According to the researchers, if one identical twin reported having a G-spot, it was more likely that the other would too, but this pattern did not materialize. Study co-author Andrea Burri believes: "It is rather irresponsible to claim the existence of an entity that has never been proven and pressurise women and men too." Burri stated that one of the reasons for the research was to remove feelings of "inadequacy or underachievement" for women who feared they lacked a G-spot. Researcher Beverly Whipple dismissed the findings, commenting that twins have different sexual partners and techniques, and that the study did not properly account for lesbian or bisexual women.
Like Burri, Petra Boynton, a British scientist who has written extensively on the G-spot debate, is concerned about the promotion of the G-spot leading women to feel "dysfunctional" if they do not experience it. "We're all different. Some women will have a certain area within the vagina which will be very sensitive, and some won't — but they won't necessarily be in the area called the G spot," stated Boynton. "If a woman spends all her time worrying about whether she is normal, or has a G spot or not, she will focus on just one area, and ignore everything else. It's telling people that there is a single, best way to have sex, which isn't the right thing to do."
The G-spot having an anatomical relationship with the clitoris has been challenged by Vincenzo Puppo, who, while agreeing that the clitoris is the center of female sexual pleasure, disagrees with Helen O'Connell and other researchers' terminological and anatomical descriptions of the clitoris. He stated, "Clitoral bulbs is an incorrect term from an embryological and anatomical viewpoint, in fact the bulbs do not develop from the phallus, and they do not belong to the clitoris." He says that clitoral bulbs "is not a term used in human anatomy" and that vestibular bulbs is the correct term, adding that gynecologists and sexual experts should inform the public with facts instead of hypotheses or personal opinions. "[C]litoral/vaginal/uterine orgasm, G/A/C/U spot orgasm, and female ejaculation, are terms that should not be used by sexologists, women, and mass media," he said, further commenting that the "anterior vaginal wall is separated from the posterior urethral wall by the urethrovaginal septum (its thickness is 10–12 mm)" and that the "inner clitoris" does not exist. "The female perineal urethra, which is located in front of the anterior vaginal wall, is about one centimeter in length and the G-spot is located in the pelvic wall of the urethra, 2–3 cm into the vagina," Puppo stated. He believes that the penis cannot come in contact with the congregation of multiple nerves/veins situated until the angle of the clitoris, detailed by Georg Ludwig Kobelt, or with the roots of the clitoris, which do not have sensory receptors or erogenous sensitivity, during vaginal intercourse. He did, however, dismiss the orgasmic definition of the G-spot that emerged after Ernst Gräfenberg, stating that "there is no anatomical evidence of the vaginal orgasm which was invented by Freud in 1905, without any scientific basis".
Puppo's belief that there is no anatomical relationship between the vagina and clitoris is contrasted by the general belief among researchers that vaginal orgasms are the result of clitoral stimulation; they maintain that clitoral tissue extends, or is at least likely stimulated by the clitoral bulbs, even in the area most commonly reported to be the G-spot. "My view is that the G-spot is really just the extension of the clitoris on the inside of the vagina, analogous to the base of the male penis," said researcher Amichai Kilchevsky. Because female fetal development is the "default" direction of fetal development in the absence of substantial exposure to male hormones and therefore the penis is essentially a clitoris enlarged by such hormones, Kilchevsky believes that there is no evolutionary reason why females would have two separate structures capable of producing orgasms and blames the porn industry and "G-spot promoters" for "encouraging the myth" of a distinct G-spot.
The general difficulty of achieving vaginal orgasms, which is a predicament that is likely due to nature easing the process of child bearing by drastically reducing the number of vaginal nerve endings, challenge arguments that vaginal orgasms help encourage sexual intercourse in order to facilitate reproduction. O'Connell stated that focusing on the G-spot to the exclusion of the rest of a woman's body is "a bit like stimulating a guy's testicles without touching the penis and expecting an orgasm to occur just because love is present". She stated that it "is best to think of the clitoris, urethra, and vagina as one unit because they are intimately related". Ian Kerner stated that the G-spot may be "nothing more than the roots of the clitoris crisscrossing the urethral sponge".
One study, published in 2011, which was the first to map the female genitals onto the sensory portion of the brain, supports the possibility of a distinct G-spot. When a Rutgers University research team asked several women to stimulate themselves in a functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) machine, brain scans showed stimulating the clitoris, vagina and cervix lit up distinct areas of the women's sensory cortex, which means the brain registered distinct feelings between stimulating the clitoris, the cervix and the vaginal wall – where the G-spot is reported to be. "I think that the bulk of the evidence shows that the G-spot is not a particular thing," stated Barry Komisaruk, head of the research findings. "It's not like saying, 'What is the thyroid gland?' The G-spot is more of a thing like New York City is a thing. It's a region, it's a convergence of many different structures."
In 2010, The Journal of Sexual Medicine planned a debate and publications from both sides of the G-spot issue. In 2012, scholars Kilchevsky, Vardi, Lowenstein and Gruenwald stated in the journal, "Reports in the public media would lead one to believe the G-spot is a well-characterized entity capable of providing extreme sexual stimulation, yet this is far from the truth." The authors cited that dozens of trials have attempted to confirm the existence of a G-spot using surveys, pathologic specimens, various imaging modalities, and biochemical markers, and concluded:
The surveys found that a majority of women believe a G-spot actually exists, although not all of the women who believed in it were able to locate it. Attempts to characterize vaginal innervation have shown some differences in nerve distribution across the vagina, although the findings have not proven to be universally reproducible. Furthermore, radiographic studies have been unable to demonstrate a unique entity, other than the clitoris, whose direct stimulation leads to vaginal orgasm. Objective measures have failed to provide strong and consistent evidence for the existence of an anatomical site that could be related to the famed G-spot. However, reliable reports and anecdotal testimonials of the existence of a highly sensitive area in the distal anterior vaginal wall raise the question of whether enough investigative modalities have been implemented in the search of the G-spot.
G-spot amplification (also called G-spot augmentation or the G-Shot) is a procedure intended to temporarily increase pleasure in sexually active women with normal sexual function, focusing on increasing the size and sensitivity of the G-spot. G-spot amplification is performed by attempting to locate the G-spot and noting measurements for future reference. After numbing the area with a local anesthetic, human engineered collagen is then injected directly under the mucosa in the area the G-spot is concluded to be in.
A position paper published by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists in 2007 warns that there is no valid medical reason to perform the procedure, which is not considered routine or accepted by the College; and it has not been proven to be safe or effective. The potential risks include sexual dysfunction, infection, altered sensation, dyspareunia, adhesions and scarring. The College position is that it is untenable to recommend the procedure. The procedure is also not approved by the Food and Drug Administration or the American Medical Association, and no peer-reviewed studies have been accepted to account for either safety or effectiveness of this treatment.
- See page 135 for prostate information, and page 76 for G-spot and vaginal nerve ending information. Rosenthal, Martha (2012). Human Sexuality: From Cells to Society. Cengage Learning. ISBN 0618755713. Retrieved January 25, 2014.
- Morris, Desmond (2004). The Naked Woman: A Study of the Female Body. New York: Thomas Dunne Books. pp. 211–212. ISBN 0-312-33852-X.
- Richard Balon, Robert Taylor Segraves (2009). Clinical Manual of Sexual Disorders. American Psychiatric Pub. p. 258. ISBN 1585629057. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
- Puppo V (January 26, 2013). "Anatomy and physiology of the clitoris, vestibular bulbs, and labia minora with a review of the female orgasm and the prevention of female sexual dysfunction.". Clin Anat 26 (1): 134–52. doi:10.1002/ca.22177. PMID 23169570.
- Hines T (August 2001). "The G-Spot: A modern gynecologic myth". Am J Obstet Gynecol 185 (2): 359–62. doi:10.1067/mob.2001.115995. PMID 11518892.
- Kilchevsky A, Vardi Y, Lowenstein L, Gruenwald I. (January 2012). "Is the Female G-Spot Truly a Distinct Anatomic Entity?". The Journal of Sexual Medicine 2011. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02623.x. PMID 22240236. G-Spot Does Not Exist, 'Without A Doubt,' Say Researchers - Lay summary – Huffington Post (January 19, 2012).
- "Finding the G-spot: Is it real?". CNN.com. January 5, 2010. Retrieved November 7, 2011.
- See page 98 for the 2009 King's College London's findings on the G-spot and page 145 for ultrasound/physiological material with regard to the G-spot. Ashton Acton (2012). Issues in Sexuality and Sexual Behavior Research: 2011 Edition. ScholarlyEditions. ISBN 1464966877. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
- David M. Buss, Cindy M. Meston (2009). Why Women Have Sex: Understanding Sexual Motivations from Adventure to Revenge (and Everything in Between). Macmillan. pp. 35–36. ISBN 1429955228. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
- O'Connell HE, Sanjeevan KV, Hutson JM (October 2005). "Anatomy of the clitoris". The Journal of Urology 174 (4 Pt 1): 1189–95. doi:10.1097/01.ju.0000173639.38898.cd. PMID 16145367. Time for rethink on the clitoris: Lay summary – BBC News (11 June 2006).
- Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2009). Sex and Society, Volume 2. Marshall Cavendish Corporation. p. 590. ISBN 9780761479079. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- "BBC NEWS | Health | Female G spot 'can be detected'". html. 2008-02-20. Retrieved 2010-01-03.
- "BBC News - The G-spot 'doesn't appear to exist', say researchers". 2010-01-04. Retrieved 2010-01-04.
- "The real G-spot myth | Yvonne Roberts | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk". The Guardian (London). 2010-01-05. Retrieved 2010-05-02.
- Blackledge, Catherine (2003). The Story of V: A Natural History of Female Sexuality. Rutgers University Press. p. 322. ISBN 0-8135-3455-0.
- Jon E. Roeckelein (2006). Elsevier's Dictionary of Psychological Theories. Elsevier. p. 256. ISBN 9780444517500. Retrieved October 8, 2012. "The G-spot is not felt normally during a gynecological exam, because the area must be sexually stimulated in order for it to swell and be palpable; physicians, of course, do not sexually arouse their patients and, therefore, do not typically find the woman's G-spot."
- Addiego, F; Belzer, EG; Comolli, J; Moger, W; Perry, JD; Whipple, B. (1981). "Female ejaculation: a case study". Journal of Sex Research 17 (1): 13–21. doi:10.1080/00224498109551094.
- William J. Taverner (2005). Taking Sides: Clashing Views On Controversial Issues In Human Sexuality. McGraw-Hill Education. pp. 79–82. ISBN 1429955228. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
- Ernest Gräfenberg (1950). "The role of urethra in female orgasm". International Journal of Sexology 3 (3): 145–148.
- "In Search of the Perfect G". Time. September 13, 1982.
- Gravina GL, Brandetti F, Martini P, et al. (2008). "Measurement of the Thickness of the Urethrovaginal Space in Women with or without Vaginal Orgasm". J Sex Med 5 (3): 610–8. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2007.00739.x. PMID 18221286.
- Sloane, Ethel (2002). Biology of Women. Cengage Learning. p. 34. ISBN 9780766811423. Retrieved August 25, 2012.
- Kotecha, Sima (2008-04-14). "BBC - Newsbeat - Health - G Shot 'helps women in search of orgasm'". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-05-02.
- Robert Crooks, Karla Baur (2010). Our Sexuality. Cengage Learning. pp. 169–170. ISBN 0495812943. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
- "'I Want a Better Orgasm!'". WebMD. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
- Kammerer-Doak, Dorothy; Rogers, Rebecca G. (2008, available online on 16 May 2008). "Female Sexual Function and Dysfunction". Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 35 (2): 169–183. doi:10.1016/j.ogc.2008.03.006. PMID 18486835. "Most women report the inability to achieve orgasm with vaginal intercourse and require direct clitoral stimulation ... About 20% have coital climaxes..."
- Tristan Taormino (2009). The Big Book of Sex Toys. Quiver. pp. 100–101. ISBN 9781592333554. Retrieved August 25, 2012.
- David H. Newman (2009). Hippocrates' Shadow. Simon & Schuster. p. 130. ISBN 1416551549. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
- Goldberg, DC; Whipple, B; Fishkin, RE; Waxman H; Fink PJ; Wiesberg M. (1983). "The Grafenberg Spot and female ejaculation: a review of initial hypotheses.". J Sex Marital Ther. 9 (1): 27–37. doi:10.1080/00926238308405831. PMID 6686614.
- Darling, CA; Davidson, JK; Conway-Welch, C. (1990). "Female ejaculation: perceived origins, the Grafenberg spot/area, and sexual responsiveness". Arch Sex Behav 19 (1): 29–47. doi:10.1007/BF01541824. PMID 2327894.
- New Scientist 197 (2638-2649). New Science Publications (original from University of California). 2008. p. 6. ISBN 0495812943. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
- Sample, Ian (21 February 2008). "The elusive G-Spot really does exist, say researchers". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 3 September 2008.
- Federation of Feminist Women’s Health Centers (1991). A New View of a Woman’s Body. Feminist Heath Press. p. 46. ISBN 0-9629945-0-2.
- John Archer, Barbara Lloyd (2002). Sex and Gender. Cambridge University Press. pp. 85–88. ISBN 9780521635332. Retrieved August 25, 2012.
- Lloyd, Elisabeth Anne (2005). The Case Of The Female Orgasm: Bias In The Science Of Evolution. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674017061. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- Pappas, Stephanie (April 9, 2012). "Does the Vaginal Orgasm Exist? Experts Debate". LiveScience. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
- Buisson, Odile; Foldès, Pierre (2009). "The clitoral complex: a dynamic sonographic study.". The Journal of Sexual Medicine 6 (5): 1223–31. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2009.01231.x. PMID 19453931.
- Carroll, Janell L. (2013). Discovery Series: Human Sexuality (1st ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 103. ISBN 1111841896.
- Healy, Melissa (April 25, 2012). "Doctor says he's found the actual G spot". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
- Zaviacic M, Jakubovská V, Belosovic M, Breza J (2000). "Ultrastructure of the normal adult human female prostate gland (Skene's gland)". Anat Embryol (Berl) 201 (1): 51–61. PMID 10603093.
- Wimpissinger, F.; Stifter, K.; Grin, W.; Stackl, W. (2007). "The Female Prostate Revisited: Perineal Ultrasound and Biochemical Studies of Female Ejaculate". The Journal of Sexual Medicine 4 (5): 1388–93. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2007.00542.x. PMID 17634056.
- "The male hot spot — Massaging the prostate". Go Ask Alice!. 2002-09-27 (Last Updated/Reviewed on 2008-03-28). Retrieved 2010-04-21.
- Barry R. Komisaruk, Beverly Whipple, Sara Nasserzadeh, Carlos Beyer-Flores (2009). The Orgasm Answer Guide. JHU Press. pp. 108–109. ISBN 0-8018-9396-8. Retrieved 6 November 2011.
- Rabinerson D, Horowitz E (February 2007). "[G-spot and female ejaculation: fiction or reality?]". Harefuah (in Hebrew) 146 (2): 145–7, 163. PMID 17352286.
- Kratochvíl S (1994). "Orgasmic expulsions in women". Cesk Psychiatr 90 (2): 71–7. PMID 8004685.
- Tepper, Sl; Jagirdar, J; Heath, D; Geller, SA. (1984). "Homology between the female paraurethral (Skene's) glands and the prostate.". Arch Pathol Lab Med. 108 (5): 423–425. PMID 6546868.
- Pollen, JJ; A. Dreilinger (March 1984). "Immunohistochemical identification of prostatic acid phosphatase and prostate specific antigen in female periurethral glands". Urology. 23 (3): 303–4. doi:10.1016/S0090-4295(84)90053-0. PMID 6199882.
- Wernert, N; M Albrech, I Sesterhenn, R Goebbels, H Bonkhoff, G Seitz, R Inniger, K Remberger. (1992). "The 'female prostate': location, morphology, immunohistochemical characteristics and significance". Eur Urol. 22 (1): 64–9. PMID 1385145.
- Zaviacic, Z; M Ruzicková, J Jakubovský, L Danihel, P Babál, J Blazeková. (November 1994). "The significance of prostate markers in the orthology of the female prostate". Bratisl Lek Listy. 95 (11): 491–7. PMID 7533639.
- Nicola Jones (3 July 2002). "Bigger is better when it comes to the G-Spot". New Scientist.
- Rebecca Chalker (2011). The Clitoral Truth: The Secret World at Your Fingertips. Seven Stories Press. p. 95. ISBN 1609800109. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
- Wayne Weiten, Dana S. Dunn, Elizabeth Yost Hammer (2011). Psychology Applied to Modern Life: Adjustment in the 21st Century. Cengage Learning. p. 386. ISBN 9781111186630. Retrieved January 5, 2012.
- "I'm a woman who cannot feel pleasurable sensations during intercourse". Go Ask Alice!. 8 October 2004 (Last Updated/Reviewed on 17 October 2008). Archived from the original on January 7, 2011. Retrieved September 13, 2012.
- Pauls, R; Mutema, G; Segal, J; Silva, WA; Kleeman, S; Dryfhout, Ma V; Karram, M. (November 2006). "A prospective study examining the anatomic distribution of nerve density in the human vagina.". J Sex Med 3 (6): 979–87. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2006.00325.x. PMID 17100930.
- Santos, F Taboga, S. (2003). "Female prostate: a review about biological repercussions of this gland in humans and rodents.". Animal Reproduction. 3 (1): 3–18.
- Alzate H Hoch Z (1986). "The "G spot" and "female ejaculation": a current appraisal.". J Sex Marital Ther. 12 (3): 211–20. doi:10.1080/00926238608415407. PMID 3531529.
- Babmindra VP, Novozhilova AP, Bragina TA, et al. (1999). "The structural bases of the regulation of neuron sensitivity". Neurosci. Behav. Physiol. 29 (6): 615–20. doi:10.1007/BF02462474. PMID 10651316. Retrieved 2010-01-03.
- Lois Rogers (January 3, 2010). "What an anti-climax: G-Spot is a myth - Times Online". The Times (London). Archived from the original on May 31, 2010. Retrieved January 23, 2012.
- Boynton, Petra (January 4, 2010). "Where have all the g spots gone". drpetra.co.uk. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
- Vincenzo Puppo (September 2011). "Anatomy of the Clitoris: Revision and Clarifications about the Anatomical Terms for the Clitoris Proposed (without Scientific Bases) by Helen O'Connell, Emmanuele Jannini, and Odile Buisson.". ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology 2011 (ID 261464): 5. doi:10.5402/2011/261464. PMC 3175415. PMID 21941661.
- Alexander, Brian (January 18, 2012). "Does the G-spot really exist? Scientist can't find it". MSNBC.com. Retrieved March 2, 2012.
- Rob, Baedeker. "Sex: Fact and Fiction". WebMD. pp. 2–3. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
- Komisaruk, B. R., Wise, N., Frangos, E., Liu, W.-C., Allen, K. and Brody, S. (2011). "Women's Clitoris, Vagina, and Cervix Mapped on the Sensory Cortex: fMRI Evidence". The Journal of Sexual Medicine. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02388.x. Surprise finding in response to nipple stimulation Lay summary – CBSnews.com (August 5, 2011).
- Michael L. Krychman (2009). 100 Questions & Answers About Women's Sexual Wellness and Vitality: A Practical Guide for the Woman Seeking Sexual Fulfillment. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 98. ISBN 1449630774. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
- Childs, Dan (2008-02-20). "G-Shot Parties: A Shot at Better Sex?". ABC News. Retrieved 2010-01-17.
- "ACOG Committee Opinion No. 378: Vaginal "rejuvenation" and cosmetic vaginal procedures". Obstet Gynecol 110 (3): 737–8. September 2007. doi:10.1097/01.AOG.0000263927.82639.9b. PMID 17766626.
- About.com – Sexuality, "What is the G-Spot?", Cory Silverberg
- About.com – How to Locate Your G Spot
- The-Clitoris.com – Female Ejaculation, the Female Prostate, and The G-Spot