||It has been suggested that G8 be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since June 2014.|
|Group of Seven and the European Union|
The Group of 7 (G7) is a group consisting of the finance ministers and central bank governors of seven advanced economies: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States meeting to discuss primarily economic issues. The European Union is also represented within the G7. The G7 are the seven wealthiest major developed nations by national net wealth, representing more than 63% of the net global wealth ($241 trillion) according to the Credit Suisse Global Wealth Report October 2013. The IMF's Managing Director usually participates. Recent G7 meetings include that of May 2013 in Aylesbury, United Kingdom with an emergency meeting in The Hague, Netherlands on March 24, 2014. Most recently there was a meeting in Brussels on June 4th 2014.
The G7's precursor was the 'Group of Six', founded ad hoc in 1975, consisting of finance ministers and central bank governors from France, West Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States to monitor developments in the world economy and assess economic policies. Canada became the seventh member in 1976, after which the name 'Group 7' or G7 was used. During 1986–87 the G7 with its finance ministers and central bank governors superseded the G5 as the main policy coordination group, particularly following the Louvre Accord of February 1987, agreed by the G5 plus Canada and endorsed by the G7.
Following 1994's G7 summit in Naples, Russian officials held separate meetings with leaders of the G7 after the group's summits. This informal arrangement was dubbed the Political 8 (P8) – or, colloquially, the G7+1. At the invitation of Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Tony Blair and President of the United States Bill Clinton, President Boris Yeltsin was invited first as a guest observer, later as a full participant. It was seen as a way to encourage Yeltsin with his capitalist reforms. Russia formally joined the group in 1998, resulting in the Group of Eight, or G8.
The organization was originally founded to facilitate shared macroeconomic initiatives by its members in response to the collapse of the exchange rate 1971, during the time of the Nixon Shock, the 1970s energy crisis and the ensuing recession.
Since 1975 the group meets annually on summit site to discuss economic policies; Since 1987, the G7 finance ministers have met at least semi-annually, up to 4 times a year at stand-alone meetings.
To discuss the global financial crisis of 2007-2010 the G7 met twice in Washington, D.C. in 2008 and in February 2009 in Rome. The group of finance ministers pledged to take "all necessary steps" to stem the crisis.
On March 2, 2014, the G7 condemned "the Russian Federation's violation of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine." The G7 stated "that the International Monetary Fund(IMF) remains the institution best prepared to help Ukraine address its immediate economic challenges through policy advice and financing, conditioned on needed reforms", and that the G7 was "committed to mobilize rapid technical assistance to support Ukraine in addressing its macroeconomic, regulatory and anti-corruption challenges."
On March 24, 2014, the G7 convened an emergency meeting at the Catshuis, located in The Hague in response to the Russian Federation's annexation of Crimea. The Hague was chosen because all G7 leaders were already present to attend the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit, so this became the first G7 meeting neither taking place in a member nation nor having the host leader participating in the meeting.
On June 4, 2014 on G7 meeting in Brussels leaders of the G7 nations in their joint statement condemned Moscow for its "continuing violation" of Ukraine's sovereignty and say they are prepared to impose further sanctions on Russia over its actions in Ukraine.
The G7 summit on June 4-5, 2014 is the first since Russia was expelled from the group following its annexation of Crimea in March.
|Region||Member||Official title||Head of government||Official title||Finance minister||Central bank governor|
|North America||Canada||Prime Minister||Stephen Harper||Minister of Finance||Joe Oliver||Stephen Poloz|
||Minister of Finances||Michel Sapin||Christian Noyer|
|Europe||Germany||Chancellor||Angela Merkel||Minister of Finance||Wolfgang Schäuble||Jens Weidmann|
|Europe||Italy||Prime Minister||Matteo Renzi||Minister of Economy
|Pier Carlo Padoan||Ignazio Visco|
|Asia||Japan||Prime Minister||Shinzo Abe||Minister of Finance||Taro Aso||Haruhiko Kuroda|
|Europe||United Kingdom||Prime Minister||David Cameron||Chancellor of the Exchequer||George Osborne||Mark Carney|
|North America||United States||President||Barack Obama||Secretary of the Treasury||Jack Lew||Janet Yellen|
|Europe||European Union||European Council President
||Herman Van Rompuy
||Commissioner for Economic
and Monetary Affairs
and the Euro
|Olli Rehn||Mario Draghi|
Member country data
|Region||Member||Trade mil. USD (2013)||Nom. GDP mil. USD (2013)||PPP GDP mil. USD (2013)||Nom. GDP per capita USD (2013)||PPP GDP per capita USD (2013)||HDI
|North America||United States||3,908,700||16,799,700||16,799,700||53,101||53,101||0.937||316,173,000|
The G-7's membership does not reflect exactly the 7 largest national economies of the world in any given year. All 7 member nations are among the top 11 economies as measured in GDP at nominal prices in a list published by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) for 2013. Not represented by membership in the G-7 are China (ranked 2nd by the IMF), Brazil (7th), Russia (8th), and India (10th), even though they rank higher than some members.
When the countries' GDP is measured at purchasing power parity (PPP) rates, all 7 members are among the top 13 in the world in 2013, according to the IMF. China (2nd), India (3rd), Russia (6th), Brazil (7th), Mexico (10th), and South Korea (12th) are not G-7 members, even though they rank higher than some members.
In 1996 the G7 launched an initiative for the 42 heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC). In 1999, the G7 decided to get more directly involved in "managing the international monetary system" through the Financial Stability Forum, formed earlier in 1999 and the G-20, established following the summit, to "promote dialogue between major industrial and emerging market countries". In 1999 the G7 announced their plan to cancel 90% of bilateral, and multilateral debt for the HIPC, totaling $100 billion. In 2005 the G7 announced, debt reductions of "up to 100%" to be negotiated on a "case by case" basis.
The G7 has been criticized for their representational deficit. The G7 does not include the world's largest emerging economies such as Brazil, Russia, India and China. Walden Bello calls the G7 an undemocratic institution. The G7 decision making process has been described non-transparent, by former insider Leo Van Houtven, Secretary of the IMF from 1977 to 1996: "[The G7's] frequent contacts with IMF management on both policy and operational issues lack transparency..."
- Information Centre University of Toronto official website
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Group of Seven.|
|Wikinews has related news: Economic policy makers conclude Washington meetings|
- Credit Suisse Global Wealth Databook 2013. Credit Suisse. October 2013.
- "A Guide To Committees, Groups, And Clubs. G7". factsheet. IMF org. September 27, 2013. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
- "Obama and Merkel warn of tougher sanctions against Russia over Ukraine The German and US leaders issued a joint statement at the G7 summit on Wednesday night".
- 2008 Evian summit - Questions about the G8
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- Bayne, Nicholas (December 7, 1998), "International economic organizations :more policy making less autonomy", in Reinalda, Bob; Verbeek, Bertjan, Autonomous Policymaking By International Organizations (Routledge/Ecpr Studies in European Political Science, 5), Routledge, ISBN 9780415164863, OCLC 70763323, 0415164869
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- Yahoo.com[dead link]
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