gamma-Amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid

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gamma-Amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid
Systematic (IUPAC) name
4-amino-3-hydroxybutanoic acid
Clinical data
Legal status
CAS number 352-21-6
ATC code ?
PubChem CID 2149
ChemSpider 2064
Chemical data
Formula C4H9NO3 
Molecular mass 119.12 g/mol

γ-Amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid (GABOB) (brand names Gamibetal, Gabomade) is an anticonvulsant drug and analogue of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA).[1] It is found naturally in the human body but it is not known whether it has an important physiological role at normal concentrations. It acts as a non-selective GABA receptor agonist.

GABOB has anticonvulsant properties,[2] but is of relatively low potency when used by itself, and is more useful as an adjuvant treatment used alongside another anticonvulsant drug.[3] It has two stereoisomers, with the (3S) isomer d-GABOB being around twice as potent an anticonvulsant as the (3R) isomer l-GABOB.[4]

Other studies have suggested it may produce improved learning and memory function,[5] probably through a cholinergic mechanism,[6] as well as boosting growth hormone release.[7][8][9] However its effectiveness for these purposes has not been well established and it is not widely used in medicine, although it is sold as a dietary supplement.


  1. ^ Index Nominum 2000: International Drug Directory. Taylor & Francis. January 2000. pp. 44–. ISBN 978-3-88763-075-1. 
  2. ^ Chemello R, Giaretta D, Pellegrini A, Testa G (1980). "[Effect of gamma-amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (GABHB) on experimentally-induced epileptic activity]" [Effect of γ-amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid (GABHB) on experimentally-induced epileptic activity]. Rivista di Neurologia (in Italian) 50 (4): 253–268. PMID 7466221. 
  3. ^ García-Flores E, Farías R (1997). "γ-Amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid as add-on therapy in adult patients with severe focal epilepsy". Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery 69 (1–4 Pt 2): 243–236. doi:10.1159/000099882. PMID 9711762. 
  4. ^ Roberts E, Krause DN, Wong E, Mori A (1981). "Different Efficacies of d- and l-γ-Amino-β-Hydroxybutyric Acids in GABA Receptor and Transport Test Systems" (pdf). Journal of Neuroscience 1 (2): 132–140. PMID 6267220. 
  5. ^ Banfi S, Fonio W, Allievi E, Pinza M, Dorigotti L (1984). "Cyclic GABA-GABOB analogues. IV. Activity on learning and memory". Il Farmaco; Edizione Scientifica 39 (1): 16–22. PMID 6538512. 
  6. ^ Yano S, Mizuno M, Watanabe K (1990). "Stimulatory effect of some therapeutic drugs used for improving cerebral insufficiency on gastric acid secretion in rats". Pharmacology 40 (4): 205–210. doi:10.1159/000138660. PMID 2388927. 
  7. ^ Fioretti P, Melis GB, Paoletti AM, Parodo G, Caminiti F, Corsini GU, Martini L (1978). "γ-Amino-β-Hydroxy Butyric Acid Stimulates Prolactin and Growth Hormone Release in Normal Women". Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 47 (6): 1336–1340. doi:10.1210/jcem-47-6-1336. PMID 263354. 
  8. ^ Takahara J, Yunoki S, Yakushiji W, Yamauchi J, Hosogi H, Ofuji T (1980). "Stimulatory Effects of γ-Aminohydroxybutyric Acid (GABOB) on Growth Hormone, Prolactin and Cortisol Release in Man". Hormone and Metabolic Research 12 (1): 31–34. doi:10.1055/s-2007-996190. PMID 6244218. 
  9. ^ Melis GB, Paoletti AM, Mais V, Mastrapasqua NM, Strigini F, Fruzzetti F, Guarnieri G, Gambacciani M, Fioretti P (1982). "Dose-related Effects of γ-Amino β-Hydroxy Butyric Acid (GABOB) Infusion on Growth Hormone Secretion in Normal Women". Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 5 (2): 101–106. doi:10.1007/bf03350499. PMID 7096918.