gamma-Amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid

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gamma-Amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid
Systematic (IUPAC) name
4-amino-3-hydroxybutanoic acid
Clinical data
Legal status
CAS number 352-21-6
ATC code ?
PubChem CID 2149
ChemSpider 2064
Chemical data
Formula C4H9NO3 
Mol. mass 119.12 g/mol

gamma-Amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (GABOB), also known as gamibetal or buxamin, is a derivative of the neurotransmitter GABA. It is found naturally in the human body but it is not known whether it has an important physiological role at normal concentrations.

GABOB has anticonvulsant properties,[1] but is of relatively low potency when used by itself, and is more useful as an adjuvant treatment used alongside another anticonvulsant drug.[2] It has two stereoisomers, with the (3S) isomer d-GABOB being around twice as potent an anticonvulsant as the (3R) isomer l-GABOB.[3]

Other studies have suggested it may produce improved learning and memory function,[4] probably through a cholinergic mechanism,[5] as well as boosting growth hormone release.[6][7][8] However its effectiveness for these purposes has not been well established and it is not widely used in medicine, although it is sold as a dietary supplement.


  1. ^ Chemello R, Giaretta D, Pellegrini A, Testa G (1980). "[Effect of gamma-amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (GABHB) on experimentally-induced epileptic activity]" [Effect of γ-amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid (GABHB) on experimentally-induced epileptic activity]. Rivista di Neurologia (in Italian) 50 (4): 253–268. PMID 7466221. 
  2. ^ García-Flores E, Farías R (1997). "γ-Amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid as add-on therapy in adult patients with severe focal epilepsy". Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery 69 (1–4 Pt 2): 243–236. doi:10.1159/000099882. PMID 9711762. 
  3. ^ Roberts E, Krause DN, Wong E, Mori A (1981). "Different Efficacies of d- and l-γ-Amino-β-Hydroxybutyric Acids in GABA Receptor and Transport Test Systems" (pdf). Journal of Neuroscience 1 (2): 132–140. PMID 6267220. 
  4. ^ Banfi S, Fonio W, Allievi E, Pinza M, Dorigotti L (1984). "Cyclic GABA-GABOB analogues. IV. Activity on learning and memory". Il Farmaco; Edizione Scientifica 39 (1): 16–22. PMID 6538512. 
  5. ^ Yano S, Mizuno M, Watanabe K (1990). "Stimulatory effect of some therapeutic drugs used for improving cerebral insufficiency on gastric acid secretion in rats". Pharmacology 40 (4): 205–210. doi:10.1159/000138660. PMID 2388927. 
  6. ^ Fioretti P, Melis GB, Paoletti AM, Parodo G, Caminiti F, Corsini GU, Martini L (1978). "γ-Amino-β-Hydroxy Butyric Acid Stimulates Prolactin and Growth Hormone Release in Normal Women". Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 47 (6): 1336–1340. doi:10.1210/jcem-47-6-1336. PMID 263354. 
  7. ^ Takahara J, Yunoki S, Yakushiji W, Yamauchi J, Hosogi H, Ofuji T (1980). "Stimulatory Effects of γ-Aminohydroxybutyric Acid (GABOB) on Growth Hormone, Prolactin and Cortisol Release in Man". Hormone and Metabolic Research 12 (1): 31–34. doi:10.1055/s-2007-996190. PMID 6244218. 
  8. ^ Melis GB, Paoletti AM, Mais V, Mastrapasqua NM, Strigini F, Fruzzetti F, Guarnieri G, Gambacciani M, Fioretti P (1982). "Dose-related Effects of γ-Amino β-Hydroxy Butyric Acid (GABOB) Infusion on Growth Hormone Secretion in Normal Women". Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 5 (2): 101–106. doi:10.1007/bf03350499. PMID 7096918.