GAF domain

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GAF domain
PDB 1mc0 EBI.jpg
3',5'-Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase 2A, Containing the GAF A and GAF B Domains.[1]
Symbol GAF
Pfam PF01590
Pfam clan CL0161
InterPro IPR003018
SCOP 1fl4

The GAF domain is a type of protein domain that is found in a wide range of proteins from all species.[2] The GAF domain is named after some of the proteins it is found in: cGMP-specific phosphodiesterases, adenylyl cyclases and FhlA. The first structure of a GAF domain solved by Ho and colleagues showed that this domain shared a similar fold with the PAS domain.[3] In mammals, GAF domains are found in five members of the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase superfamily: PDE2, PDE5, and PDE6 which bind cGMP to the GAF domain, PDE10 which binds cAMP, and PDE11 which binds both cGMP and cAMP.[4][5]


Human proteins containing this domain include:


  1. ^ Martinez SE, Wu AY, Glavas NA, Tang XB, Turley S, Hol WG, Beavo JA. The two GAF domains in phosphodiesterase 2A have distinct roles in dimerization and in cGMP binding. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.. 2002;99(20):13260–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.192374899. PMID 12271124. Bibcode:2002PNAS...9913260M.
  2. ^ Aravind L, Ponting CP. The GAF domain: an evolutionary link between diverse phototransducing proteins. Trends Biochem. Sci.. 1997;22(12):458–9. doi:10.1016/S0968-0004(97)01148-1. PMID 9433123.
  3. ^ Ho YS, Burden LM, Hurley JH. Structure of the GAF domain, a ubiquitous signaling motif and a new class of cyclic GMP receptor. EMBO J.. 2000;19(20):5288–99. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.20.5288. PMID 11032796.
  4. ^ Fawcett L, Baxendale R, Stacey P, McGrouther C, Harrow I, Soderling S, Hetman J, Beavo JA, Phillips SC. Molecular cloning and characterization of a distinct human phosphodiesterase gene family: PDE11A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.. 2000;97(7):3702–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.050585197. PMID 10725373. Bibcode:2000PNAS...97.3702F.
  5. ^ Schultz JE. Structural and biochemical aspects of tandem GAF domains. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2009;191:93–109. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-68964-5_6. PMID 19089327.