GER Class S69

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GER Class S69
LNER Class B12
Keith (ex-GN of S) Locomotive Depot geograph-2844974-by-Ben-Brooksbank.jpg
B12/4 4-6-0 No. 61504 at Keith Locomotive Depot 1948
Type and origin
Power type Steam
Designer S. D. Holden
Builder Stratford Works (51),
Wm. Beardmore & Co. (20),
Beyer, Peacock & Co. (10)
Serial number WB 135–154,
BP 6487–6496
Build date 1911–1928
Total produced 81
Specifications
Configuration 4-6-0
UIC classification 2′C h2t
Gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm)
Leading wheel
diameter
3 ft 3 in (0.991 m)
Driver diameter 6 ft 6 in (1.981 m)
Wheelbase 48 ft 3 in (14.71 m)
Length 57 ft 7 in (17.55 m) over buffers
Weight on drivers B12/1&2: 43 long tons 8 cwt (97,200 lb or 44.1 t)
B12/3: 48 long tons 2 cwt (107,700 lb or 48.9 t)
Locomotive weight B12/1&2: 62 long tons 19.5 cwt (141,100 lb or 64 t)
B12/3: 69 long tons 5 cwt (155,100 lb or 70.4 t)
Tender weight 38 long tons 6 cwt (85,800 lb or 38.9 t)
Fuel type Coal
Fuel capacity 4 long tons 0 cwt (9,000 lb or 4.1 t)
Water capacity 3,700 imp gal (16,800 l; 4,440 US gal)
Boiler pressure 180 psi (1.24 MPa)
Firegrate area 26.5 sq ft (2.46 m2)
Heating surface:
– Firebox
154 sq ft (14.3 m2)
– Total 1,919 sq ft (178.3 m2)
Cylinders Two, inside
Cylinder size 20 in × 28 in (510 mm × 710 mm)
Performance figures
Tractive effort 21,969 lbf (97.72 kN)
Career
Operator(s)
Class GER: S69,
LNER: B12
Power class BR: 4P3F
Axle load class LNER/BR: RA 4 (B12/3), RA 3 (remainder)
Withdrawn 1913 (1), 1945–1961
Disposition One preserved, remainder scrapped

The Great Eastern Railway (GER) Class S69, also known as 1500 Class, and later classified B12 by the London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) is a class of 4-6-0 steam locomotive designed to haul express passenger trains from London Liverpool Street station along the Great Eastern Main Line.[1] Originally they were designed by S. D. Holden, but were much rebuilt, resulting in several subclasses.

Seventy-one S69 locomotives were built by the GER between 1911 and 1921 and numbered 1500–1570. A further 10 locomotives were built by Beyer, Peacock & Co for the LNER in 1928 and numbered 8571–8580.[2] From 1948 the British Railways numbers were 61500–61580 (with gaps).

Background[edit]

At the time of their introduction, the "Claud Hamilton" 4-4-0s were becoming outclassed on the heaviest express. Although an enlarged 4-4-0 design was mooted,[3] it was realised that any such design would have too high an axle load for the tracks of the Great Eastern Railway, which had a relatively low restriction. Another design constraint was the short turntables used at the time. This meant that a 4-6-0 design was decided upon, although the design was relatively short compared to similar designs introduced at the same time.

Table of orders and numbers[4]
Year Order Manufacturer Quantity GER Nos. LNER Nos. LNER 1944 Nos. Notes
1911–12 S69 Stratford Works 5 1500–1504 8500–8504 1500–1504
1913 A73 Stratford Works 10 1505–1514 8505, —, 8507–8514 1505, —, 1507–1514 1506 withdrawn after accident at Colchester, 12 July 1913
1913 E75 Stratford Works 5 1515–1519 8515–8519 1515–1519
1914 R75 Stratford Works 10 1520–1529 8520–8529 1520–1529
1914–15 M77 Stratford Works 6 1530–1535 8530–8535 1530–1535
1915–17 B78 Stratford Works 5 1536–1540 8536–8540 1536–1540
1920–21 Wm. Beardmore & Co. 135–154 20 1541–1560 8541–8560 1541–1560
1920 H82 Stratford Works 10 1561–1570 8561–8570 1561–1570
1928 Beyer, Peacock & Co. 6487–6496 10 8571–8580 1571–1580

Seventy were still in service at the 1923 grouping, the LNER adding 7000 to the numbers of nearly all the ex-Great Eastern locomotives, including the Class S69 locomotives. A further ten were ordered in 1928 to ease a power shortage caused by the stalled development on a new class of 4-6-0 locomotives, and the cancellation of the planned suburban 2-6-4T tank locomotive due to the adverse press publicity caused by the Sevenoaks derailment.[5]

All the B12 locomotives were fitted with vacuum ejectors between 1924 and 1929 (the 1928 batch had them from new). Fifty-five locomotives were fitted with ACFI feedwater heaters between 1927 and 1934, but these were removed between 1934 and 1942. The first substantive change was the fitting of Lenz poppet valves to the 1928 batch (from new), and six of the ex-GE locomotives (8516/19/25/32/33/40).[6] These locomotives were then classified as class B12/2. The poppet valves were not a great success and they all reverted to piston valve engines between 1931 and 1934.

As newer power became available, the locomotives’ low axleload made them ideal candidates for transfers elsewhere. consequently, between 1931 and 1942, twenty-five locomotives were transferred to Scotland for use on the former Great North of Scotland Railway lines.

B12/3 No. 61580 at Grantham 28 March 1956.

Starting in 1932, a programme of rebuilding the B12 locomotives with larger diameter boilers. The Diagram 99A boilers utilised were 5-foot-6-inch (1,676 mm) diameter, compared with the 5-foot-1 18-inch (1,553 mm) diameter originals. These rebuilt locomotives were classified as class B12/3, and as they had a higher axleload, none of the Scottish-allocated locomotives were included. The last to be rebuilt was 8549 in 1944, leaving 8534 as the last English B12/1; but it was withdrawn the following year without being rebuilt.

As the Scottish locomotive also required new boilers, a new design was started in 1941, based on the old design but with a round-topped firebox and other detail changes. Thirty of these Diagram 25A boilers were manufactured at Doncaster and Stratford between 1942 and 1946. Nine were sent to Inverurie Works for fitting to B12 locomotives, the remainder went to Stratford for fitting to class J20 locomotives. The B12 locomotives fitted with the Diagram 25A boiler (1500/04/05/07/08/11/24/26) were classified as class B12/4.

In the 1942 LNER renumbering scheme, the class was allocated the range 7415–7494, but only eleven (7426/37/49/67/70/72/76/79/82/88/91) were renumbered before the scheme was abandoned due to the war. In the 1946 scheme, the class was allocated the 1500–1580 block, with gaps for the two withdrawn locomotives.

At nationalisation in 1948, seventy-two locomotives passed to British Railways, who renumbered them 61500–61580. Withdrawals continued, and all were gone by then end of 1961.

Table of withdrawals[6]
Year Quantity in
service at
start of year
Quantity
withdrawn
Locomotive numbers Notes
1945 80 1 8534 Last English B12/1
1946 79 1 1548 Scottish
1947 78 6 1518/22/27/31/44/51 1531/51 Scottish
1948 72 3 1500/09/17 1500 Scottish
1949 69 2 1510, 61536 61536 Scottish
1950 67 2 61504, 61529 Both Scottish
1951 65 5 61503/15/25/26/59 61503/26 Scottish
1952 60 5 61505/11/21/62/50 All Scottish
1953 55 9 61501/07/08/13/24/28/32/43/63 All Scottish; last B12/4s
1954 46 2 61502, 61539 Last B12/1s, last Scottish B12s
1955 44 2 61523, 61562
1957 42 17 61512/19/20/37/38/40/41/45/50/55–57/65/69/74/78/79
1958 25 9 61516/42/47/53/54/61/64/67/70
1959 16 15 61514/30/33/35/46/49/58/66/68/71/73/75–77/80
1961 1 1 61572 Preserved

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • On 12 July 1913, locomotive No. 1506 was hauling an express passenger train which collided with a light engine at Colchester, Essex due to a signalman's error. Three people were killed and fourteen were injured. The brand new locomotive was so severely damaged that only its boiler and tender were salvaged.[7]
  • On 17 January 1931, locomotive No. 8578 was hauling a newspaper train that departed from Thorpe-le-Soken station, Essex against signals. It was in collision with a light engine at Great Holland. Two people were killed and two were seriously injured.[8]
  • On 10 February 1941, locomotive No. 8556 was hauling a passenger train that overran signals and was in a rear-end collision between Harold Wood and Brentwood, Essex. Seven people were killed and seventeen were seriously injured.[9]
  • On 2 January 1947, locomotive No. 1565 was hauling a passenger train that was run into by an express passenger train at Gidea Park, Essex. The express had overrun signals. Seven people were killed, 45 were hospitalised.[10]

Preservation & Modelling[edit]

One B12/3, LNER number 8572 (BR 61572), has survived to preservation on the North Norfolk Railway, the only British inside cylinder 4-6-0 to be preserved.

A model of the B12 was brought out in OO gauge by Tri-ang Railways (now Hornby) in 1963. Models produced since 1970 feature a steam "chuff" effect, where in the tender as the wheels turn, a piece of sandpaper is scraped by a piece of metal fixed to one axle. They are available in LNER Apple Green and BR Experimental Blue.

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Phillips 1982, p. 3
  2. ^ "S69 Class 4-6-0 1911-1921, 1928". Great Eastern Railway Society. Retrieved 2008-04-16. 
  3. ^ Hughes 1988, p. 56
  4. ^ Aldrich 1969, p. 55
  5. ^ Boddy et al. 1975, p. 51.
  6. ^ a b Boddy et al. 1975, pp. 65–66.
  7. ^ Trevena 1981, p. 25
  8. ^ Vaughan 1989, pp. 69-73.
  9. ^ Earnshaw 1991, p. 28
  10. ^ Earnshaw 1991, p. 30

Bibliography[edit]

  • Aldrich, C. Langley (1969). The Locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway 1862–1962 (7th ed.). Wickford, Essex: C. Langley Aldrich. OCLC 30278831. 
  • Baxter, Bertram (2012). Baxter, David; Mitchell, Peter, eds. British Locomotive Catalogue 1825–1923, Volume 6: Great Eastern Railway, North British Railway, Great North of Scotland Railway, Midland & Great Northern Joint Railway, remaining companies in the LNER group. Southampton: Kestrel Railway Books. pp. 97–101. ISBN 978-1-905505-26-5. 
  • Boddy, M. G.; Brown, W. A.; Fry, E. V.; Hennigan, W.; Hoole, Ken; Manners, F.; Neve, E.; Platt, E. N. T.; Proud, P.; Yeadon, W. B. (March 1975). Fry, E. V., ed. Locomotives of the L.N.E.R., Part 2B: Tender Engines—Classes B1 to B19. Lincoln: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-73-8. 
  • Earnshaw, Alan (1991). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 7. Penryn: Atlantic Books. ISBN 0-906899-50-8. 
  • Hughes, Geoffery (1988). LNER 4-6-0s At Work. Book Law Publications. ISBN 1-901945-06-5. 
  • Phillips, Charles (1982). Essex Steam. King's Lynn: Becknell Books. ISBN 0-907087-10-8. 
  • Trevena, Arthur (1981). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 2. Redruth: Atlantic Books. ISBN 0-906899-03-6. 
  • Vaughan, Adrian (1989). Obstruction Danger. Wellingborough: Patrick Stephens Limited. ISBN 1-85260-055-1. 

External links[edit]