National Gendarmerie Intervention Group

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Groupe d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale  (French)
Official GIGN insignia
Active 1973–present
Country  France
Branch Grenade bois de cerf.gif National Gendarmerie
Type Special operations
Role Counter-terrorism and hostage rescue
Size c. 400 operators
Garrison/HQ Satory, Yvelines France
Nickname GIGN
Motto Sauver des vies au mépris de la sienne
("To save lives without regard to its own")
Colors Navy blue
Engagements
Decorations Croix de la Valeur Militaire
Commanders
Notable
commanders

The National Gendarmerie Intervention Group, commonly abbreviated GIGN (French: Groupe d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale), is a special operations unit of the French Armed Forces. It is part of the National Gendarmerie and is trained to perform counter-terrorist and hostage rescue missions in France or anywhere else in the world.

The GIGN was formed in 1973. On 1 September 2007, a major reorganization took place. The original GIGN absorbed the Gendarmerie Parachute Squadron (EPIGN) and the thirty gendarmes of the Presidential Security Group (GSPR) to form a "new" expanded GIGN.

There are now three distinct parts to the unit:

  • Intervention force (the original GIGN)
  • Observation & search force (from the former EPIGN)
  • Security & protection force (from the former EPIGN and gendarmes from the GSPR)

It is known as one of the best Counter-Terrorism units in the world, especially for hostage rescue missions in aircraft. It is well known for its negotiation techniques and for its high-level and very realistic training. They train some members of other intervention units, such as the US Delta Force or the German GSG 9, in specific skills.

History[edit]

After the Munich massacre during the Olympic Games in 1972, and a prison mutiny in Clairvaux Prison the year before, France started to study the possible solutions to extremely violent attacks, under the assumptions that these would be difficult to predict and deflect.[1]

In 1973, the GIGN became a permanent force of men trained and equipped to respond to threats of this kind while minimizing risks to the public and hostages, for the members of the unit, and for the attackers themselves. The GIGN became operational on the first of March, 1974, under the command of Lieutenant Christian Prouteau.

Ten days later, it had its first intervention against a deranged person in Ecquevilly, proving the necessity of the unit. GIGN initially had 15 members, which increased to 48 by 1984, 57 by 1988, and 87 by 2000.[1]

In 2007, a major reorganization was implemented, with the GIGN, EPIGN and GSIGN staff merged into a single 380-member unit also called GIGN. In the future, newly recruited gendarmerie officers will be trained for intervention, and will have the opportunity to be trained in close protection and/or research/observation (missions of the old EPIGN). The total man power was expected to increase to about 420 soldiers in 2010. The reorganization goal was to enable the deployment of a 200 strong unit, trained together, for large-scale interventions, such as a Beslan-type mass hostage-taking - in French they're called POM (Prise d'Otage Massive). With the reorganization the acronym GSIGN has become moot and the acronym "GIGN" no longer refers to the same small unit. Collaboration between GIGN and RAID has become more and more focused upon large hostage-rescue scenarios.

Structure[edit]

The GIGN is divided into a command cell, an administrative group, four operational troops of twenty operators, an operational support troop including negotiation, breaching, intelligence, communications, marksmanship, dogs and special equipment cells.[2] The special equipment group equips the unit with modified and high-tech equipment, by either selecting or designing it. GIGN is called about 60 times each year.[3]

All members go through training which includes shooting, long-range marksmanship, an airborne course and hand-to-hand combat training. Members of the GIGN are widely regarded as having some of the best firearms training in the world.[1] It is for this reason that many of the world's special operations and counterterrorist units conduct exchange programs with the GIGN.[1] Mental ability and self-control are important in addition to physical strength. Like most special forces, the training is stressful with a high washout rate - only 7–8% of volunteers make it through the training process. GIGN members must be prepared to disarm suspects with their bare hands.[3]

There are two tactical specialties in the group : HALO/HAHO and divers. Members learn several technical specialties among police dogs, breaching, long-range sniping, negotiation, etc.[1]

Operations[edit]

Boarding of the Pascal Paoli by the GIGN, on 28 September 2005. The ship had been occupied by the Corsican trade union STC.

Since its creation, the group has taken part in over 1000 operations, liberated over 500 hostages, arrested over 1000 suspects, and killed 12 terrorists. The unit has seen two members killed in action, and seven in training, since its foundation, and two of its dogs in action and one in training.[4]

Past actions include:

The GIGN was selected by the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) to teach the special forces of the other member states in hostage-rescue exercises aboard planes.

Training[edit]

  • Weapons Handling
  • Combat shooting and marksmanship training
  • Airborne courses, such as HALO or HAHO jumps, paragliding, and heliborne insertions.
  • Combat/Underwater swimming, diving and assault of ships.
  • Hand to Hand combat training
  • Undercover surveillance and stalking (support in investigating cases)
  • Infiltration and escape techniques
  • Explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) and NRBC devices neutralization
  • Survival and warfare in tropical, arctic, mountain and desert environments.
  • Diplomacy skills, such as negotiating.

GIGN leaders[edit]

  • Lieutenant Christian Prouteau : 1973-1982
  • Capitaine Paul Barril : 1982-1983 (Interim)
  • Capitaine Philippe Masselin : 1983-1985
  • Capitaine Philippe Legorjus : 1985-1989
  • Major (Commandant or Chef d'Escadron in Cavalry) Lionel Chesneau : 1989-1992
  • Capitaine Denis Favier : 1992-1997
  • Major (Commandant or Chef d'Escadron in Cavalry) Eric Gerard : 1997–2002
  • Lieutenant-Colonel Frédéric Gallois : 2002-2007
  • Brigade General Denis Favier : 2007-2011
  • Brigade General Thierry Orosco: 2011–present

In popular culture[edit]

Books[edit]

The group is mentioned in the Phoenix Force 1984 book Phoenix in Flames.

Cinema[edit]

They are featured in L'Assaut, a 2010 French film about the Air France Flight 8969 hijacking. It was done with the collaboration and the advice of the GIGN.

L'Ordre et la Morale (Rebellion) was released in 2011 and is based on the war crimes of the 1988 Ouvéa cave hostage taking in New Caledonia as seen from the perspective of then GIGN leader Captain Philippe Legorjus.

In Michael Bay's The Island, Djimon Hounsou plays Albert Laurent, a French private military contractor and GIGN veteran hired to bring back Lincoln Six Echo (Ewan McGregor) and Jordan Two Delta (Scarlett Johansson).

Video games[edit]

GIGN members are present in several video games such as SOCOM: U.S. Navy SEALs Tactical Strike, Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six: Lockdown, Joint Operations: Typhoon Rising, Grand Theft Auto: Vice City, Hitman: Contracts, Battlefield 3, Modern War, and Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 3. GIGN uniforms are available in the games Counter-Strike and SWAT 4. Players can also choose their avatar on the Xbox 360 gaming platform to have the GIGN special ops costume, from the Modern Warfare 3 Avatar content pack on the avatar storefront. It's labeled as French Special Ops costume, but is the GIGN Special Ops uniform in reality.

See also[edit]

Comparable special forces[edit]

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e SOC - France - GIGN SpecialOperations.com Retrieved 14 April 2007.
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ a b Group Intervention of the National Gendarmerie (French) Retrieved 15 April 2007.
  4. ^ [2]

External links[edit]