GKS Bełchatów entered Poland's Division 4 in 1977 and gained promotion to Division 3 after four years (in the 1981/1982 season). It took the club another seven years to rise to Division 2 (1986/1987 season), before winning a place in the Polish Premier League in 1992. After another spell in Division 2, the club again won promotion to the First league at the end of the 2004/2005 season. The club finished the 2005/2006 season in 10th place, with 37 points. The following season they challenged for the league title. After spending much of the latter part of the 2006/07 season in first place, they were ultimately overtaken by Zagłębie Lubin and had to settle for second place.
The fans are called Torfiorze (the "Turfers" in translation). They have friendly relations with fans of Wisła Sandomierz. Their biggest rivals are neighbours RKS Radomsko, and as Bełchatów is located in the Łódź Province, they also have rivalries with the two traditional well-established Łódź teams, ŁKS and Widzew.