GM-CSF is also known as molgramostim or, when the protein is expressed in yeast cells, sargramostim (Leukine). It is used as a medication to stimulate the production of white blood cells following chemotherapy.
GM-CSF has also recently been evaluated in clinical trials for its potential as a vaccine adjuvant in HIV-infected patients. The preliminary results have been promising but GM-CSF is not presently FDA-approved for this purpose.
Martinez-Moczygemba M, Huston DP (2003). "Biology of common beta receptor-signaling cytokines: IL-3, IL-5, and GM-CSF". J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.112 (4): 653–65; quiz 666. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2003.08.015. PMID14564341.
Tortorella C, Simone O, Piazzolla G et al. (2007). "Age-related impairment of GM-CSF-induced signalling in neutrophils: role of SHP-1 and SOCS proteins". Ageing Res. Rev.6 (2): 81–93. doi:10.1016/j.arr.2006.10.001. PMID17142110.
Morales JK, Kmieciak M, Knutson KL, Bear HD, Manjili MH (2009). "GM-CSF is one of the main breast tumor-derived soluble factors involved in the differentiation of CD11b−Gr1− bone marrow progenitor cells into myeloid-derived suppressor cells". Breast Cancer Res Treat.123 (1): 39–49. doi:10.1007/s10549-009-0622-8. PMC3095485. PMID19898981.