GMC CCKW

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CCKW
Jour d'la Libéthâtion Jèrri 9 d'Mai 2011 100.jpg
Restored CCKW 353 Cargo truck with open cab, machine gun ring,
and front-mounted winch
Type 2 12 ton (2,268kg)[a] 6x6 Cargo truck
Place of origin  United States
Production history
Manufacturer Yellow Coach/GM Truck and Coach
Produced 1941-1945
Number built 562,750
Variants Various (See text)
Specifications (353 Cargo w/winch[1])
Weight 8,800 lb (4,000 kg) empty
16,400 lb (7,400 kg) loaded
Length 270 18 in (6.86 m)
Width 88 in (2.24 m)
Height 93 in (2.36 m) to cab
109 18 in (2.77 m) overall

Engine GMC 270
91 hp (68 kW)
Transmission 5 spd. x 2 range trf. case
Suspension Beam axles on leaf springs
Operational
range
300 mi (482.8 km)
Speed 45 mph (72 km/h)

Thе GMC CCKW is a 2 12 ton 6X6 U.S. Army cargo truck that saw service in World War II and the Korean War, often referred to as a "Deuce and a Half" or "Jimmy". The CCKW came in many variants, based on the open or closed cab, and Long Wheel Base (LWB 353) or Short Wheel Base (SWB 352).

History[edit]

CCKWs in a Red Ball Express convoy, 1944
CCKW 352 Prime mover
CCKW 353 Cargo truck with winch
Gasoline tanker (750 US gal (2,800 l))

CCKWs were employed in large numbers for the Red Ball Express, an enormous convoy system created by the Allies to supply their forces moving through Europe.[2] At its peak, the Red Ball operated 5,958 vehicles, and carried about 12,500 tons of supplies a day.[3]

The name CCKW comes from model nomenclature used by GMC:[citation needed]

  • "C", designed in 1941
  • "C", conventional cab
  • "K", all-wheel drive
  • "W", dual rear axles

Including the DUKW, General Motors in the US produced 562,750 of these 2 12 ton (2,268kg) trucks just prior to and during World War II.

Development[edit]

In 1940, the US Army set a requirement for a 6x6 truck with a 12 ft (3.7 m) cargo area and a 2 12 ton (2,268 kg) off-road payload. General Motors, already supplying modified commercial trucks to the Army, modified the 1939 ACKWX-built for the French Army-into the CCKW. The General Motors design was chosen by the Army.

In 1942, GM’s Yellow Truck and Coach began building CCKWs and 6x4 CCWs. They were produced in Pontiac, Michigan and later at the St. Louis, Missouri Chevrolet plant. In 1943, Yellow became GM Truck and Coach Division, hence the name GMC ( affectionately known as "Jimmys"). By the end of production in 1945, 562,750 CCKWs had been built, a total second only to the “Jeep”. [4][5] [6]

Specifications[edit]

Engine and driveline[edit]

The CCKW was equipped with the GMC 270 engine, an overhead valve I6 with 91 hp (68 kW) at 2750rpm and 216 lbf·ft (293 N·m) at 1400rpm. A 3 2532 in (96 mm) bore by 4 in (102 mm) stroke gave a 269.5 cu in (4.4 L) displacement. This engine was designed for commercial trucks, and proved reliable in service.

The transmission was a Warner T93 5-speed with a direct 4th gear and overdrive 5th gear. The transfer case had high and low gears, and engaged the front axle. Originally all axles were a Timken split type, later trucks also used GM "banjo" types.[4][5][6][7]

Chassis[edit]

The CCKW had a ladder frame chassis with three driven beam axles, the front on semi elliptical leaf springs, the rear tandem on quarter elliptical leaf springs with locating arms. There were two wheelbases, the short Model 352 and the long Model 353. The short, 145 in (368 cm) / 167 in (424 cm)[b], was used with a short cargo bed as an artillery prime mover for 75mm and 105mm howitzers. All other models used the long, 164 in (417 cm) / 186 in (472 cm).[b] Tires were 7.50-20, brakes were hydraulic with vacuum assist.

Some were fitted with 10,000 lb (4,500 kg) front-mounted winches. These used longer frame rails, and could only be installed at the factory, rather than in the field.

Some open cab chassis were cut in half behind the cab for air transport. Each half was a load, at the vehicle's destination, the halves were were bolted back together.[4][5][6][7]

Versions[edit]

80th crossing the Rhine near Mainz
M20 trailer/Quadmount in the back of a CCKW, note loading ramps on side of truck

Initially, all versions used a modified commercial closed cab design having a metal roof and doors. By 1944 an open cab version, with a canvas roof and doors, was used. This was easier to build, and the roof could be removed to lower the shipping height. 1 in 4 open cabs had a machine gun mounting ring above the co-drivers position.[4][5][6]

The CCKW provided a platform for the widest range of bodies on any U.S. military vehicle, with the 12 ft (3.7 m) cargo version being the most common. As steel was more heavily rationed during the course of the war, the steel cargo bed was replaced by a wooden one. Wooden beds proved unsatisfactory and a 'composite' bed with steel sides, framing, and wooden bottom slats was developed. However, the composite bed was still unsatisfactory and the bed design returned to all steel.[5]

A rectangular van configuration was used in communications, medical, workshop, and many other specialty roles.[4][5][7]

In addition to the two major types, many other bodies were built in smaller numbers, and others were converted in the field. These include:

  • Truck, cargo, 2½-Ton, 6X6, long-wheelbase / short-wheelbase
  • Bomb Service
  • Chemical decontaminating
  • Chemical handling
  • Dental Operating Van
  • Dump
  • Fire Engine
  • Flatbed
  • Fuel tanker (750 US gal (2,800 l))
  • High lift
  • K-53 Van
  • K-60 Van
  • Ordnance Maintenance Van
  • Pipeline equipment
  • Pontoon bolster
  • Surgical Van
  • Water purification truck
  • Water tanker (700 US gal (2,600 l))
  • Welder

[4][5][7]

CCW[edit]

The CCW[c] was an on-road 6x4 truck, the same as the CCKW except for the front wheel drive. A beam front axle was used, and the transfer case was locked in high range. It was rated at 5 tons.[4]

AFKWX[edit]

The AFKWX[d] 353 also went into production alongside the CCKW in 1942 at Yellow’s Pontiac plant and Chevrolet’s in St. Louis. Mechanically identical to the CCKW, it had a cab over engine design, allowing a 15 ft (4.6 m), and later 17 ft (5.2 m) long cargo bed. The first 50 produced had closed cabs, and all others featured open ones. Only cargo beds were equipped, and none had a front-mounted winch. The COE design made engine maintenance difficult. A largely unsuccessful design, just 7235 were built.[4][5][7]

DUKW[edit]

Main article: DUKW

The DUKW[e] “Duck” was an amphibious truck that shared the CCKW's driveline. First produced at Yellow’s Pontiac plant, as demand increased production was added to Chevrolet’s St. Louis plant. The hull, designed by an America's Cup winner, had excellent sea-keeping abilities. This was a very successful design; 21147 were built.[4][5]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Off-road load rating
  2. ^ a b Measurements are from the centerline of the front axle to the centerline of rear bogie / rear axle.
  3. ^ GM name: C for 1941, C for conventional cab, and W for tandem rear axles.
  4. ^ GM name: A for 1939, F for forward cab, K for all wheel drive, and W for tandem rear axles.
  5. ^ GM name: D for 1942, U for utility, K for all wheel drive, and W for tandem rear axles.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "TM-9-801 2 12 ton 6x6 GMC CCKW". US War Dept. 24 Apr 1944. pp. 6–9, 16–19. Retrieved 20 Dec 2014. 
  2. ^ David P. Colley (2000). The Road to Victory: The Untold Story of World War II's Red Ball Express. Potomac Books. ISBN 1-57488-173-6. 
  3. ^ [1] The Real History of World War II: A New Look at the Past by Alan Axelrod, Sterling Publishing Company, Inc., 2008, ISBN 1-4027-4090-5, ISBN 978-1-4027-4090-9
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Crismon, Fred W (2001). US Military Wheeled Vehicles (3 ed.). Victory WWII Pub. pp. 184, 326, 330–335, 465. ISBN 0-970056-71-0. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Doyle, David (2003). Standard catalog of U.S. Military Vehicles. Kraus Publications. pp. 108–118. ISBN 0-87349-508-X. 
  6. ^ a b c d Ware, Pat (2010). The World Encyclopedia of Military Vehicles. Lorenz Books. pp. 238–239. ISBN 0-7548-2052-1. 
  7. ^ a b c d e "TM-9-2800 1943 Standard Military Motor Vehicles". US Dept. of the Army. 1 Sep 1943. pp. 238–276. Retrieved 1 Dec 2014. 

External links[edit]