General Motors 54° V6 engine

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from GM 54-Degree V6 engine)
Jump to: navigation, search
54° V6
3.0 V6.jpg
Overview
Manufacturer General Motors
Also called Ellesmere V6
Production 1994-2004
Combustion chamber
Configuration 54° V6
Cylinder block alloy Cast iron
Cylinder head alloy Aluminium
Valvetrain Dual overhead cam
Combustion
Fuel system Sequential multi-port fuel injection
Fuel type Gasoline
Oil system Wet sump
Cooling system Water-cooled
Chronology
Predecessor Opel CIH
Successor High Feature V6

General Motors' Opel subsidiary in Europe designed a compact V6 engine with an odd 54° vee angle. It was an iron block/aluminum head DOHC design with 4 valves per cylinder. All 54° engines were assembled at Ellesmere Port in England.

History[edit]

In the early 1990s, Opel identified the need for a modern, lightweight and compact power plant to replace its ageing straight-6 engine range. These engines have a cast iron engine block with cast aluminium alloy cylinder heads. The cylinder heads contain 4 valves per cylinder actuated by dual overhead camshafts which are driven by a timing belt. These engines however, differed from many modern V6 engines in that it has a 54 degree cylinder bank angle; as opposed to the more conventional 60 degree setup. This added to the engines' compactness which was needed to allow its use in front-wheel drive applications, as well as rear-wheel drive cars. Other features of these engines include: an oil to water heat exchanger is mounted within the V of the engine block, Bosch Motronic engine management system with full sequential fuel injection, knock control on each bank, distributorless ignition system (DIS), and closed loop lambda control.

Minor changes were made to the unit during its production, including an uprated oil pump around mid-1997, with the addition of larger oilways in the head machining (T-Vents), and modified valve lifters to reduce top-end valve noise, at which point the cam belt arrangement also changed with the lower idler moving. Around 1998, the spin-on metal canister oil filter was changed to a disposable paper element.

Revision[edit]

The engine was reworked substantially in 2000 in order to meet increasing emission requirements; with the 2.5 and 3.0 being replaced by lower compression 2.6 and 3.2 units. While displacement was changed the bore centers and deck height were retained. These later power plants had a revised engine management system setup, which utilised quad lambda sensor control, coil per plug ignition system and drive by wire throttles. The 3.2 also received a stronger steel crankshaft. As a result of these changes the EGR and secondary air injection system were removed.

Recalls[edit]

In its 3.0 L form, this engine was notable for recalls of all units installed in Cadillac Cateras due to timing belt tensioner bearing failures, which could cause catastrophic damage to the engine because of its interference design.

2.5[edit]

C25XE
Overview
Also called
  • B258I
  • X25XE
Combustion chamber
Displacement 2,498 cc (152.4 cu in)
Cylinder bore 81.6 mm (3.213 in)
Piston stroke 79.6 mm (3.134 in)
Compression ratio 10.8:1
Combustion
Management

The C25XE or B258I has as 81.6 mm (3.213 in) bore with a 79.6 mm (3.134 in) stroke and displaces 2,498 cc (152.4 cu in). It produces a Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) rated output of 125 kW (170 PS; 168 bhp), and generates 227 N·m (167 lbf·ft) of torque. It was introduced in the Opel Vectra/Vauxhall Cavalier (both codenamed "Vectra-A") and Opel/Vauxhall Calibra. It features Bosch Motronic 2.8 engine management.

For 2000, in order to meet more stringent emission requirements, a secondary air injection system, and an EGR valve were added to the C25XE and became the X25XE.

The breakdown of the engine name[1] is as follows:

X - Exhaust Emissions Level: 94/12/EC, stage 2
25 - 2.5 Litre displacement
X - Compression Ratio - 10.0-11.5:1
E - Mixture System - Injection

Engine X25XE
configuration V6 petrol engine
displacement (cc) 2,498 cc (152.4 cu in)
bore (mm) 81.6 mm (3.213 in)
stroke (mm) 79.6 mm (3.134 in)
max power @ rpm 125 kilowatts (170 PS; 168 bhp) @ 6,000
max torque @ rpm 227 newton metres (167 lbf·ft) @ 3,200
compression ratio 10.8:1
engine management Bosch Motronic M2.8.1 then M2.8.3 in 2000 approx
idle speed 450-1,030
max rpm 6,600
firing order 1-2-3-4-5-6

Applications:

MSD version[edit]

A special edition of the X25XE was worked by Motor Sports Developments (MSD); which includes reprofiled camshafts, giving the engine a boost of 24 bhp (18 kW).[citation needed] This engine appeared in two special edition Vauxhall Vectras, first the Vectra ST200 (Not the normal SuperTouring), and then the Vectra 2.5 GSi V6.[3]

Applications:

3.0[edit]

X30XE
Overview
Also called
  • B308
  • B308I
  • L81
Combustion chamber
Displacement 2,962 cc (3.0 L; 180.8 cu in)
Cylinder bore 86 mm (3.386 in)
Piston stroke 85 mm (3.346 in)
Compression ratio
  • 10.0:1
  • 10.8:1
Combustion
Management

The X30XE, L81, or B308I has a 86 mm (3.386 in) bore with a 85 mm (3.346 in) stroke and displaces 2,962 cc (180.8 cu in) with a compression ratio between 10.0:1 and 10.8:1 . The engine produces, between 182 hp (136 kW) and 208 hp (155 kW) with 184 lb·ft (249 N·m) to 199 lb·ft (270 N·m). The B308I is a slightly modified X30XE used in the SAAB 9000.

X - Exhaust Emissions Level: 94/12/EC, stage 2
30 - 3.0 Litre displacement
X - Compression Ratio - 10.0-11.5:1
E - Mixture System - Injection

Engine X30XE
configuration V6 petrol engine
displacement (cc) 2,960 cc (180.6 cu in)
bore (mm) 86 mm (3.386 in)
stroke (mm) 85 mm (3.346 in)
max power @ rpm 155 kilowatts (211 PS; 208 bhp) @ 6,000
max torque @ rpm 270 newton metres (199 lbf·ft) @ 3,400
compression ratio 10.8:1
engine management Bosch Motronic M2.8.1 then M2.8.3 in 2000 approx
idle speed 450-1,030
max rpm 6,600
firing order 1-2-3-4-5-6

Applications:

B308[edit]

For 1997, Saab introduced a turbocharged version called the B308 for their 9-5 model. The engine produced 200 hp (149 kW) at 5000 rpm and 229 lb·ft (310 N·m) of torque at 2500-4000 rpm. The engine was unique in that it used asymmetrical turbocharging; with the turbocharger driven by the exhaust gases from only one bank of cylinders. A charge pressure of 3.6PSI (.25 Bar) was produced using a Garrett GT15 turbo. The engine was equipped with a special version of Saab Direct Ignition and utilized the Trionic T7 engine management system.

Applications:

2.6[edit]

Y26SE
Overview
Also called LY9

This engine was used in:

3.2[edit]

Y32SE
Overview
Also called LA3
Combustion chamber
Displacement 3,175 cc (3.2 L; 193.8 cu in)
Cylinder bore 87.5 mm (3.445 in)
Piston stroke 88 mm (3.465 in)
Compression ratio 10.0:1
Output
Power output 220 hp (164 kW)
Torque output 218 lb·ft (296 N·m)

The 3.2 L LA3 or Y32SE is a complete redesign of the L81 for the Cadillac CTS and Opel Omega B. It had with fixed (non-variable) valve timing, and a variable length intake manifold. The engine has a 87.5 mm (3.445 in) bore and a 88 mm (3.465 in) stroke with a 10.0:1 compression ratio. This was a 3,175 cc (193.8 cu in) engine and produced 220 hp (164 kW) at 6000 rpm and 220 lb·ft (298 N·m) at 3400 rpm. Production started in July 2001, but the engine was replaced by the new GM High Feature engine starting in 2004.

This engine was used in:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Topbuzz, "Engine Codes Explained", Topbuzz Website, 2002. Accessed 9 Dec 2006 [1]
  2. ^ "Calibra Wiki V6 information". Calibra Wiki. Retrieved 2008-04-13. 
  3. ^ "EVO Magazine Vectra GSi review". EVO magazine. Retrieved 2008-04-13. 

See also[edit]