GM Ecotec engine
|GM Ecotec engine|
|Cylinder block alloy||Aluminum|
|Cylinder head alloy||Aluminum|
|Valvetrain||Double overhead camshafts|
|Oil system||Wet sump|
The GM Ecotec engine, also known by its codename L850, is a family of inline-four cylinder all-aluminium engines, displacing between 2.0-and 2.5-litres. While these engines were based on the GM Family II engine, the architecture was substantially re-engineered for the new Ecotec application produced since 2000. This engine family replaced the GM Family II engine, the GM 122 engine and the Quad 4 engine.
- 1 Generation I
- 2 Generation II
- 3 Generation III
- 4 HCCI
- 5 See also
- 6 References
|Length||665 mm (26.2 in)|
|Width||642 mm (25.3 in)|
|Height||655 mm (25.8 in)|
|Dry weight||139–150 kg (306–331 lb)|
The 'Ecotec' name was adopted in 2000 for the new generation of Family II engines. The name was already used for the Opel GM Family II engine, Family 1 and Family 0 ranges. GM intends this new Ecotec to become its global 4-cylinder, and it has already fully replaced their OHV I4 line.
The Ecotec engine is a DOHC 4-valve design with an aluminum block and head (L850 for 86 mm bore applications, and L880 for 88 mm bore), designed for displacements from 1.8 to 2.4 L. Development began in 1994, by an international team of engineers and technicians from Opel's International Technical Development Center in Rüsselsheim, Germany, GM Powertrain in Pontiac, Michigan, and Saab in Södertälje, Sweden. Much of the development work on this project was carried out by Lotus Engineering, Hethel, United Kingdom. The engine uses aluminum pistons and cast iron cylinder liners. Vibration is reduced with twin balance shafts.
The first engine in the Ecotec Gen I line-up was Ecotec 2.2 L61, introduced in 2000.
This engine is also known as B207 when used by Saab and Z20NET by Opel for use in the Vectra C and Signum.
LK9 is a turbocharged 2.0 L— 1,998 cc (121.9 cu in)—version of the L850 (86 mm bore) series ECOTEC utilizing a reinforced sand cast aluminum cylinder head and reinforced internal components. It features an 86 millimetres (3.4 in) bore and stroke and a 9.5:1 compression ratio. Power is 210 horsepower (160 kW) at 5300 rpm and 221 lb·ft (300 N·m) of torque at 2500 rpm. Maximum boost is 12.3 psi (0.85 bar).
Saab 9-3, and Cadillac BLS Variations:
|1.8t (B207E)||2002–present||110 kW (150 PS; 148 hp) @ 5500 rpm||240 N·m (180 lb·ft) @ 2000–3500 rpm||Low-pressure (Garrett GT2052s)|
|2.0t (B207L)||2002–present||129 kW (175 PS; 173 hp) @ 5500 rpm||265 N·m (195 lb·ft) @ 2500–4000 rpm||Mid-pressure (MHI TD04-11TK)|
|2.0T (B207R)||2002–present||154 kW (209 PS; 207 hp) @ 5300 rpm||300 N·m (220 lb·ft) @ 2500–4000 rpm||High-pressure (MHI TD04-14T)|
The LSJ is a supercharged version of the LK9 Ecotec 2.0 L— 1,998 cc (121.9 cu in)— with an Eaton M62 Roots-type supercharger and air-to-liquid intercooler. The LSJ shares many of its components with the LK9 such as: piston cooling jets, oil cooler, pistons, connecting rods, crankshaft, oil pan, sodium-filled exhaust valves and cylinder head. It is rated at 205 hp (153 kW) at 5600 rpm and 200 lb·ft (271 N·m) at 4400 rpm with a compression ratio of 9.5:1 and a 6500 rpm redline. With the end of the Chevy Cobalt S/C SS and Saturn Ion Red Line, the LSJ was discontinued after 2007. In late 2005 Brammo Motorsports struck a deal with GM for the Supercharged 2.0 L Ecotec for their Ariel Atom. The engine came in various ratings from 205 hp (153 kW) to 300 hp (220 kW).
The LSJ was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 2006.
This engine is used in:
|2004–2007||Saturn Ion Red Line||205 hp (153 kW) @ 5600 rpm||200 lb·ft (271 N·m) @ 4400 rpm||link|
|2005–2007||Chevrolet Cobalt SS Supercharged Coupe||205 hp (153 kW) @ 5600 rpm||200 lb·ft (271 N·m) @ 4400 rpm||link|
This engine is also known as a Z22SE in other countries such as The United Kingdom and Australia.
The basic Family II architecture was substantially re-engineered in 2000 to become the Ecotec Gen I. Unlike its notably harsh predecessor, the engine was designed for smoothness. Dual in-block balance shafts were integral to the design, the power-steering pump was mounted directly to the cylinder head and driven by the intake camshaft, the water-pump housing was cast into the block, and the A/C compressor and alternator were mounted directly on the block without brackets. The oil filter housing was cast into the block with a removable cover and replaceable paper element. It did not use an EGR valve. The Ecotec line is manufactured in Tonawanda, New York and Kaiserslautern, Germany, and was also manufactured for Saturn in Spring Hill, Tennessee until Saturn's discontinuation. In North America this engine replaced both the Quad-4 and the GM 122 engines and first appeared in the 2000 Saturn L-Series.
The L61 is a 2.2 L—2,198 cc (134.1 cu in)—version with a lost-foam cast aluminum cylinder head and block; it features an 86 millimetres (3.4 in) bore and 94.6 millimetres (3.72 in) stroke  and either a 9.5:1 compression ratio or a 10.0:1. The engine is 665 millimetres (26.2 in) in length, 642 millimetres (25.3 in)in width, 655 millimetres (25.8 in) in height and approximately 139 kilograms (306 lb).
There are a few variations to the standard L61. The 2003 Saturn L-Series has a high output version with higher (10:1) compression and more aggressive camshaft. The 2004–2008 Chevrolet Malibu uses a version with electronic throttle control and a special unitized exhaust manifold and catalytic converter. The Malibu and Saturn versions also use return-less fuel injection. The 2002 Saturn VUE was the first North American variant of the L61 to be equipped with electronic throttle control, whereas other applications did not arise until 2005 in the Saturn ION and Chevrolet Cobalt. For 2007, introduced an updated version of the L61 based on the Gen II design.
The supercharger and inlet manifold from the 2.0 Ecotec LSJ engine can be purchased as an official kit from GM and along with modified software in the ECM, can create a 2.2 supercharged version of this engine.
The L61 was used in the following cars:
|Year(s)||Model||Power||Torque||Compression ratio||Dyno chart|
|2002||Chevrolet Cavalier||140 hp (100 kW) @ 5600 rpm||150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4400 rpm||10.0:1|
|2003–2005||150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm||link|
|2005–2006||Chevrolet Cobalt||145 hp (108 kW) @ 5600 rpm||155 lb·ft (210 N·m) @ 4000 rpm||10.0:1||link|
|2006||Chevrolet HHR||143 hp (107 kW) @ 5600 rpm||150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm||10.0:1|
|2004||Chevrolet Malibu||145 hp (108 kW) @ 5600 rpm||155 lb·ft (210 N·m) @ 4000 rpm||10.0:1|
|2005–2006||144 hp (107 kW) @ 5600 rpm||link|
|2002–2004||Oldsmobile Alero||140 hp (100 kW) @ 5600 rpm||150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm||10.0:1|
|2002||Pontiac Grand Am||140 hp (100 kW) @ 5600 rpm||150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4400 rpm||10.0:1|
|2003–2005||150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm||link|
|2002||Pontiac Sunfire||140 hp (100 kW) @ 5600 rpm||150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4400 rpm||10.0:1|
|2003–2005||150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm||link|
|2005–2006||Pontiac Pursuit/G5||145 hp (108 kW) @ 5600 rpm||155 lb·ft (210 N·m) @ 4000 rpm||10.0:1|
|2000||Saturn L-Series||137 hp (102 kW) @ 5800 rpm||135 lb·ft (183 N·m) @ 4400 rpm||9.5:1|
|2001–2003||135 hp (101 kW) @ 5200 rpm||142 lb·ft (193 N·m) @ 4400 rpm|
|2004||140 hp (100 kW) @ 5600 rpm||150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm|
|2003–2006||Saturn Ion||140 hp (100 kW) @ 5800 rpm||145 lb·ft (197 N·m) @ 4400 rpm||10.0:1||link|
|2002–2005||Saturn Vue||143 hp (107 kW) @ 5400 rpm||152 lb·ft (206 N·m) @ 4000 rpm||10.0:1|
|2006||143 hp (107 kW) @ 5600 rpm|
|2007||144 hp (107 kW) @ 5600 rpm|
|2001–2005||Opel Speedster||147 hp (110 kW) @ 5800 rpm||150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm|
|2000–2003||Opel Astra||147 hp (110 kW) @ 5800 rpm||150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm|
|2001–2002||Opel/Vauxhall Vectra||147 hp (110 kW) @ 5800 rpm||150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm|
|2000–2003||Opel/Vauxhall Zafira||147 hp (110 kW) @ 5800 rpm||150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm|
|2001–2006||Holden Astra (TS)||147 hp (110 kW) @ 5800 rpm||150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm|
Following the GM-Fiat agreement, the 2.2 L engine is also used in
A direct injection version of the 2.2 L (2198 cc) Ecotec features 114 kW (153 hp) of power @5600 rpm and 220 N·m (160 ft·lbf) of torque @ 3800 rpm with a compression ratio of 12.0:1, and has been available in:
The Ecotec 2.2, model L42 is the CNG version of the Ecotec 2.2. It delivers 129 hp (96 kW) and 129 lb·ft (175 N·m). Applications:
- 2003–2004 Chevrolet Cavalier
A turbocharged direct injected (redubbed Spark Ignition Direct Injection) Ecotec was introduced in the 2007 Pontiac Solstice GXP and Saturn Sky Red Line. In these applications, the engine is mounted longitudinally. Displacement is 2.0 L—1,998 cc (121.9 cu in)—with a square 86 millimetres (3.4 in) bore and stroke. Compression is 9.2:1 and maximum boost is 1.4 bar (20.0 psi), delivering 260 hp (190 kW) at 5300 rpm and 260 lb·ft (350 N·m) of torque from 2500 to 5250 rpm. Engine redline is at 6300 rpm and premium fuel is recommended. The sodium filled exhaust valves were based on technology developed for the Corvette V8 powertrains. The sodium fuses and becomes a liquid at idle, which improves conductivity and draws heat away from the valve face and valve guide towards the stem to be cooled by the engine oil circulating in this area. The camshaft-driven direct injection systems pressurizes the fuel to 31 bar (450 psi) at idle, and up to 155 bar (2,250 psi) at wide-open throttle. The "Gen II" block is similar to the 2.4 L and also features VVT technology. The Gen II block was developed using data from racing programs and computer simulations. The bore walls and bulkheads were strengthened with a weight increase of 1 kg (2.5 pounds). The coolant jackets were expanded to improve heat transfer, resulting in a coolant capacity increase of 0.5 liters.
In December 2008, GM released a Turbo Upgrade Kit for the LNF engine which increases horsepower to 290 hp (220 kW) and torque to up to 340 lb·ft (460 N·m), depending on the model. The kit retails for $650 and includes remapped engine calibration and upgraded MAP sensors. The kit is covered by the cars' existing GM warranties.
Unique LNF features include:
- a twin-scroll turbocharger
- cam-driven high-pressure gasoline direct injection fuel system
- dual camshaft continuously variable valve timing
- sodium-filled stainless steel Inconel exhaust valves
- low-friction cast aluminum pistons with oil squirters
- forged steel crankshaft
- forged steel connecting rods
- cast stainless steel exhaust manifold
This engine is used in:
|2007–2009||Opel GT||260 hp (190 kW) @ 5300 rpm||260 lb·ft (353 N·m) @ 2000 rpm|
|2007–2009||Pontiac Solstice GXP||260 hp (190 kW) @ 5300 rpm||260 lb·ft (353 N·m) @ 2000 rpm|
|2007–2009||Saturn Sky Red Line||260 hp (190 kW) @ 5300 rpm||260 lb·ft (353 N·m) @ 2000 rpm|
|2008–2010||Chevrolet HHR SS||260 hp (190 kW) @ 5300 rpm||260 lb·ft (353 N·m) @ 2000 rpm|
|2008–2010||Chevrolet Cobalt SS||260 hp (190 kW) @ 5300 rpm||260 lb·ft (353 N·m) @ 2000 rpm|
|2009||Elfin T5||264 hp (197 kW) @ 5300 rpm||259 lb·ft (351 N·m) @ 2000 rpm|
|2012||Fisker Karma||260 hp (190 kW) @ 5300 rpm||260 lb·ft (353 N·m) @ 2000 rpm|
A high-performance version of the LNF with 9.2:1 compression. This engine is also known as A20NFT and A20NHT by GM Powertrain Europe.
This engine is used in:
|2009||Opel Insignia||162 kW (220 PS; 217 hp) @ 5300 rpm||350 N·m (258 lb·ft) @ 2500 rpm|
|2010–2012||Saab 9-5||162 kW (220 PS; 217 hp) @ 5300 rpm||350 N·m (258 lb·ft) @ 2500 rpm|
|2011, 2013–||Saab 9-3 (NEVS)||162 kW (220 PS; 217 hp) @ 5300 rpm||350 N·m (258 lb·ft) @ 2500 rpm|
|2011||Opel Insignia 4x4||184 kW (250 PS; 247 hp) @5300 rpm||400 N·m (300 lb·ft) @2400–3600 rpm|
|2012||Opel Astra J OPC||206 kW (280 PS; 276 hp) @5500 rpm||400 N·m (300 lb·ft) @2500–4500 rpm|
LHU adds E85 flex-fuel capability to the LDK.
|2011–2013||Buick Regal Turbo||220 hp (160 kW) @ 5300 rpm||258 lb·ft (350 N·m) @ 2000 rpm|
|2011–2012||Saab 9-5 Turbo4||220 hp (160 kW) @ 5300 rpm||258 lb·ft (350 N·m) @ 2000 rpm|
|2012–2013||Buick Regal GS||270 hp (200 kW)||295 lb·ft (400 N·m) @ 2400 rpm|
|2013–present||Buick Verano Turbo||250 hp (190 kW) @ 5300 rpm||260 lb·ft (353 N·m) @ 2000 rpm|
For 2007, the L61 received a multitude of changes, that originated from the LE5. It switched to the higher-strength Gen II block and received a revised cylinder head (enlarged exhaust ports) and camshaft design (increased exhaust valve duration). The engine also switched from wasted spark ignition to individual coil-on-plug ignition, this forced the cam cover to be redesigned. It was also switched to an E37 engine controller with new crank and cam sensors (replacing timing sensor previously found in ignition cassette). These changes increase horsepower slightly and allow the engine to meet PZEV standards.
The L61 was used in the following cars:
|Year(s)||Model||Power||Torque||Compression ratio||Dyno chart|
|2007–2008||Chevrolet Cobalt||148 hp (110 kW) @ 5600 rpm||152 lb·ft (206 N·m) @ 4200 rpm||10.0:1|
|2007||Chevrolet HHR||149 hp (111 kW) @ 5600 rpm||152 lb·ft (206 N·m) @ 4000 rpm|
|2008||152 lb·ft (206 N·m) @ 4200 rpm|
|2007–2008||Chevrolet Malibu||145 hp (108 kW) @ 5600 rpm||152 lb·ft (206 N·m) @ 4200 rpm|
|2007–2008||Pontiac Pursuit/G5||148 hp (110 kW) @ 5600 rpm||152 lb·ft (206 N·m) @ 4200 rpm|
|2007||Saturn Ion||145 hp (108 kW) @ 5600 rpm||150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4200 rpm|
The LAP is a 2.2 L—2,198 cc (134.1 cu in)—version of the Ecotec, based on the Gen II block with cylinder head improvements, new camshaft design, E37 engine control module, 58X crankshaft reluctor ring, digital crank and cam sensors, individual coil-on-plug ignition, vented starter solenoid, new MAP sensor, new intake manifold seals, new oil filter element, a 32-bit computer, and improved emissions performance.
Bore and stroke are 86 mm (3.4 in) and 94.6 mm (3.72 in), the same as the 2.2 L L61. Compression ratio is 10.0:1. Major features that set it apart from the 2.2 L L61 are variable-valve-timing and other cylinder head improvements from the 2.4 L LE5.
|2009–2010||Chevrolet Cobalt||155 hp (116 kW) @ 6100 rpm||150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4900 rpm|
|2009||Pontiac G5||155 hp (116 kW) @ 6100 rpm||150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4900 rpm|
The LE8 is an E85 compatible 2.2 L—2,198 cc (134.1 cu in)—version of the LAP Ecotec. Bore and stroke remain the same 86 mm (3.4 in) and 94.6 mm (3.72 in). Compression ratio is 10.0:1 and the engine can run on both regular unleaded gasoline or E85.
|2009–2011||Chevrolet HHR||155 hp (116 kW) @ 6100 rpm (gasoline)||150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4800 rpm (gasoline)|
|160 hp (120 kW) @ 6000 rpm (E85)||158 lb·ft (214 N·m) @ 4600 rpm (E85)|
The LE5 is a larger 2.4 L—2,384 cc (145.5 cu in)—version of the Ecotec. Both the 88 mm (3.5 in) bore and 98 mm (3.9 in) stroke are larger, and Variable Valve Timing on the intake and exhaust improve low-end torque. Compression is 10.4:1. Power is 164–177 hp (123–132 kW) and torque is 159–170 lb·ft (215–230 N·m). The engine uses a reinforced "Gen II" block.
|2006–2007||Chevrolet Cobalt SS||173 hp (129 kW) @ 6200 rpm||163 lb·ft (221 N·m) @ 4800 rpm|
|2008||Chevrolet Cobalt Sport||171 hp (128 kW) @ 6200 rpm||167 lb·ft (226 N·m) @ 4800 rpm|
|2006–2008||Chevrolet HHR||175 hp (130 kW)||165 lb·ft (224 N·m)|
|2006–2008||Pontiac G5/Pursuit||171 hp (128 kW) @ 5800 rpm||167 lb·ft (226 N·m) @ 4500 rpm|
|2006–2009||Pontiac G6||169 hp (126 kW) @ 6300 rpm||162 lb·ft (220 N·m) @ 4500 rpm|
|2006–2009||Pontiac Solstice||173 hp (129 kW) @ 5800 rpm||164 lb·ft (222 N·m) @ 4500 rpm|
|2006–2009||Saturn Sky||177 hp (132 kW) @ 5800 rpm||173 lb·ft (235 N·m) @ 4800 rpm|
|2006–2007||Saturn Ion||175 hp (130 kW) @ 6200 rpm||164 lb·ft (222 N·m) @ 4800 rpm|
|2008–2009||Saturn Aura||169 hp (126 kW)||162 lb·ft (220 N·m)|
|2008–2012||Chevrolet Malibu||169 hp (126 kW)||162 lb·ft (220 N·m)|
|2008–2009||Saturn Vue||169 hp (126 kW) @ 6200 rpm||161 lb·ft (218 N·m) @ 5100 rpm|
The LE5 is also used in the following overseas models:
The LE5 or a close variant is also used in the Polaris Slingshot (announced July 27, 2014), coupled with a 5-speed manual transmission and a final belt drive. The Slingshot is a three-wheeled side-by-side street vehicle, classed as a motorcycle.
The LAT is the designation used for the 2.4 L LE5 when used in GM's mild hybrid vehicles.
|2007–2009||Saturn Aura Green Line Hybrid||164 hp (122 kW) @ 6400 rpm||159 lb·ft (216 N·m) @ 5000 rpm|
|2007||Saturn Vue Green Line Hybrid||170 hp (130 kW) @ 6600 rpm||162 lb·ft (220 N·m) @ 4200 rpm|
|2008||Saturn Vue Green Line Hybrid||172 hp (128 kW) @ 6500 rpm||167 lb·ft (226 N·m) @ 4500 rpm|
|2008–2009||Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid||164 hp (122 kW) @ 6400 rpm||159 lb·ft (216 N·m) @ 5000 rpm|
The LE9 is an E85 compatible version of the 2.4 L—2,384 cc (145.5 cu in)—LE5 Ecotec. Bore and stroke are 88 mm (3.5 in) and 98 mm (3.9 in) and has a compression ratio of 10.4:1, the same as the LE5.
|2009–2011||Chevrolet HHR||172 hp (128 kW) @ 5800 rpm (gasoline)||167 lb·ft (226 N·m) @ 4500 rpm (gasoline)|
|176 hp (131 kW) @ 5800 rpm (E85)||170 lb·ft (230 N·m) @ 5000 rpm (E85)|
|2010–2012||Chevrolet Malibu (fleet only)||175 hp (130 kW) @ 5800 rpm (E85)||170 lb·ft (230 N·m) @ 5000 rpm (E85)|
The LAF is a direct injected 2.4 L. It uses technology based on GM’s other four-cylinder direct injection applications, but with unique features designed for its specific application. This includes an 11.4:1 compression ratio that helps build power, slightly dished pistons that increase combustion efficiency and injectors with an application-specific flow rate. 
|182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm (gasoline)||172 lb·ft (233 N·m) @ 4900 rpm (gasoline)|
|2010–2011||Buick LaCrosse||182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm||172 lb·ft (233 N·m) @ 4900 rpm|
|2011||Buick Regal||182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm||172 lb·ft (233 N·m) @ 4900 rpm|
|2011–||Chevrolet Captiva||182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm||172 lb·ft (233 N·m) @ 4900 rpm|
The LEA is similar to the LE9, with E85 capability and the same bore and stroke, but with a compression ratio of 11.2:1. It adds direct injection and electronic throttle control.
|2012–2013||Buick Regal||182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm||172 lb·ft (233 N·m) @ 4900 rpm|
|2012–present||Buick Verano||180 hp (134 kW) @ 6700 rpm||171 lb·ft (232 N·m) @ 4900 rpm||link|
|2012–present||Chevrolet Captiva Sport||182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm||172 lb·ft (233 N·m) @ 4900 rpm||link|
|182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm||172 lb·ft (233 N·m) @ 4900 rpm||link
The LUK is similar to the LAF, but adds the eAssist mild-hybrid system.
|2012–2014||Buick LaCrosse||182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm||172 lb·ft (233 N·m) @ 4900 rpm|
|2012–2014||Buick Regal||182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm||172 lb·ft (233 N·m) @ 4900 rpm|
|2013–2014||Chevrolet Malibu ECO||182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm||172 lb·ft (233 N·m) @ 4900 rpm|
|2014||Chevrolet Impala||182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm||172 lb·ft (233 N·m) @ 4900 rpm|
|Fuel system||Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI)|
A 2.0 L (1998 cc) turbocharged direct injection version of the gen III Ecotec will be available in 2013 Cadillac ATS and Chevrolet Malibu.This engine is also available in Cadillac XTS in Chinese market. Bore and stroke are both 86.0 millimetres (3.39 in), compression is 9.5:1. The engine uses twin-scroll turbocharger with electronically controlled wastegate/bypass valve, air-to-air intercooler, stainless steel dual-scroll (1–4, 2–3) exhaust manifold designed to withstand 980 °C (1,800 °F) turbine temperature, and rotocast aluminum alloy (A356T6) cylinder head with sodium-filled exhaust valves.
|2014||Buick Regal||259 hp (193 kW) @ 5300 rpm||295 lb·ft (400 N·m) @ 3000–4000 rpm
(2500–4000 rpm for GS
|2013–present||Cadillac ATS||272 hp (203 kW) @ 5500 rpm||260 lb·ft (353 N·m) @ 1700–5500 rpm||link|
|2014||Cadillac CTS||272 hp (203 kW) @ 5500 rpm||295 lb·ft (400 N·m) @ 3000–4500 rpm||link|
|2013||Chevrolet Malibu||259 hp (193 kW) @ 5300 rpm||260 lb·ft (353 N·m) @ 1700–5500 rpm|
|2014||295 lb·ft (400 N·m) @ 5200 rpm||link|
|2013–present||Opel Insignia||250 PS (184 kW; 247 hp) @ 4500 rpm||400 N·m (295 lb·ft) @ 2000–4500 rpm|
First appearing in the 2013 Chevrolet Malibu and 2013 Cadillac ATS, the 2.5 L Gen III block has been reworked to reduce engine noise and vibrations, while improving fuel economy and low-end torque. LCV is scheduled to replace the direct-injected 2.4 L throughout North American GM products within a year. Engine production started in April 2012 at GM's Tonawanda, New York plant.
The new combustion system developed with GM's proprietary computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis software features a higher compression ratio which helps improve fuel efficiency and has improved knock resistance. The engine features dual overhead camshafts with continuously variable valve timing and increased-authority cam phasing (increased phase rotation angle), a high-pressure returnless direct-injection fuel system with camshaft-driven fuel pump delivering 750 psi at idle and 2250 psi at full load, higher-flowing intake and exhaust ports in the cylinder head, electronic throttle control and pistons with jet-spray oil cooling. The engine redline is 7000 rpm.
The balance shafts are relocated from the cylinder block to oil pan module. The two-piece steel-aluminum oil pan features in-pan integrated oil-pump assembly driven by the balance shaft with a shorter inverted-tooth chain. Other improvements include inverted-tooth chain driving the camshaft, forged steel crankshaft, cast aluminum bedplate with main bearing cap inserts made of iron, high-pressure fuel rail with rubber-isolated assembly, acoustically shielded plastic cover for the intake manifold, and structurally enhanced aluminum camshaft cover and front cover. These improvements helped reduce noise intensity by 40% compared to the 2.4 L engine and change the noise signature into a higher frequency above 2,000 Hz. The engine also uses a variable-displacement oil pump and an actively controlled thermostat. Direct injection reduces emissions by 25%, while continuous cam phasing eliminates the need for an EGR system.
Displacement for the 2.5 L engine is 2,457 cc (149.9 cu in) with an 88.0 millimetres (3.46 in) bore and 100.8 millimetres (3.97 in) stroke. Compression ratio is 11.3:1.
|2013–present||Cadillac ATS||202 hp (150.69 kW) @ 6300 rpm||191 lbf·ft (259 N·m) @ 4400 rpm||link|
|2013||Chevrolet Malibu||197 hp (146.96 kW) @ 6300 rpm||191 lbf·ft (259 N·m) @ 4400 rpm|
Same as the LCV but features Intake Valve Lift Control (IVLC) system provides two-stage variable valve lift in addition to continuous variable timing. Continuously commanded by engine control unit, the valve rocker arm switches between high-lift and low-lift profiles on the camshaft, actuated by an oil control valve through a two-feed stationary hydraulic lash adjuster, allowing for either 4.0 or 10.5 mm lift. In the Chevrolet Malibu, it also features a start-stop system.
|2014–present||Chevrolet Impala||196 hp (146 kW) @ 6300 rpm||186 lb·ft (252 N·m) @ 4400 rpm||link|
|2014–present||Chevrolet Malibu||196 hp (146 kW) @ 6300 rpm||186 lb·ft (252 N·m) @ 4400 rpm||link|
At Tech Show Torino 2008, GM Powertrain Europe announced the ignition-less HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) mode of the direct injection version of 2.2 L engine. HCCI version is equipped with two-step adjustable valve lift with variable cam phasing and advanced ECU with cylinder pressure sensors, uses lean burn cycle similar to that of a diesel engine, and is claimed to further reduce fuel consumption by 15%.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ecotec engine.|
- http://g5.wrath.org/08_L61.doc. Retrieved 29 July 2014. Missing or empty
- http://www.gmpowertrain.com/PowertrainFiles/Engine/Stories/10_LE8_n.doc. Retrieved 29 July 2014. Missing or empty
- "GM engine family goes global". Wards Auto. December 1, 1995. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- "L850 MUST SATISFY A WIDE RANGE OF TASTES". autonews.com. August 2, 1999. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- Williams, Fred (December 16, 1998). "GM PLANT IN GERMANY TO SHARE TONAWANDA'S L850 ENGINE". Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- http://archives.media.gm.com/division/2005_prodinfo/powertrain/whats%20new/Ecotec/_2005%20LSJ.doc. Retrieved 16 April 2014. Missing or empty
- "GM's Ecotec 2.2-Liter 4-Cylinder Engine Delivers". The Auto Channel. Pontiac, Michigan. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- http://archives.media.gm.com/division/2005_prodinfo/powertrain/index.html. Retrieved 16 April 2014. Missing or empty
- "検索結果: 2001年 スバル トラヴィック Sパッケージ" [Great Car Pavilion: 2001 Subaru Traviq S-package]. Gazoo.com (in Japanese). Toyota Motor Corporation. Retrieved 2012-05-22.
- By Chris Shunk RSS feed. "GM releases turbo upgrade kit for Solstice GXP, Sky Redline and HHR SS". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 2012-01-24.
- "Big Power, Small Package". AutoWeek. Retrieved April 4, 2006.
- "2012 Buick Regal GS rated at 270 hp". Autoweek. 2011-06-15. Retrieved 2012-01-24.
- "2008 Ecotec 2.2L I4 ( L61 )". Retrieved 30 July 2014.
- "NAIAS 09: 2010 ECOTEC 2.4l SIDI". Gminsidenews.com. Retrieved 2012-01-24.
- Roth, Dan (2008-12-17). "DI FTW: GM unveils new direct-injection 2.4 L EcoTec and 3.0 L V6". autoblog.com. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
- "Buick Introduces The All-New 2012 Verano". Media.gm.com. 2011-01-06. Retrieved 2012-01-24.
- General Motors Europe (May 2008). "A Look Into the Future of Engines and Transmissions". CONTROLLED AUTO-IGNITION HCCI.
- "HOMOGENEOUS CHARGE COMPRESSION IGNITION – HCCI". media.gm.com. Retrieved 30 July 2014.
- Larry Webster. "Getting Rid of the H-Word". Car and Driver (May 2000): 93.