GM Family 1 engine

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Family 1
X18XE1.JPG
X18XE1
Overview
Manufacturer General Motors
Also called E-Tec 16V
Production 1992-present [1]
Combustion chamber
Configuration
Displacement
  • 1,389 cc (84.8 cu in)
  • 1,598 cc (97.5 cu in)
  • 1,796 cc (109.6 cu in)
Cylinder bore
  • 77.6 mm (3.06 in)
  • 79 mm (3.1 in)
  • 80.5 mm (3.17 in)
Piston stroke
  • 73.4 mm (2.89 in)
  • 81.5 mm (3.21 in)
  • 88.2 mm (3.47 in)
Cylinder block alloy Cast iron
Cylinder head alloy Aluminium
Valvetrain Dual overhead cam
Compression ratio
  • 8.8:1
  • 9.5:1
  • 10.5:1
  • 10.8:1
Combustion
Fuel system
Fuel type
Oil system Wet sump
Cooling system Water-cooled
Chronology
Predecessor Opel OHC engine
Successor Medium Gasoline Engine

The Family 1 is a straight-4 piston engine that was developed by Opel, a subsidiary of General Motors to replace the Opel OHC engines for use on mid-range cars from Opel/Vauxhall. They are produced at Szentgotthard engine plant in Hungary[2] and by GM do Brasil at São José dos Campos.[3]

Pre-Ecotec[edit]

This was the first engine in this family, featuring a Lotus-developed 16-valve cylinder head and a cast-iron cylinder block which was essentially the same as in Opel's 8-valve engines. C16XE was available only in Corsa GSi, model years 1993 and 1994. C16XE was not yet badged Ecotec, and for later model Corsas and Opel Tigras it was replaced with X16XE Ecotec engine. The main difference between C16XE and X16XE Ecotec is emission control, C16XE lacks EGR and AIR-system, although the cylinder head is designed to enable these features. Other differences between C16XE and later versions of the engine include intake manifold, C16XE has a plastic upper intake manifold, which was replaced with a cast aluminium manifold, and fuel injection system, C16XE uses Multec fuel injection with MAF sensor and later models used Multec fuel injection with MAP sensor. Also, while C16XE had its own exhaust front section design, for X16XE it was replaced with a front section used also in Opel Astra, probably as a cost-saving measure.

Name Displacement Bore Stroke Compression Ratio Power
C16XE 1.6 L (1598 cc) 79 mm (3.1 in) 81.5 mm (3.21 in) 10.5:1 80 kW (107 hp)

Applications:

Ecotec[edit]

The first generation Ecotec engines are belt-driven 16-valve DOHC engines, with cast-iron cylinder blocks and aluminum cross-flow cylinder heads. They feature sodium-filled exhaust valves, a cast steel crankshaft, and a spheroidal graphite flywheel. They also feature exhaust gas recircualtion (EGR), secondary air injection, and Multec M engine control with sequential multiport fuel injection.

Name Displacement Bore Stroke Compression Ratio Power Torque
X14XE 1.4 L (1389 cc) 77.6 mm (3.1 in) 73.4 mm (2.9 in) 10.5:1 66 kW (89 hp) 125 N·m (92 lb·ft)
X16XEL 1.6 L (1598 cc) 79 mm (3.1 in) 81.5 mm (3.2 in) 74 kW (99 hp) 150 N·m (110 lb·ft)
X16XE 78 kW (105 hp)
X18XE1 1.8 L (1796 cc) 80.5 mm (3.2 in) 88.2 mm (3.5 in) 85 kW (114 hp) 167 N·m (123 lb·ft)

Applications:

TwinPort[edit]

Updated version introduced in 2002, with lighter cast-iron cylinder block and camshaft driven by toothed belt. Features EGR valve and TwinPort variable intake geometry - twin intake ports with a choke closing one of the ports at low RPM, providing strong air swirl pattern for higher torque levels and better fuel economy. The drive belt for the camshafts is wider and stronger than before, and water pump is not driven by it anymore which improves reliability.

Name Displacement Bore Stroke Compression Ratio Power Torque
Z16XE 1.6 L (1598 cc) 79 mm (3.1 in) 81.5 mm (3.2 in) 10.5:1 77 kW (103 hp) 150 N·m (110 lb·ft)
Z18XE 1.8 L (1796 cc) 80.5 mm (3.2 in) 88.2 mm (3.5 in)
  • 90 kW (121 hp)
  • 92 kW (123 hp)
167 N·m (123 lb·ft)

Ecotec TwinPort Family 1 engine is used in:

DCVCP[edit]

A variant of 1.8L Family 1 engine featuring Euro IV compliancy, DCVCP (Double Continuous Variable Cam Phasing technology, a variant of VVT) and integrated catalytic converter, entered production in Spring 2005. It was based on the lighter cast-iron block, although there's no TwinPort in this version.

An updated 1.6 L TwinPort engine with DCVCP was introduced in 2006.

Name Displacement Bore Stroke Compression Ratio Power Torque
N18XFF (LFH) 1.8 L (1796 cc) 80.5 mm (3.2 in) 88.2 mm (3.5 in) 10.5:1 107 kW (145 PS) at 6300 rpm 185 N·m (136 lb·ft) at 3800 rpm

Turbo[edit]

Turbocharged versions of the 1.6 L engine have been available since 2007, and are produced in Szentgotthárd, Hungary.

Name Displacement Bore Stroke Compression Ratio Power Torque
Z16LEL 1.6 L (1598 cc) 79 mm (3.1 in) 81.5 mm (3.2 in) 8.8:1 110.3 kW; 147.9 hp (150 PS) at 5000 rpm 210 N·m (150 lb·ft) at 1850-5000 rpm
Z16LET 132.4 kW; 177.5 hp (180 PS) at 5500 rpm 230 N·m (170 lb·ft) at 2200-5400 rpm
Z16LER 141.2 kW; 189.4 hp (192 PS) at 5000 rpm 230 N·m (170 lb·ft) at 1980-5800 rpm

TwinPort was not used in these engines, although VVT was used on the intake camshaft.

Generation III[edit]

In 2011, the new Gen III block has been introduced which features DCVCP, TwinPort and piston cooling by oil jets, as well as higher compression ratio.

These engines are manufactured at Szentgotthárd, Hungary, Bupyeoung, Korea, Toluca, Mexico and Yantai, PRC (SGM).

With the addition of secondary air injection to the LUW engine, the LWE achieves PZEV status.

Name Displacement Bore Stroke Compression Ratio Power Torque
A16XER (LDE) 1.6 L (1598 cc) 79 mm (3.1 in) 81.5 mm (3.2 in) 10.8:1 85 kW (116 PS) at 6000 rpm 155 N·m (114 lb·ft) at 4000 rpm
A16LEL 8.8:1 110.3 kW; 147.9 hp (150 PS) at 5000 rpm 210 N·m (150 lb·ft) at 1850-5000 rpm
A16LET (LLU) 132 kW (177.0 hp) at 5500 rpm 230 N·m (170 lbf·ft) at 2200-5500 rpm
A16LER (LDW) 141 kW (189.1 hp) at 5850 rpm
  • 230 N·m (170 lbf·ft)
  • 266 N·m (196 lbf·ft) at 1980-5850 rpm (Overboost)
A16LES 154.5 kW; 207.1 hp (210 PS) at 5850 rpm
  • 250 N·m (180 lbf·ft)
  • 280 N·m (210 lbf·ft) at 2250-5850 rpm (Overboost)
(LGE) 10.5:1 110 kW (147.5 hp) at 5000 rpm
  • 210 N·m (150 lb·ft) at 2300-5000 rpm (CNG)
  • 180 N·m (130 lb·ft) at 2300-5000 rpm (Gasoline)
A18XER (2H0) 1.8 L (1796 cc) 80.5 mm (3.2 in) 88.2 mm (3.5 in) 10.5:1 103 kW (140 PS) at 6300 rpm 175 N·m (129 lb·ft) at 3800 rpm
P18XER (LWE) 103 kW (140 PS) at 6300 rpm 175 N·m (129 lb·ft) at 3800 rpm
U18XFR (LUW) 103 kW (140 PS) at 6300 rpm 175 N·m (129 lb·ft) at 3800 rpm

Applications:

Turbocharged Family 1 engines are used in:

GM Daewoo[edit]

Daewoo Motors licensed an older variant of Family 1 SOHC/DOHC engine for their range of Opel-derived cars such as Daewoo Espero and Daewoo Nexia. These engines were built exclusively at Bupyeong engine plant and marketed as D-TEC or E-TEC II.

With the release of Chevrolet Cruze, the factory has been converted to produce the Ecotec Family 1 Gen III block.

D-TEC[edit]

D-TEC versions feature valvetrain driven by toothed belt, in a DOHC configuration for most versions, and aluminum cylinder head.

E-TEC II[edit]

Updated version of D-TEC. Most models feature Euro III-compliancy, and 1.4 L and 1.6 L (1598cc) DOHC versions employ variable intake geometry.

Higher-displacement versions of D-TEC and E-TEC II are indeed Family II engines built by Holden.

L91[edit]

This is the 1.6 L—1,598 cc (97.5 cu in)—variant of the engines, featuring a 79 mm (3.1 in) bore and 81.5 mm (3.21 in) stroke and a compression ratio of 9.5:1. Power is 103 horsepower (77 kW) at 5800 rpm and torque is 107 lb·ft (145 N·m) at 3400 rpm.

The engine is used in

LXV[edit]

This is a 1.6 L—1,598 cc (97.5 cu in)—variant of the engines, featuring a 79 mm (3.1 in) bore and 81.5 mm (3.21 in) stroke and a compression ratio of 10.8:1. The major difference from the L91 is the addition of variable valve timing. Power is 106 hp (79 kW) at 6400 rpm and torque is 105 lb·ft (142 N·m) at 3800 rpm. Fuel economy is 6.8 L/100 km (35 mpg-US)

GM do Brasil[edit]

GM do Brasil specializes on SOHC, petrol-powered and FlexPower (powered with ethanol and/or petrol, mixed in any percentage) engines.

GM Brasil also made 16-valve versions of the 1.0, 1.6 and 1.8-liter engines.

The 1.0 L 16v was available in the Corsa line-up from 1999 to 2001. The 1.6 L 16v was available in the Corsa GSi hatchback and the Chevrolet Corsa sedán and station wagon GLS trim. Finally, the 122 hp 1.8 16v was available in the Chevrolet Meriva and Fiat Stilo.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Szentgotthard Plant. Facts and Figures". Opel Media. Retrieved 28 May 2014. 
  2. ^ "Szentgotthard Plant. Facts and Figures". Opel Media. Retrieved 28 May 2014. 
  3. ^ http://www.acma.in/docmgr/Mission_Report_Attachments/Annexure_7.pdf. Retrieved 23 May 2014.  Missing or empty |title= (help)

External links[edit]