GM High Feature engine

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High Feature V6
Overview
Manufacturer General Motors
Also called Alloytec V6
Production 2004-present
Combustion chamber
Configuration 60° V6
Cylinder block alloy Aluminum
Cylinder head alloy Aluminum
Valvetrain Dual overhead cam
Combustion
Fuel system Sequential multi-point fuel injection
Direct injection
Fuel type Gasoline
E85
Autogas
Oil system Wet sump
Cooling system Water-cooled
Chronology
Predecessor

The 3600 LY7 (and derivative LP1) are members of General Motors' new High Feature (or HFV6) engine family of modern DOHC V6s. This new family of engines was introduced in 2004 with the Cadillac CTS. Holden sells the HFV6 under the name Alloytec. The High Feature moniker on the Holden produced engine is reserved for the twin cam phasing High output version. The block was designed to be expandable from 2.8 L to 4.0 L.

It is a 60° 24-valve design with aluminum block and heads and Sequential Electronic Fuel Injection. Most versions feature continuously variable cam phasing on both intake and exhaust valves and electronic throttle control. Other features include piston oil-jet capability, forged and fillet rolled crankshaft, sinter forged connecting rods, a variable intake manifold, twin knock control sensors and coil-on-plug ignition. It was developed by the same international team responsible for the Ecotec, including the Opel engineers responsible for the 54° V6, with involvement with design and development engineering from Ricardo plc.

High Feature V6 engines are produced at Fishermans Bend in Port Melbourne - Australia, St. Catharines in Canada, and Flint Engine South in Flint, Michigan - United States. The assembly lines for the St. Catharines and Flint, Michigan facilities were manufactured by Hirata Corporation at their powertrain facility in Kumamoto, Japan.

History[edit]

The HFV6 was first designed, tested and produced in a joint team by Cadillac and Holden. A majority of design into the new alloy construction, transmission pairing and first use in production were all undertaken in Detroit (and manufactured in St. Catharines). Holden had the job of developing smaller engines (Holden 3.2, LP1 and LP9 Turbo) as well as their own Holden 3.6 HFV6 (called the Alloytec V6) for local models.

Cadillac and Holden both tested variations of these engines in US and Australia. North America and Australia remain the only two places that manufacture the HFV6.

2.8[edit]

2.8
Overview
Production 2005-present
Combustion chamber
Displacement 2,792 cc (170.4 cu in)
Cylinder bore 89.0 mm (3.504 in)
Piston stroke 74.8 mm (2.945 in)
Compression ratio
  • 9.5:1
  • 10.0:1
Combustion
Fuel system
Fuel type

LP1[edit]

A 2.8 L (2792 cc) LP1 variant was introduced in the 2005 Cadillac CTS. It has a 89.0 mm (3.50 in) bore, a 74.8 mm (2.94 in) stroke, and a 10.0:1 compression ratio. The LP1 was built in Saint Catharines, Ontario.

Applications:

Year(s) Model Power Torque
2005–2007 Cadillac CTS 210 hp (157 kW) @ 6500 rpm 194 lb·ft (263 N·m) @ 3300 rpm

LP9 [edit]

2.8 L turbo V6 in a 2006 Saab 9-3

This engine is also known as a A28NET, Z28NET or B284.

The LP9 is a 2.8 L turbocharged version used for the Saab 9-3 and other GM vehicles. It has the same bore and stroke as the naturally aspirated LP1, however the compression ratio is reduced to 9.5:1. GM Powertrain Sweden (Saab Automobile Powertrain) was responsible for turbocharging the engine and it is built in Port Melbourne, Australia. Note that 'global' versions use the same horsepower rating for both metric and imperial markets (using imperial horsepowers) while Europe only versions are rated in metric horsepowers. Max torque are without torque limits used in some versions.

Applications:

Year(s) Model Power Torque
2005-2008 Opel Vectra / Vauxhall Vectra 230 hp (172 kW; 233 PS) @ 5500 rpm 330 N·m (240 lb·ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm
2005-2008 Opel Signum 230 hp (172 kW; 233 PS) @ 5500 rpm 330 N·m (240 lb·ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm
2005 Opel Vectra OPC 247 hp (184 kW; 250 PS) @ 5500 rpm 350 N·m (260 lb·ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm
2006–2008 276 hp (206 kW; 280 PS) @ 5500 rpm 350 N·m (260 lb·ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm
2006–2009 Cadillac BLS 250 hp (186 kW; 253 PS) @ 5500 rpm 350 N·m (260 lb·ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm
2006–2008 Saab 9-3 Aero 250 hp (186 kW; 253 PS) @ 5500 rpm 350 N·m (260 lb·ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm
2009 280 hp (209 kW; 284 PS) @ 5500 rpm 400 N·m (300 lb·ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm
2008 Saab 9-3 Turbo X 280 hp (209 kW; 284 PS) @ 5500 rpm 400 N·m (300 lb·ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm
2009–present Opel/Vauxhall Insignia 250 hp (186 kW; 253 PS) @ 5500 rpm 350 N·m (260 lb·ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm
2008 Saab 9-3 Aero Convertible 255 hp (190 kW; 259 PS) @ 5500 rpm 350 N·m (260 lb·ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm
2009 Saab 9-3 Aero Convertible 280 hp (209 kW; 284 PS) @ 5500 rpm 370 N·m (270 lb·ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm
2009–present Opel/Vauxhall Insignia 256 hp (191 kW; 260 PS) @ 5500 rpm 350 N·m (260 lb·ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm
2009–present Opel/Vauxhall Insignia OPC/VXR 321 hp (239 kW; 325 PS) @ 5250 rpm 435 N·m (321 lb·ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm
2010–2012 Saab 9-5 300 hp (224 kW; 304 PS) @ 5500 rpm 400 N·m (300 lb·ft) @ 2000 rpm

LAU[edit]

The LAU is GM's new code for the LP9 Turbo engine, its usage starting with the 2010 Cadillac SRX.[1] In 2011, production of the Cadillac SRX with the LAU engine ceased, but the engine will still be used in the Saab 9-4X from 2011 onwards. In 2012, production of the 9-4X ceased.[2][3]

Applications:

Year(s) Model Power Torque
2010-2011 Cadillac SRX 300 hp (224 kW) @ 5500 rpm 295 lb·ft (400 N·m) @ 2000 rpm
2011-2012 Saab 9-4X 300 hp (224 kW) @ 5500 rpm 295 lb·ft (400 N·m) @ 2000 rpm

3.0[edit]

3.0
Overview
Production 2010-2014
Combustion chamber
Displacement 3,564 cc (217.5 cu in)
Cylinder bore 89.0 mm (3.504 in)
Piston stroke 80.3 mm (3.161 in)
Compression ratio
  • 11.7:1
Combustion
Fuel system
Fuel type

LF1[edit]

The LF1 is a 3.0 liter version equipped with Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI).

Applications:

Year(s) Model Power Torque
2010-2011 Buick LaCrosse 255 hp (190 kW; 259 PS) 217 lb·ft (294 N·m)
2010–2011 Cadillac CTS 270 hp (201 kW; 274 PS) @ 7000 rpm 223 lb·ft (302 N·m) @ 5700 rpm
2010–2011 Cadillac SRX[4] 265 hp (198 kW; 269 PS) @ 6950 rpm 223 lb·ft (302 N·m) @ 5100 rpm
2010 Chevrolet Equinox 264 hp (197 kW; 268 PS) 222 lb·ft (301 N·m)
2010 GMC Terrain 264 hp (197 kW; 268 PS) 222 lb·ft (301 N·m)
2010 Holden Commodore 255 hp (190 kW; 259 PS) @ 6700 rpm 214 lb·ft (290 N·m) @ 2900 rpm
2011 Saab 9-4X [3] 265 hp (198 kW; 269 PS) @ 6950 rpm 223 lb·ft (302 N·m) @ 5100 rpm
2011 Chevrolet Captiva 255 hp (190 kW; 259 PS) @ 6900 rpm 212 lb·ft (288 N·m) @ 5800 rpm
2012 Chevrolet Malibu (Middle East)[5] 260 hp (194 kW; 264 PS) @ 6900 rpm 290 N·m (214 lb·ft) @ 5600 rpm

LFW[edit]

The LFW is a flexible fuel version of the LF1, capable of running on E85, gasoline, or any mixture of the two. Output is identical to the LF1.

Applications:

Year(s) Model Power Torque
2011–2012 Chevrolet Equinox 264 hp (197 kW; 268 PS) 222 ft·lbf (301 N·m)
2011–2012 GMC Terrain 264 hp (197 kW; 268 PS) 222 ft·lbf (301 N·m)
2012-2014 Cadillac CTS 270 hp (201 kW; 274 PS) @ 7000 rpm 223 lb·ft (302 N·m) @ 5700 rpm
2012-2013 Chevrolet Captiva Sport 264 hp (197 kW; 268 PS) 222 ft·lbf (301 N·m)

3.2[edit]

For Alfa Romeo version of the 3.2 L, see JTS engine.
3.2
Overview
Production 2005-2010
Combustion chamber
Displacement 3,195 cc (195.0 cu in)
Cylinder bore 89.0 mm (3.504 in)
Piston stroke 85.6 mm (3.370 in)
Compression ratio 10.3:1

Holden has built its own 3.2 L version of the High Feature engine in Australia. Branded with the Alloytec name like the 3.6 litre version, this version produces 227 hp (169 kW) at 6600 rpm and 297 N·m (219 lb·ft) at 3200 rpm. Fuel economy 4–6 km/liter in city, 7–9 km/liter on highway.[citation needed]. Holden also produced the 3.2 L engines that were used by Alfa Romeo as the basis of its JTS V6 engine.

Applications:

3.6[edit]

3.6
Alloytec V6 engine of a 2006 Holden VZ Commodore SVZ 01.jpg
3.6 L engine in a Holden VZ Commodore
Overview
Production 2004-present
Combustion chamber
Displacement 3,564 cc (217.5 cu in)
Cylinder bore 94.0 mm (3.701 in)
Piston stroke 85.6 mm (3.370 in)
Compression ratio
  • 10.2:1
  • 11.3:1
  • 11.5:1
Combustion
Fuel system
Fuel type
Dimensions
Dry weight 168 kg (370 lb) (3.6 V6 High Feature engine)[6]

LY7 [edit]

LPG Alloytec V6 engine in a Holden VE Commodore.

The 3.6 L (3,564 cc (217.5 cu in)) LY7 version was introduced in the 2004 Cadillac CTS sedan. It has a 10.2:1 compression ratio, a bore of 94.0 mm (3.70 in) and a stroke of 85.6 mm (3.37 in). Lower powered versions only have variable cam phasing on the inlet cam. Selected models also include variable exhaust. The engine weighs 370 lb (170 kg) as installed.

This engine is produced in several locations: St. Catharines (Ontario), Flint Engine South (Michigan), Melbourne (Australia), Ramos Arizpe (Mexico), and Sagara (Japan) by Suzuki.

Suzuki's engine designation is N36A.

A dual fuel 235 hp (175 kW) version able to run on petrol and autogas (LPG) has also been produced by Holden in Australia.

Applications:[7]

Year(s) Model Power Torque
2004–2007 Buick Rendezvous CXL/Ultra 242 hp (180 kW) @ 6000 rpm 232 lb·ft (315 N·m) @ 3500 rpm
2004–2007 Cadillac CTS 255 hp (190 kW) @ 6200 rpm 252 lb·ft (342 N·m) @ 3100 rpm
2004–2009 Cadillac SRX 255 hp (190 kW) @ 6500 rpm 254 lb·ft (344 N·m) @ 2800 rpm
2004–2005 Holden VZ Commodore 235 hp (175 kW) @ 6000 rpm 236 lb·ft (320 N·m) @ 2800 rpm
2006–2007 231 hp (172 kW) @ 6000 rpm 236 lb·ft (320 N·m) @ 2800 rpm
2004–2006 Holden VZ Commodore Holden WL Statesman Holden VZ Calais SV6 255 hp (190 kW) @ 6500 rpm 251 lb·ft (340 N·m) @ 3200 rpm
2006–2007 255 hp (190 kW) @ 6500 rpm 247 lb·ft (335 N·m) @ 3200 rpm
2005–2008 Buick LaCrosse CXS 240 hp (179 kW) @ 6000 rpm 225 lb·ft (305 N·m) @ 2000 rpm
2005–2007 Cadillac STS 255 hp (190 kW) @ 6500 rpm 252 lb·ft (342 N·m) @ 3200 rpm
2006–2007 Holden VE Commodore Omega 240 hp (179 kW) @ 6000 rpm 243 lb·ft (329 N·m) @ 2600 rpm
2008–2009 235 hp (175 kW) @ 6500 rpm 240 lb·ft (325 N·m) @ 2400 rpm
2006–2009 Holden VE Commodore SV6 261 hp (195 kW) @ 6500 rpm 251 lb·ft (340 N·m) @ 2600 rpm
2006–2009 Holden WM Statesman/Caprice 262 hp (195 kW) @ 6500 rpm 250 lb·ft (339 N·m) @ 2600 rpm
2006–2011 Holden Rodeo/Colorado 211 hp (157 kW) @ 6500 rpm 231 lb·ft (313 N·m) @ 2600 rpm
2007–2008 GMC Acadia 275 hp (205 kW) @ 6600 rpm 251 lb·ft (340 N·m) @ 3200 rpm
2007 Pontiac G6 GTP 252 hp (188 kW) @ 6300 rpm 251 lb·ft (340 N·m) @ 3200 rpm
2007–2009 Saturn Aura XR 252 hp (188 kW) @ 6300 rpm 251 lb·ft (340 N·m) @ 3200 rpm
2007–2008 Saturn Outlook XE single exhaust 270 hp (201 kW) @ 6600 rpm 248 lb·ft (336 N·m) @ 3200 rpm
2007–2008 Saturn Outlook XR dual exhaust 275 hp (205 kW) @ 6600 rpm 251 lb·ft (340 N·m) @ 3200 rpm
2008 Buick Enclave 275 hp (205 kW) @ 6600 rpm 251 lb·ft (340 N·m) @ 3200 rpm
2008–2012 Chevrolet Malibu 252 hp (188 kW) @ 6300 rpm 251 lb·ft (340 N·m) @ 3200 rpm
2008–2009 Chevrolet Equinox Sport 264 hp (197 kW) @ 6500 rpm 250 lb·ft (339 N·m) @ 2300 rpm
2008–2009 Pontiac G6 GXP 252 hp (188 kW) @ 6300 rpm 251 lb·ft (340 N·m) @ 3200 rpm
2008–2009 Pontiac G8 256 hp (191 kW) @ 6300 rpm 248 lb·ft (336 N·m) @ 2100 rpm
2008–2009 Pontiac Torrent GXP 264 hp (197 kW) @ 6500 rpm 250 lb·ft (339 N·m) @ 2300 rpm
2008–2009 Saturn Vue XR / Red Line 257 hp (192 kW) @ 6500 rpm 248 lb·ft (336 N·m) @ 2100 rpm
2007-2009 Suzuki XL7 252 hp (188 kW) at 6500 rpm 243 lb·ft (329 N·m) at 2300 rpm

LLT[edit]

The 3.6 litre (3564 cc) LLT is a direct injected version based on the earlier LY7 engine. It was first unveiled in May 2006, and the DI version was claimed to have 15 percent greater power, 8 percent greater torque, and 3 percent better fuel economy than its port-injected counterpart. The LLT engine has a compression ratio of 11.3:1, and has been certified by the SAE to produce 302 horsepower (225 kW) at 6300 rpm and 272 lb·ft (369 N·m) of torque at 5200 rpm on regular unleaded (87 octane) gasoline. This engine debuted on the 2008 Cadillac STS and CTS.[8][9] GM will use a LLT in all 2009 Lambda-derived crossover SUVs to allow class-leading fuel economy in light of the new Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards. In the Lambdas, LLT engine produces 288 horsepower (215 kW) and 270 lb·ft (366 N·m) of torque.[10][11][12]

Applications:

Year(s) Model Power Torque
2008–2011 Cadillac CTS 304 hp (227 kW) @ 6400 rpm 273 lb·ft (370 N·m) @ 5200 rpm
2008–2011 Cadillac STS 302 hp (225 kW) @ 6300 rpm 272 lb·ft (369 N·m) @ 5200 rpm
2009–present Buick Enclave 288 hp (215 kW) @ 6300 rpm 270 lb·ft (366 N·m) @ 3400 rpm
2009–present Chevrolet Traverse single exhaust 281 hp (210 kW) @ 6300 rpm 266 lb·ft (361 N·m) @ 3400 rpm
2009–present Chevrolet Traverse dual exhaust 288 hp (215 kW) @ 6300 rpm 270 lb·ft (366 N·m) @ 3400 rpm
2009–present GMC Acadia 288 hp (215 kW) 270 lb·ft (366 N·m)
2009 Saturn Outlook single exhaust 281 hp (210 kW) @ 6300 rpm 266 lb·ft (361 N·m) @ 3400 rpm
2009 Saturn Outlook dual exhaust 288 hp (215 kW) @ 6300 rpm 270 lb·ft (366 N·m) @ 3400 rpm
2009–2011 Daewoo Veritas
2009–2011 Holden VE Commodore SV6 281 hp (210 kW) @ 6400 rpm 258 lb·ft (350 N·m) @ 2900 rpm
2009–2011 Holden WM Statesman/Caprice 281 hp (210 kW) @ 6400 rpm 258 lb·ft (350 N·m) @ 2900 rpm
2010–2011 Buick LaCrosse CXS 280 hp (210 kW) @ 6300 rpm 259 lb·ft (351 N·m) @ 4800 rpm
2010-2011 Chevrolet Camaro 312 hp (233 kW) @ 6400 rpm 278 lb·ft (377 N·m) @ 5200 rpm

LFX[edit]

The LFX is an enhanced version of the LLT engine. Introduced in the MY2012 Chevrolet Camaro LS, it is 20.5 pounds (9.3 kg) lighter than the LLT, due to a redesigned cylinder head and integrated exhaust manifold, and composite intake manifold. Other components like the fuel injectors, intake valves, and fuel pump have also been updated. Power and torque are up slightly from the LLT. The compression ratio is 11.5:1. The LFX also features E85 flex-fuel capability.

Applications:

Year(s) Model Power Torque Dyno Chart
2012–present Buick LaCrosse 303 hp (226 kW) 264 lb·ft (358 N·m) link
2013 Cadillac ATS 321 hp (239 kW) @ 6800 rpm 274 lb·ft (371 N·m) @ 4800 rpm link
2012–present Cadillac CTS
(2014 Wagon & Coupe only)
318 hp (237 kW) @ 6800 rpm 275 lb·ft (373 N·m) @ 4900 rpm link
2014–present Cadillac CTS
(2014 Sedan only)
321 hp (239 kW) @ 6800 rpm 275 lb·ft (373 N·m) @ 4900 rpm link
2012–present Cadillac SRX 308 hp (230 kW) @ 6800 rpm 265 lb·ft (359 N·m) @ 2400 rpm link
2013 Cadillac XTS 304 hp (227 kW) @ 6800 rpm 264 lb·ft (358 N·m) @ 5200 rpm link
2012–present Chevrolet Camaro 323 hp (241 kW) @ 6800 rpm 278 lb·ft (377 N·m) @ 4800 rpm link
2012–present Chevrolet Caprice PPV 301 hp (224 kW) @ 6700 rpm 265 lb·ft (359 N·m) @ 4800 rpm link
2013 Chevrolet Equinox 301 hp (224 kW) @ 6500 rpm 272 lb·ft (369 N·m) @ 4800 rpm link
2012–2013 Chevrolet Impala 302 hp (225 kW) @ 6500 rpm 262 lb·ft (355 N·m) @ 5300 rpm
2014 Chevrolet Impala 305 hp (227 kW) @ 6500 rpm 262 lb·ft (355 N·m) @ 5200 rpm link
2013 GMC Terrain 301 hp (224 kW) @ 6500 rpm 272 lb·ft (369 N·m) @ 4800 rpm link
2011–present Holden Caprice WM II (MY 2012) 281 hp (210 kW) @ 6700 rpm 258 lb·ft (350 N·m) @ 2800 rpm
2011–2013 Holden Commodore VE II (MY 2012) 281 hp (210 kW) @ 6700 rpm 258 lb·ft (350 N·m) @ 2800 rpm
2013–present Holden Commodore VF 281 hp (210 kW) @ 6700 rpm 258 lb·ft (350 N·m) @ 2800 rpm

LCS[edit]

The 3.6 litre (3564 cc) LCS is derived from the direct-injected LLT for use in hybrids, using the two-mode system.[13] Differences from the LLT include a slightly lower compression ratio, 11.3:1, and lower power and torque peaks. It was to debut in the 2009 Saturn Vue Hybrid, where it would make 262 hp (195 kW) at 6100 rpm and 250 lb·ft (339 N·m) of torque at 4800 rpm.[14] Fuel economy 6–8 km/liter in city, 9–11 km/liter on highway Applications:

LF3[edit]

The 3.6 L twin-turbocharged version for the 2014 Cadillac CTS and 2014 Cadillac XTS has been announced at the 2013 NYAS.[15]

The engine is rated at 420 hp (313 kW) of power @ 5750 rpm and 430 lb·ft (583 N·m) of torque @ 3500-4500 rpm (with 90% of torque being available at 2500-5500 rpm) and helps the CTS achieve 0-60 mph time of 4.6 seconds with an 8-speed automatic transmission.

In essence, the twin-turbo 3.6L V6 is the force-inducted variant of the popular LFX V6 currently found in the Cadillac ATS, XTS, and SRX, among many other GM models, with several important upgrades, including:

  • All-new cylinder block casting
  • All-new cylinder head castings
  • Strengthened connecting rods
  • Forged steel crankshaft
  • Continuously variable valve timing
  • Large 38.3 mm intake valves and 30.6 mm sodium-filled exhaust valves
  • Machined, domed aluminum pistons with top steel ring carrier for greater strength
  • 10.2:1 compression ratio
  • Patented, integrated charge air cooler system with low-volume air ducts
  • Two turbochargers produce more than 12 pounds of boost (80 kPa)
  • Vacuum-actuated wastegates with electronic control valves
  • All-new direct injection fuel system
  • Tuned air inlet and outlet resonators, aluminum cam covers and other features that contribute to exceptional quietness and smoothness.

Applications:

Year(s) Model Power Torque Dyno Chart
2014–present Cadillac XTS 410 hp (306 kW) @ 5750 rpm 369 lb·ft (500 N·m) @ 3500-4500 rpm link
2014–present Cadillac CTS 420 hp (313 kW) @ 5750 rpm 430 lb·ft (583 N·m) @ 3500-4500 rpm link

V12[edit]

On March 21, 2007 it was reported by AutoWeek that GM was planning to develop a 60-degree V12 based on this engine family to power the top version of Cadillac's upcoming flagship sedan. This Cadillac would essentially have had two 3.6 L High Feature V6s attached crankshaft-to-crankshaft and would have featured such high-end technologies as direct injection and cylinder deactivation. If so, the twin-engine would have displaced 7.2 liters, and produced approximately 600 hp (447 kW) and 540 lb·ft (732 N·m) of torque. Development of the engine was reportedly being conducted in Australia by Holden.[16]

In August, 2008, GM announced that development of the V12 had been cancelled.[17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "GM Media Online: GM Canada English". Archives.media.gm.com. Retrieved 2010-11-06. 
  2. ^ "Cadillac SRX Turbo Model Axed". GM Inside News. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  3. ^ a b "New Saab 9-4X: Powertrain". Saab Media Online. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  4. ^ Abuelsamid, Sam (2009-01-04). "Detroit Preview: 2010 Cadillac SRX reborn". autoblog.com. Retrieved 2009-01-04. 
  5. ^ https://media.gm.com/media/me/en/gm/press_kits.detail.html/content/Pages/presskits/me/en/2011/Chevrolet/All_New_2013_Chevrolet_Malibu_Middle_East_Media_Launch.html
  6. ^ "Holden's new Alloytec engine may chew as much fuel as the engine it replaces". goauto.com.au. Retrieved 2009-06-23. 
  7. ^ "GM News - United States - News". Media.gm.com. 2010-11-01. Retrieved 2010-11-06. 
  8. ^ Hellwig, Ed (2007-01-08). "Detroit Auto Show: 2008 Cadillac CTS". edmunds.com. Retrieved 2009-01-04. 
  9. ^ Brennan, Reilly (2007-05-08). "Cadillac Ups STS Horsepower Rating To 302". nextautos.com. Retrieved 2009-01-04. 
  10. ^ "Engine - Power Curve". Eogld.ecomm.gm.com. Retrieved 2010-11-06. 
  11. ^ "Engine - Power Curve". Eogld.ecomm.gm.com. Retrieved 2010-11-06. 
  12. ^ "Engine - Power Curve". Eogld.ecomm.gm.com. Retrieved 2010-11-06. 
  13. ^ "Model Information - Online Ordering Guide". Eogld.ecomm.gm.com. Retrieved 2010-11-06. 
  14. ^ [1][dead link]
  15. ^ http://media.gm.com/media/us/en/gm/news.detail.html/content/Pages/news/us/en/2013/Mar/nyas/0318-lf3-engine.html
  16. ^ "AutoWeek Breaks Major Cadillac News in March 26 Issue" (Press release). prnewswire.com. 2007-03-21. Retrieved 2009-01-04. 
  17. ^ "Cadillac cancels plans for V12 XLKS flagship sedan". autospies.com. 2008-08-21. Retrieved 2009-01-04. 

External links[edit]