GOLM1

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Golgi membrane protein 1
Identifiers
Symbols GOLM1 ; C9orf155; GOLPH2; GP73; HEL46; PSEC0257; bA379P1.3
External IDs OMIM606804 MGI1917329 HomoloGene12346 GeneCards: GOLM1 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE GOLPH2 217771 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 51280 105348
Ensembl ENSG00000135052 ENSMUSG00000021556
UniProt Q8NBJ4 Q91XA2
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001099268 NM_001035122
RefSeq (protein) NP_057632 NP_001030294
Location (UCSC) Chr 9:
88.64 – 88.72 Mb
Chr 13:
59.63 – 59.68 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Golgi membrane protein 1 (GOLM1) also known as Golgi phosphoprotein 2 or Golgi membrane protein GP73 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GOLM1 gene.[1][2][3] Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been described for this gene.

Function[edit]

The Golgi complex plays a key role in the sorting and modification of proteins exported from the endoplasmic reticulum. The protein encoded by this gene is a type II Golgi transmembrane protein. It processes protein synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and assists in the transport of protein cargo through the Golgi apparatus. The expression of this encoded protein has been observed to be upregulated in response to viral infection.[3]

Clinical significance[edit]

Golgi membrane protein 1 is overexpressed in prostate cancer[4] [5] and lung adenocarcinoma tissue.[6]

Blood levels of GP73 are higher in patients with liver cancer than in healthy individuals. In addition, levels were not significantly higher in patients with diseases other than liver disease. The current blood test used to screen for early tumors in people at high risk for liver cancer involves the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Patients who are at risk for non-metastatic, or primary, liver cancer typically have chronic liver disease such as cirrhosis. Such cases of cirrhosis are usually due to infection caused by infectious hepatitis (usually hepatitis B or hepatitis C, though there are other strains), or because of degenerative fatty liver disease (which can be especially severe in those with alcoholism). However, the AFP test is not usually sensitive enough to detect liver cancer in time and it often generates false positives. So far, the blood samples of more than 1,000 patients with various stages of liver and non-liver disease have been tested for the presence of GP73 in several studies. Several medical diagnostic companies are in the process of developing automated serum tests for the protein that could be performed in routine hospital laboratories.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kladney RD, Bulla GA, Guo L, Mason AL, Tollefson AE, Simon DJ, Koutoubi Z, Fimmel CJ (Jul 2000). "GP73, a novel Golgi-localized protein upregulated by viral infection". Gene 249 (1-2): 53–65. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(00)00136-0. PMID 10831838. 
  2. ^ Varambally S, Laxman B, Mehra R, Cao Q, Dhanasekaran SM, Tomlins SA, Granger J, Vellaichamy A, Sreekumar A, Yu J, Gu W, Shen R, Ghosh D, Wright LM, Kladney RD, Kuefer R, Rubin MA, Fimmel CJ, Chinnaiyan AM (Oct 2008). "Golgi protein GOLM1 is a tissue and urine biomarker of prostate cancer". Neoplasia 10 (11): 1285–94. PMC 2570605. PMID 18953438. 
  3. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: GOLPH2 golgi phosphoprotein 2". 
  4. ^ Laxman B, Morris DS, Yu J, et al. (February 2008). "A first-generation multiplex biomarker analysis of urine for the early detection of prostate cancer". Cancer Res. 68 (3): 645–9. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-3224. PMC 2998181. PMID 18245462. 
  5. ^ Wei, S., Dunn, T. A., "et al." (2008). "GOLPH2 and MYO6: Putative prostate cancer markers localized to the Golgi apparatus". The Prostate 68: 1387–1395. doi:10.1002/pros.20806. PMID 18543251. 
  6. ^ Zhang F, Gu Y, Li X, Wang W, He J, Peng T (2010). "Up-regulated Golgi phosphoprotein 2 (GOLPH2)expression in lung adenocarcinoma tissue.". Clinical Biochemistry 43 (12): 983–991. doi:10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2010.05.010. PMID 20501332. 
  7. ^ "New biomarker could lead to the world's first reliable test for liver cancer". Loyola Medicine News Release. Loyola University Medical Center. 2010-04-08. Retrieved 2011-05-07. 

Further reading[edit]