A government organized non-governmental organization (GONGO) is a non-governmental organization that may have been set up by a government to look like an NGO in order to qualify for outside aid or mitigate specific issues related to in-country work or international relations. Often, GONGOs are set up by undemocratic governments to maintain some level of control of the GONGO's personnel, purpose, operation or activities. This control is often not seen in a positive light, as it filters the spirit of an NGO through a government's intentions, leaving it open to the issues (complications, corruption, non-democratic action, etc.) that may be embedded in the host government.
- Natalie Steinberg, "Background Paper on GONGOs and QUANGOs and Wild NGOs," World Federalist Movement Institute of Global Policy, 2001
- Naím, Moisés: Democracy's Dangerous Impostors, The Washington Post, 21 April 2007.
- F Ching, "Is it an NGO, or a GONGO?: new Chinese body rebuts US report on human rights," Far East. Econ. Rev, 1994
- F Wu, "Environmental GONGO autonomy: unintended consequences of state strategies in China," The Good Society, 2003
- Jennifer Hsu and Reza Hasmath (2014) “The Local Corporatist State and NGO Relations in China”, Journal of Contemporary China 23(87).
- Brown LD, Korten D. 1989. The role of voluntary organizations in development. IDR Work. Pap. No. 8. Boston: Inst. Dev. Res./Boston Univ. Sch. Manage.
- Radhamany Sooryamoorthy, K. D. Gangrade, Ngos in India: A Cross-Sectional Study, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001, ISBN 0313319545, ISBN 9780313319549
- Misinformation — An article in The Economist discussing a suspected GONGO, the International Council for Democratic Institutions and State Sovereignty
-  — An article in The New York Times giving the definition for a GONGO and some examples.
-  — A page in NGOs in India: a cross-sectional study mentioning a possible origin of the term.
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