A government organized non-governmental organization (GONGO) is a non-governmental organization that may have been set up by a government or the EU Commission to look like an NGO in order to qualify for outside aid or mitigate specific issues related to in-country work or international relations. Often, GONGOs are set up by undemocratic governments or the EU Commission ("European Platform", "ILGA Europa", "European Women's Lobby", "COFACE")[dubious ] to maintain some level of control of the GONGO's personnel, purpose, operation or activities. This control is often not seen in a positive light, as it filters the spirit of an NGO through a government's intentions, leaving it open to the issues (complications, corruption, non-democratic action, etc.) that may be embedded in the host government.
- Natalie Steinberg, "Background Paper on GONGOs and QUANGOs and Wild NGOs," World Federalist Movement Institute of Global Policy, 2001
- Naím, Moisés: Democracy's Dangerous Impostors, The Washington Post, 21 April 2007.
- F Ching, "Is it an NGO, or a GONGO?: new Chinese body rebuts US report on human rights," Far East. Econ. Rev, 1994
- F Wu, "Environmental GONGO autonomy: unintended consequences of state strategies in China," The Good Society, 2003
- Jennifer Hsu and Reza Hasmath (2014) “The Local Corporatist State and NGO Relations in China”, Journal of Contemporary China 23(87).
- Brown LD, Korten D. 1989. The role of voluntary organizations in development. IDR Work. Pap. No. 8. Boston: Inst. Dev. Res./Boston Univ. Sch. Manage.
- Radhamany Sooryamoorthy, K. D. Gangrade, Ngos in India: A Cross-Sectional Study, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001, ISBN 0313319545, ISBN 9780313319549
- Misinformation — An article in The Economist discussing a suspected GONGO, the International Council for Democratic Institutions and State Sovereignty
-  — An article in The New York Times giving the definition for a GONGO and some examples.
-  — A page in NGOs in India: a cross-sectional study mentioning a possible origin of the term.
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