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Glutathione peroxidase 1
Protein GPX1 PDB 2f8a.png
PDB rendering based on 2f8a.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols GPX1 ; GPXD; GSHPX1
External IDs OMIM138320 MGI104887 HomoloGene20155 GeneCards: GPX1 Gene
EC number
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 2876 14775
Ensembl ENSG00000233276 ENSMUSG00000063856
UniProt P07203 P11352
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000581 NM_008160
RefSeq (protein) NP_000572 NP_032186
Location (UCSC) Chr 3:
49.39 – 49.4 Mb
Chr 9:
108.34 – 108.34 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Glutathione peroxidase 1 also known as GPx-1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GPX1 gene.[1] Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene.[2]


This gene encodes a member of the glutathione peroxidase family, consisting of eight known glutathione peroxidases (Gpx1-8) in humans. Mammalian Gpx1 (this gene), Gpx2, Gpx3, and Gpx4 have been shown to be selenium-containing enzymes, whereas Gpx6 is a selenoprotein in humans with cysteine-containing homologues in rodents. In selenoproteins, the 21st amino acid selenocysteine is inserted in the nascent polypeptide chain during the process of translational recoding of the UGA stop codon.

Glutathione peroxidase functions in the detoxification of hydrogen peroxide, and is one of the most important antioxidant enzymes in humans. It has been reported that the protein encoded by this gene protects from CD95-induced apoptosis in cultured breast cancer cells and inhibits 5-lipoxygenase in blood cells, and its overexpression delays endothelial cell growth and increases resistance to toxic challenges. This protein is one of only a few proteins known in higher vertebrates to contain selenocysteine, which occurs at the active site of glutathione peroxidase and is coded by the nonsense (stop) codon TGA.

Clinical signficance[edit]

Glutathione peroxidase 1 is characterized in a polyalanine sequence polymorphism in the N-terminal region, which includes three alleles with five, six or seven alanine (Ala) repeats in this sequence. The allele with five Ala repeats is significantly associated with breast cancer risk.[2]


GPX1 has been shown to interact with Abl gene.[3]


  1. ^ Kiss C, Li J, Szeles A, Gizatullin RZ, Kashuba VI, Lushnikova T, Protopopov AI, Kelve M, Kiss H, Kholodnyuk ID, Imreh S, Klein G, Zabarovsky ER (Jun 1998). "Assignment of the ARHA and GPX1 genes to human chromosome bands 3p21.3 by in situ hybridization and with somatic cell hybrids". Cytogenet Cell Genet 79 (3–4): 228–30. doi:10.1159/000134729. PMID 9605859. 
  2. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: GPX1 glutathione peroxidase 1". 
  3. ^ Cao C, Leng Y, Huang W, Liu X, Kufe D (October 2003). "Glutathione peroxidase 1 is regulated by the c-Abl and Arg tyrosine kinases". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (41): 39609–14. doi:10.1074/jbc.M305770200. PMID 12893824. 

Further reading[edit]